The Centennial History of Oregon, 1811–1912/Volume 1
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THE LANDWARD MOVEMENT WEST — TWO DIFFERING MINDS OF CIVILIZATION AND INDEPENDENT MOVEMENTS OF POPULATION MOVE WESTWARD THE FRENCH CATHOLIC ON ONE SIDE, AND THE ENGLISH PROTESTANT ON THE OTHER MARQUETTE, 1665—LA SALLE, 1679—HENNEPIN, 1680—JONATHAN CARVER, 1766 ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, 1793 LEWIS AND CLARK, 1804 MAJOR ZEBULON PIKE, 1805 SIMON FRASER, 1806 — ANDREW HENRY, 1808— JONATHAN WINSHIP, 1809 DAVID THOMPSON, 1810 WILSON PRICE HUNT, 1811 JEDEDIAH SMITH, 1826 NATHANIEL J. WYETH, 1832 — LIEUT. B. L. E. BONNEVILLE, 1833 AND JOHN C. FREMONT, 1843.
The settlement of the west, northwest and southwest, from the earliest time proceeded from the Atlantic to the Pacific on two separate and characteristically different lines.
First : The French from the Canadas, succeeded by the English Canadians. Second : The English from the colonies, succeeded by the American rebels of the colonies. These currents of differing populations, ideas and ideals impinge one against the other, first in the wilderness of old Fort Du Quesne, where the city of Pittsburg now stands, resulting in war between France and England, and finally on the Columbia, a half century later, between the United States and England, for possession of old Oregon.
In this chapter will be sketched the men and movements which seem to have been in their inception more devoted to fur trading or religious interests than to the political aspect of permanent settlements. Having, in tracing the devel- opment and conclusion of the seacoast exploration of the northwest, gone only so far as that exploration resulted in locating and pointing out, as its final result, the great interior water-way line across the continent, that was to locate and build this state, this chapter will present the personalities of the great work of civilization in the settlement of this vast region by the white race. From the timid and tentative adventurings out from the Atlantic seacoast into the un- known western wilderness, two distinct and diverse lines of thought and purpose characterize two separate and independent movements of population to take pos- session of the vast unknown West. And that these diverse lines of thought and separated independent movements of people did as surely and definitely eon- verge upon, select and build up this Oregon, as did the many-sided sea-rovers' exploration of unknown seas finally converge upon and select the great Columbia river, will be the thought and conclusion of this chapter.
The French being in possession of Canada, were the first to make the plunge into the boundless wilderness. And this final and successful effort to get into the interior of the continent was made only after a long and bitter war with the Iroquois Indians, who had destroyed the previously established Catholic missions along Lake Huron, and driven back the French to the gates of Quebec. Protection being finally guaranteed to the Jesuits, and a regiment of French soldiers being sent out to overcome the Indians, the five nations finally made a peace which assured an end of further hostilities. Starting from Old Fort Frontenac, at the outlet of Lake Ontario as early as 1665, we find the faithful priest, Allouez, braving all the dreaded dangers of the unknown, and following up through the chain of Great Lakes, and finally reaching Lake Superior, with Marquette establishing the mission of St. Mary, the first settlement of white men, within the limits of our northwestern states. Following this, various other missions were established and explorations made. Fired by rumors of a great river in the far distant west, Marquette was sent by the superintendent, Talon, to find it. Marquette was accompanied on this exploration of the trackless wilderness by Joliet, a merchant of Quebec, with five Frenchmen and two Indian guides. Leaving the lakes by the way of Fox river, they ascended that stream to the center of the present state of Wisconsin, where they carried their canoes across a portage until they struck the Wisconsin river. Here the Indian guides, fearful of unknown terrors in the wilderness beyond, refused to go farther, and left the white men to make their own way alone. For seven days the Frenchmen floated down the Wisconsin, and finally came out on the mighty flood of the Mississippi—the "Great River"—for such is the meaning of the name. With the feelings of men who had discovered a new world, they floated down the great river, charmed and delighted with the wondrous scene, passing through verdant meadowland prairies, covered with uncounted herds of buffalo, with the unbroken silence of ages they passed the outpouring floods of other rivers—the Des Moines, the Illinois, the Missouri, the Ohio, and on down to the Arkansas. Here they landed to visit the astonished natives on the shore, who received them with the utmost kindness, and invited them to make their homes with them.
But leaving the Arkansas, Marquette and his companions floated on down the Father of Waters, until greeted by a different climate, by cottonwood, palmettoes, heat and mosquitoes. Marquette was satisfied that to follow the river they must fall into the Gulf of Mexico; and fearful of falling into the hands of the Spaniards, reluctantly turned the prows of their canoes up stream and made their way back to Canada over the same route. Leaving Marquette at Green bay on Lake Michigan, Joliet carried the news back to Quebec. Shortly after this Marquette's health gave way, and while engaged in missionary work among the Illinois Indians, he died May 18, 1675, at the age of thirty-eight. He had fallen at his post, and his self-appointed work of enlightening and blessing the benighted American savage, and unselfishly consecrated his life to the highest and noblest impulses of the human soul.And now we strike a different character, Robert Cavalier de La Salle, a dashing young Frenchman, who had shown energy and enterprise in explorations of Lakes Ontario and Erie, was roused to great interest and resolved at once that he would explore the course of the great river to its outlet in the ocean, wherever that might lead them. Leaving his Fort Frontenac, and his fur trade, he hurried back to France to get a commission from the government to explore the Mississippi river. Nothing could be done in those days by the French, Spanish or English without government license. It was different on the American Colonial
Of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
TIMOTSKHereditary Chief of the Klickitats—Still Living, 115 Years Old—Saw Lewis and Clark in 1806}} Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/95 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/96 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/97 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/98
MAP OF INDIAN TRIBES
OLD HUDSON BAY COMPANY'S FORT VANCOUVER -- 1827
DR. JOHN McLOUGHLINBy many called the "Father of Oregon"; was Hudson Bay Company Governor of ORegon for nineteen years, occupying Astoria under the name Fort George from 1824 to 1830 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/183 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/184 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/185 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/186 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/189 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/190 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/193 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/194
WHAT DID THE FORELOPERS FIND HERE—THE FACE OF NATURE—THE GEOLOGY AND EXTINCT ANIMAL LIFE—THE VAST WATER POWERS—MADE VALUABLE BY APPLICATION OF DISCOVERIES IN ELECTRICITY.
When the missionaries aiid first settlers came over the Rocky mountains down into the Snake river valley, they found a region wholly unlike anything they had ever beheld before. The Three Tetons. the vast lava sage brush plain, the great river coming from some mysterious distance nobody knew just where, the towering snow-capped mountains, the mighty water falls and the deep and trackless forests. It was a panoramic picture never to be forgotten; majestic and aweinspiring rather than beautiful. The great mountain ranges, wide extended plains and gloomy forests seemed rather to forbid than invite examination. It was all natural enough and to be expected from the silent-going Indian, and necessary to the venturesome trapper; but for preachers and farmers, nature's wilderness required time to conquer. And for these reasons it was a whole generation of men from the time Jason Lee di'ove down his tent pegs in the Willamette valley until farmers and herdsmen ventured to build permanent homes on the wide extended areas of Central Oregon.
The Willamette valley was the first place settled in old Oregon. And it was by all visitors acclaimed the beauty spot of Oregon—another Garden of Eden. The only picture of the country extant made by one who knew its every nook and corner before the settlers came, and who had chased the elk and deer with his pony and rifle from Oregon City to Umpqua valley, and left a life-like description of the valley, was David McLoughlin, son of Dr. John McLoughlin. It was, he said, a natural park on a grand scale that could not have been improved by artificial culture. It was in its natural state of beauty, romantic and grand beyond the power of words to express, with prairies, streams and groves of trees filled with animal life. Herds of elk and deer could be seen everywhere feeding fearless of men. And from this valley the snow-capped peaks of both the Coast and Cascade ranges of mountains could be seen towering above the plains. This was the open book, the enchanting scene to every eye. But what was the underlying foundation?"Everything in nature, says Emerson, is engaged in writing its own history; the planet and the pebbles are attended by their shadows, the rolling rock leaves its furrows on the mountain side, the river its channel in the soil, the animal its bones in the stratum, the fern and the leaf their epitaphs in the coal, and the falling rain drops sculptures their story on the sand and on the stone. Nearly everything that is known about the geological formation of Oregon is due to the unselfish labors of one man. The boy that grew up to be that one man was born Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/228
Geological map of Oregon
This shows how much farther ahead in the outlook towards Oregon Jefferson was, compared with all others. He had started Ledyard to cross the American continent six years before Gray had discovered the Columbia river, and seven years before Mackenzie had crossed the Rocky mountains. It is not only a matter of intense interest to go back and see the men who were racking their brains and exploiting their ideas about this Oregon of ours before anybody knew there was such a place; but it is also due from us to render just honors to those men who not only took the long look ahead, but followed up their great thoughts by practical statesmanship to secure this country to this nation and for our habitation and use.
When Jefferson became president on March 4, 1801, he supposed that the vast territory known as Louisiana belonged to Spain. The Pope had given it to Spain, De Soto had claimed it for Spain, La Salle had claimed it for France and Prance had ceded all its rights to the country to Spain. And upon this presumption, Jefferson had planned to open negotiations as early as practicable after becoming president to purchase, or in some other way obtain the title to Loviisiana for the United States. And he did not go about this great business in a hap-hazard way. He knew perfectly well the excited state of feeling that existed throughout the whole country west of the Alleghany mountains. Irritated by the exactions of the Spanish traders at New Orleans, and feeling their whole future depended on the conditions on which they could ship their produce to market by the great rivers, the pioneers of the west were ready to volunteer and drive the Spaniards out of the country by force of arms, just as they had been ready to follow George Rogers Clark in 1793-4 to drive out the Spaniards and turn Louisiana over to the French. Therefore, to prepare himself as President of the United States, to meet and control any emergency which might arise in this delicate and great national business, as soon as he became president he sent a secret agent to old St. Louis to find out the state of feel among the Spanish at that frontier town. Jefferson desired to know the political sentiments of those old world pioneers at St. Louis, and especially their feelings towards the people of the United States. Trouble must come sooner or later from that foreign flag flying in the heart of the great Mississippi valley. For just as certain as George Rogers Clark with one hundred and seventy men had captured the British General Hamilton and his fort and forces at old Vincennes, that surely would some other western filibustering Clark arise and gather an army and drive the Spaniards out of St. Louis. The man selected for this secret mission to St. Louis was John Baptiste Charles Lucas. Lucas was a Frenchman that had studied law in Paris; had some acquaintance (here with Franklin and Adams while they were representing America during the Revolutionary war, and having come to America after the war made the acquaintauce of Albert Gallatin, Jefferson's secretary of the treasury, who introduced him (Lucas) to the president. Lucas was an ardent supporter of republican principles, he could speak the Spanish as well as the French language, and everything pointed him out as the man capable of serving Jefferson and his adopted country. Lucas undertook the confidential mission to St. Louis, and after sounding the drift of personal and political feeling at that point, proceeded to New Orleans on the same mission, making his confidential reports to the president only. Upon this information the president was prepared to act, and did act, as the sequel showed. He was prepared for war if the French liad not backed down and offered to sell out before he had even time to submit an ultimatum.
That the services of Lucas in this national crisis were of great value and highly appreciated by the president, is shown from the facts that when Lucas became a candidate for Congress in Pennsylvania in 1803, the Jefferson administration most heartily supported him and secured his election; and after Louisiana was formally ceded to the United States and a territorial government established in Missouri, the president appointed Lucas a United States district judge in that territory where he was heartily welcomed by the people. For although old St. Louis had a Spanish governor and Spanish soldiers, the majority of the townspeople were French and under the influences of the great fur traders, Pierre Laclede, August Chouteau and others, and already disposed to support an American president and American principles.
It is not, therefore, surprising that after all this careful preparation to deal diplomatically with the Spanish King for the purchase of Louisiana, that the president, and the whole country with him, should have been alarmed beyond expression to find that Spain did not in fact own Louisiana; but that the great province had been secretly ceded to France two years before the publication of the event. This discovery produced intense excitement throughout the whole country, and especially to President Jefferson. It could not be divined what purpose France had in view in taking back Louisiana by a secret treaty, and everybody assumed that sooner or later the nation would be forced into a war with an old friend. Writing to Livingston, the American minister to Paris, April 18. 1802, Jefferson says: "Every eye in the United States is now fixed on the affairs of Louisiana. Perhaps nothing since the Revolutionary war has produced more uneasiness throughout the nation and in spite of our temporary bickerings with France, she still has a strong hold on our affections. The ceSsion of Louisiana to France completely reverses all the political relations of the United States, and will form a new epoch in our political course. There is on the globe one single spot, the possessor of which is our natural and habitual enemy. That spot is New Orleans, through which the produce of three-eighths of our territory must pass to market, and from its fertility it will ere long yield more than half of our whole produce, and contain more than half of our inhabitants. France placing herself in that door assumes to us the attitude of defiance."Jefferson read the future as if by inspiration. The great waterways pouring Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/266 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/267 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/268 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/269 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/271 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/272 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/275 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/276 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/277 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/278 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/279 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/280
FRANCOIS XAVIER MATTHIEU
Sole survivor of Champoeg meeting, now 94 years of age, 1912. The man whose vote to organize the provisional government of 1843, under the American flag, most probably gave the territory of Old Oregon to the United States instead of Great Britain. Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/283 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/284 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/285 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/286 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/287 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/288
MATTHIEU AT THE MONUMENT
The pioneer who raised the money to erect the monument and preserve the site of the Champoeg meeting
No. 1— DANIEL WEBSTER, Secretary of State under President Tyler—did not want any more territory for new states—did not want Oregon
No. 2— PRESIDENT POLK, elected on the platform of "54°, 40' north or fight"—but backed down and wouldn't fightNo. 3— GENERAL JOE LANE, the "Marion of the Mexican War:" first U. S. Governor of Oregon; first U. S. Senator from Oregon; last candidate of the pro-slavery democracy for Vice-President, and would fight any time for what he considered a good cause Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/355 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/356 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/357 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/358 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/361 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/362 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/363 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/364 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/365 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/366
OREGON IGNORED BY U. S. GOVERNMENT—TREATY OF NON-OCCUPATION—NO MAN'S LAND THE OREGON TRAIL—OREGON IN CONGRESS FOR THE FIRST TIME ROUTE OF TRAIL LOCATED BY HUNT AND STUART—WHITMAN WITH THE FIRST WAGON ON THE TRAIL—IMMIGRATION OF 1843—PREPARATION FOR STARTING ON THE TRAIL CHARACTER OF THE IMMIGRANTS—BENEFITS OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT—THE RESULTS OF THE MISSIONS.
It will be seen from the preceding Chapter that there was nobody in the Oregon country inviting settlement; no real estate agents; no boom towns; no get-rich-quick schemes; no colonization schemes, and no government agents of any kind. The country was two thousand miles from the nearest American settlement on the Missouri river; and separated from it by thousands of miles of trackless plains, rugged mountains, inhospitable deserts, and savage tribes of Indians. Why should any American citizen with a family go to such a country as that? About all that anybody knew about Oregon that could be relied on before the emigration started, was to be found in the following brief notice of the country, in Mitchell's Common School Geography, of 1842, as follows:
"Oregon Territory is the most western part of the United States. It extends from the Rocky Jlountains to the Pacific Ocean, and contains an area greater than that of the whole southern states. Though claimed by the United States, the territory is at present actually in possession of Great Britain. The Hudson 's Bay Company have established forts at various points and exercise an unlimited control over the native Indians reckoned to amount to a population of eighty thousand."
Woodbridge's Geography, published by Oliver Cook and Co. of Hartford, Conn., in 1829, has no mention of Oregon; but classes the territory of Old Oregon in with and as a part of "Missouri Territory."
The emigration to Oregon actually commencing in the year 1843, was one of the most remarkable movements in all history. Neither the pioneers who wrought the great work, or their descendants who have lived to see its great results, have ever comprehended the full force of the great achievement. Moved by an impulse which they did not detect the origin of, and over which they seemed to have had no control or ability to foresee its possible failure or success, the pioneers of 1843 accomplished a result equal to the founding of ancient Rome or the colonization of the Atlantic coast by the Puritans of the North and the Cavaliers of the South. The goal to be obtained was neither wealth, power, selfish isolation, a new faith, cult, government, or destruction of enemies. And neither time, toils, distance, hardships, savage tribes and enemies, or deadly pestilence could stay or defeat it. The poet Whittier has immortalized the pioneers from the Ohio valley states who rushed to Kansas to make that free territory; but they suffered no hardships to be compared with those who came to Oregon fifteen years before the battles in Kansas. The immigrants to Kansas traveled through a settled country, and could sleep in a comfortable farm house every night if they chose. B^^t the Oregon pioneers trudged alongside their oxen for two thousand miles through trackless plains, burning deserts and frowning mountains without a single friendly roof to protect them or their wives and little children. The colonizers of Kansas are not to be mentioned in the same generation with the pioneers of Oregon; and the glowing lines of Whittier belong to the Oregonians, for they, indeed, and in truth
"Crossed the desert as of old,
Their fathers crossed the sea;
To make the "West, as they the East,
The homestead of the free."
WHAT STARTED THE IMMIGRATION TO OREGON?
The first known and recorded tangible effort to induce immigration to Oregon started in the year 1817; and the author of it was Hall Jackson Kelley of Boston, Mass., a digger into unusual and out-of-the-Avay places for knowledge and information on many subjects. Kelley will appear in several places in this History as he well deserves to appear. At that date (1817) Wilson Price Hunt, Ramsay Crooks and Russell Parnham, of Astor's unfortunate venture to Astoria, had all got safely back to the States and given their experiences to the public. To Kelley 's fruitful imagination their accounts of Oregon was like the discovery of a new world; and he at once plunged into the "Oregon Question" with his whole soul. He- read everything on the subject; and then organized a society in 1829, and had it incorporated by the legislature of the state of Massachusetts as "The American Society for the settlement of the Oregon Territory." And through this organization, and as Secretary and manager of it, Kelley carried on his work of promoting the interests of Oregon. He was in truth and fact the first great Oregon promoter. Kelley was indefatigable in promoting his grand scheme; and in 1831, after gathering all the information obtainable, he drafted and presented to Congress in the name of his society, a memorial reciting that the society was "engaged in the work of opening to a civilized and virtuous population that part of Western America called Oregon." And among other statements in the memorial is, that they, the memorialists, "are convinced that if the country should be settled under the auspices of the United States from such of her worthy sons who have drunk the spirit of those civil and religious institutions which constitute the living fountain and the very perennial source of her national prosperity, great benefits must result to mankind. They believe that there, the skillful and persevering hand of industry might be employed with unparalleled advantage; that there science and the arts, the invaluable privilege of a free and liberal government, and the refinement and ordinances of Christianity, diffusing each its blessing, would harmoniously unite in ameliorating the moral condition of the Indians, in promoting the comfort and happiness of the settlers, and in augmenting the wealth and power of the Republic. * * * The country in question is the most valuable of all the unoccupied portions of the earth, and designed by Providenee to be the resilience of a people whose singular advantages will give them unexampled power and prosperity. * * * That these things have settled in the policy of the British nation the determined purpose of possessing and enjoying the country as their own, and which has induced their parliament to confer on the Hudson's Bay Company authority to settle and occupy the fertile banks of the Columbia."
Hero was an appeal for settlers a long ways ahead of the boom literature to sell sage brush and town lots in Oregon, Washington or Idaho in the year 1912; — ahead, because the promoters are not planning to make money for themselves, but to save Oregon to the United States.
Kelley followed up this appeal to Congress with circulars and pamphlets circulated all over the New England states to create a public sentiment that might influence the action of Congress. But nothing was effected in that direction beyond filling senators and congressmen up with material to make buncombe speeches on the Oregon question. One of Kelley 's circulars was entitled "A general circular to all persons of good character who wish to emigrate to the Oregon Territory, enbracing some account of the character and advantages of the country; the right and the means and operations by which it is to be settled, and all necessary directions for becoming an emigrant. Hall J. Kelley, general agent." That this work did start the first commercial expedition to Oregon, after the disastrous failures of Winship and Astor, there can be no doubt. Nathaniel J. Wyeth's expedition overland to Oregon in 1832, was, as "Wyeth says in his account of it, '"roused to it by the writings of Hall J. Kelley." In addition to this, the information that Kelley had gathered up was the basis on which Methodist and American Board churches acted when they decided to send missionaries to Oregon to convert the heathen. Kelley's information about Oregon, and his appeal for settlers to come here had been before the churches, and before everybody in the New England states for ten years before the churches took steps to send missionaries to Oregon. But when the four Indian chiefs went from Oregon to St. Louis to find the "White Man's Book of Heaven" in 1831, it was such a pathetic appeal and dramatic incident that it caught the attention and inspired the action of the churches immediately. And although Kelley was then on his way to Oregon across Mexico, his old pamphlets and circulars were hunted up for information about Oregon and as a result the first missionary party to Oregon (The Methodist) composed of Jason Lee, his cousin, Daniel Lee, Cyrus Shepard and P. L. Edwards came out with Wyeth on his second expedition in 1834. he (Wyeth) having been made a convert to Oregon colonization by Hall J. Kelley. Along with Wyeth came a large party of employees, and some of them settled in the country. Hall J. Kelley came himself in 1834, coming through Mexico and California. The Rev. Samuel Parker as advance agent of the American Board missions came out in 1835. Dr. Marcus Whitman and wife, Rev. H. H. Spalding and wife, and W. H. Gray came out as American Board missionaries in 1836. Stragglers came in after this from time to time. The Catholic missionaries Blanchet and Demers came in 1838. Employees of the Hudson's Bay Co., and independent trappers came in annually, but none of these could be considered a part of the emigration to Oregon that settled the status of the country.
At the close of 1837, the independent population of Oregon consisted of forty- nine souls, about equally divided between missionary attaches and settlers. With but few exceptions the arrivals during the next two years were solely of persons connected with the various missions, whose advent has already been noted. Those coming in 1839 were. Rev. J. S. Griffin and wife, and Mr. Asahel Munger and wife, who made an unsuccessful effort to found an independent mission on Snake river, and Rev. Ben. Wright, Robert Shortess, Sidnej^ Smith, Lawson, Keizer, Geiger, and John Edmunds Pickernell. By adding the following list oC arrivals in 1840, to those previously mentioned, the population of Oregon at that time will be quite accurately listed. Mr. Gray thus summarizes the arrivals of that season : —
"In 1840 — Methodist Episcopal Protestant Mission — Mrs. Lee, second wife of Rev. Jason Lee ; Rev. J. H. Frost and wife ; Rev. A. F. Waller, wife and two children ; Rev. W. W. Kone and wife ; Rev. Gustavus Hines, wife and sister ; Rev. L. H. Judson, wife and two children ; Rev. J. L. Parrish, wife and three children ; Rev. J. P. Richmond, wife and three children ; Rev. A. P. Olley and wife. Lay men — Mr. Geo. Abernethy, wife and two children ; Mr. Hamilton Campbell, wife and one child ; Mr. W. W. Raymond and wife ; Mr. H. B. Brewer and wife ; Dr. Ira L. Babcock, wife and one child ; Miss Maria T. Ware, jMiss Orpha Lankton, Miss Almira Phelps, and Miss E. Phillips. Independent Protestant Missions — Rev. Harvey Clark and wife ; Rev. P. B. Littlejohn and wife ; Robert Moore, James Cook, and James (Travers according to Judge Deady) Fletcher, settlers. Jesuit Priests — P. J. De Smet, Flathead Mission. Rocky mountain men with native wives — ^William Craig, Doctor Robert Newell, Joseph L. Meek, George W. Eb- berts, William M. Doughty, John Larison, George Wilkinson, a Mr. Nicholson, and Mr. Algear, and William Johnson, author of the novel, "Leni Leoti, or The Prairie Flower." The subject was first written and read before the Lyceum at Oregon City, in 1843.
Gray classifies the population as follows : American settlers, twenty-five of them with Indian wives, 36 ; American women, 33 ; children, 32 ; lay members, Protestant Missions, 13 ; Methodist Ministers, 13 ; Congregational, 6 ; American Physicians, 3 ; English Physicians, 1 ; Jesuit priests, including De Smet, 3 ; Canadian French, 60. Total Americ<ins, 137 ; total Canadians, including priests, 63 ; total population, not including Hudson 's Bay Company operatives, within what is now all of Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and a part of Montana, was 200.
In 1842 an addition of about fifty Americans over the age of eighteen came in of which a complete list will be given hereafter in this chapter.
The condition of the valley and the settlers, when these emigrants arrived, is thus described by Medorem Crawford : —
"On the fifth day of October our little party, tired, ragged and hungry, ar- rived at the Palls, now Oregon City, where we found the first habitations west of the Cascade mountains. Here several members of the Methodist Mission were located, and a saw mill was being erected on the island. Our gratification on ar- riving safely after so long and perilous a journey , was shared by these hospitable people, each of whom seemed anxious to give us a hearty welcome and render us every assistance in their power. From the Falls to Vancouver was a trackless wilderness, communication being only by the river in small boats and canoes.Toward Salem no sign of civilization existed until we reached the French prairie, where a few farms near the river were cultivated by former employees of the Hudson's Bay Company. West of the Falls some fifteen miles was Tualatin
plains, where a few settlors, mostly from Red River, had loeated. Within the present limits of- Yamhill County, the only settlers I can remember were Sidney Smith, Amos Cook. Francis Fletfher, James O'Neil, Joseph McLoughlin, — Williams, Louis La Bonte, and George Gay.
The emigration to Oregon had not yet started. These few men could only be considered the "scouts" looking out a country in the hands of their enemies. And according to the well settled English belief at that time the country never could be settled by the ox team fellows. John Dunn, a clerk in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company, wrote a book about Oregon at that time in which he says : ' ' None but the wild and fearless tree-trapers can clamber over those moun- tain precipices and tread these deserts with security. It is true that there have liceii published more favorable accounts within the last year or two by parties who have made the joiirney safely, and who encourage others to make a similar ex- periment, but these accounts are mere bravado." In 1843, the Edinburgh Re- view (British) said: "However the political question between England and the United States, as to the owaiership of Oregon may be decided, Oregon will never be colonized overland from the United States. The world must assume a new phase before the American wagons will make plain the road to Columbia, as they have done to the Ohio." And at the same time the British were ridiculing the efforts to get American settlers into Oregon, a precious little squad of United States senators were burning up the country in the halls of Congress. Says Senator Dayton, of New Jersey :
"I trust I may be pardoned here for reading an extract from a western paper of recent date — Louisville Journal — republished in the National Intelligencer, of this city. Here it is : "What there is in the territory of Oregon to tempt our national cupidity, no one can tell. Of all the countries on the face of the earth, it is one of the least favored of heaven. It is the mere riddling of creation. It is almost as barren as the desert of Africa, and quite as unhealthy as the Cam- pania of Italy. To leave the fertile and salubrious lands on this side of the Rocky mountains and to go beyond their snowy summits a thousand miles, to be exiled from law and society, and to endeavor to extort food from the unwilling sand heaps which are there called earth, is the maddest enterprise that has ever deluded foolish men. We would not be subjcted to the innumei-able and indescrib- able torture of a journey to Oi-egon for all the soil its savage hunters ever wan- dered over. The journey thither, from all accounts, is horrible enough, but it is paradise when contrasted with the wasting miseries which beset the wretched emigrant when he has reached a point where he fancied his unutterable woes were to cease, but where he finds they are to be increased beyond all endurance. Of the last party of emigrants that left Missouri for Oregon, eight died of star- vation before reaching Fort Hall, which is half-way to the country that is reckoned inhabitable by those who are af39icted with the Oregon mania.
"All the writers and travelers agree in representing Oregon as a vast extent of mountains and valleys of sand dotted over with green and cultivable spots. This is the representation given by Cox, Bonneville, Farnham and Hinds. Now that such a wretched territory should excite the hopes and the cupidity of citizensof the United States, inducing them to leave comfortable homes for the heaps of Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/374 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/375 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/376 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/377 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/378
Map of United States in 1843
i|uietness were past for this country, at least I'or a season."
Such was the growing uneasiness at the Mission. It awakened api)i'elien- sions, but did not weaken purpose or paralyze activity. The same zeal, wai'ui aud unabated, for the welfare of the Indians, was manifest through it all. .Mcan- w hile the increased immigration t)r()ught to the Whitman household cai-c and work of another kind. The long journey was a severe tax upon the strongest, luit for the weak it was doubly trying. Some fell by the way; mothers — now and then both father and mother — sickened and died, leaving dependent families of young children; invalids unable to complete the journey without a period of rest; wives approaching confinement; families of slender means which the cxai't- ing journe.v had exhausted — such from time tn time, toolc i-efuge uiidci- the hos- pitable roof of the mission.
]Irs. Whitman in letters to friends gives us vivid i)ictures of the family at Waiilatpu these years after the great immigration. In January following iicr return from her stay at the Methodist Mission dui'ing her husband's absence, she wi-ites to one of her friends : "My family consists of six children, aud a Frenchman that came from the mountains and stops with us without invitation. IMary Ann, however, is with Mrs. Littlejohn now. Two English girls, Ann and Emma Hobson, one thirteen and the other seven, of the party, stopped with us; husband engaged to take them in the first party of the journey, but when they arrived here, they went di- rectly to Walla Walla, being persuaded not to stay by some of the party on ac- count of the Indians. When I arrived at Walla Walla they saw me and made themselves known to me and desired to come home with me. The girls were so urgent to stop that I could not refuse them, and their father was obliged to give them up. I felt unwilling to increase my family at that time, but now do not regret it. as they do the greater part of my work and go to school besides." A day or two later Mrs. Whitman writes of the household to which she re- turneti : "When I arrived home I found ]Ir. and Mrs. Littlejohn occupying my bed- room. She was sick, having been confined a few days before I came. The room east of the kitchen, Mr. East and family occupied — four children, all small. Mr. Looney with a family of six children and one young man In' the name of Smith, were in the Indian room. My two boys, Perrin Whitman, and David, slept up- stairs. Alex, the Frenchman, in the kitchen and Mary Ann and Helen in the trundle bed in the room with IMr. Littlejohn. The dining room alone remained for me. Husband and mj^ two English gii-ls ; all of these we fed from our table except Mr. Looney 's family, and our scanty fare consisted of potatoes and corn meal, with a little milk occasionally, and cakes from the burnt wheat. This was a great change for me from the well furnished tables of Waskopum and Willamette.'" It was due to the memory of the mission liy the wayside to present one more picture of its hospitable home. In a letter datiMl .pril 26, 1846, Mrs. Whitman again writes : "You will be astonished to know that we have eleven children in our family, and not one of them our own by birth, but .so it is. Seven orphans were brought to our dooi- in October. 1S44. whose parents both died on the way to this counPage:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/460 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/461 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/462 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/463 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/464 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/465 Dr. John McLoughlin's father was accidentally drowned in the St. Lawrence river, while the former was a child. He and his brother David were brought up in the home of their maternal grandfather. He was educated in Canada and Scotland, and became a physician while still very young and did not long practice his profession. He joined the Northwest company and his ability soon made him prominent. When the Northwest company and the Hudson 's Bay company coalesced in 1821, he was in charge of Fort William, situated on Lake Superior, the chief depot and factory of the Northwest company. Although he strenuously opposed the coalition of the two companies his abilitj^ was such that he was soon after appointed chief factor of all the Hudson's Bay company's business west of the Rocky mountains. In 1824 he arrived at Fort George (Astoria) near the mouth of the Columbia river, which was then the chief post of the company west of the Rocky mountains. The next year he established the headquarters of the company at Fort Vancouver now in the state of Washington. About the year 1830, he erected a new Fort Vancouver, about one mile distant from its first location. Here is now located the United Statesmilitary post known as Vancouver Barracks. Dr. McLoughlin soon established a farm of about 3,000 acres near Fort Vancouver, on which were gi'own quantities of grain, principally wheat. He gradually developed a large herd of cattle. He constructed saw mills and flour mills near the fort, and yearly shipped lumber to the Hawaiian islands and flour to Sitka. He established and maintained a number of trading forts and posts, and made the part of the Hudson's Bay Company's business under his control the most profitable of all its business in North America.
When he first came to Oregon the number of Indians in the country in which he had command is estimated at about one hundred thousand. At that time it was not safe for white men to travel except in large parties and heavily armed. In a few years there was practically no danger and small parties traveled safely in all parts of the country west of the Rocky mountains. This was due almost wholly to Dr. McLoughlin 's personal qualities and his superb command and influence over men of all kinds. He was the autocrat of the country, yet ever tempered austerity with kindness, justice and mercy. His subordinates and the Indians soon came to know that he was a man of his word whether it was for reward or punishment. He had no police or armed men, except the regular trade officers of the company and its employees and servants. No one ever understood how to manage Indians better than he. Physically he was a man of large frame and fully six feet four inches in height. While comparatively a young man his hair became white. Usually his hair was worn long, reaching nearly to his shoulders. His mental qualities matched his magnificent physical proportions. He was fearless, just and honorable. No one was more approachable than he, for he was a man with a kindly courtesy, yet he was ever true to his company's interest, except where humanity required him to act otherwise.It was necessary that some one should be in command in what was known as "the Oregon country," being all that part of North American north of latitude 42 degrees north, the present northern boundary of California, and Nevada, then Spanish possessions west of the Rocky mountains, south of latitude 54 degi-ees and 40 minutes the southern boundary of the Russian possessions, and east of Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/467 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/468 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/469 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/470 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/471 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/472 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/473
THE COLONIAL PERIOD—WORKING OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT—RIVAL FACTIONS SILENCED BY LAND CLAIMS TOMAHAWK CLAIM DESCRIPTIONS TITLES TO LAND CLAIMS—PRICES, AND COST OF LIVING FOUNDING RIVAL CITIES, AND HOW THEY STARTED IMPORTATION OF HORSES, CATTLE, SHEEP AND GOATS—FOUNDATION OF THE FRUIT GROWING INTEREST ORGANIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES—COMMENCEMENT OF TRADE AND COMMERCE—DISCOVERY OF GOLD, AND THE OREGON MINT—BRIEF SKETCHES OF EARLY PIONEERS.The American colonist in Oregon started with their little Provisional Government in 1843, under the spectral danger of serious trouble from two different, and to them, uncontrollable sources. If the British occupation of the region, in the guise of the Hudson 's Bay company, should decide to starve out the Americans, or drive them out through control of the Indians, they would be powerless to offer effective opposition until succor could come from the States—if, indeed, it would come at all. Or if the Indians upon their own initiative should commence a war of extermination, it was easily possible for them to Mil every American before help could reach them by either land or sea. Entertaining the opinions, which the great majority of the Americans did, of both British and Catholics, it is not surprising that great danger to the little colony was generally feared, and that the hostile feelings against their supposed enemies have come down to us in the writings and correspondence of the Protestants and Pioneers. History is replete with vast volumes of the experience of mankind showing the bitterness, malignancy and unreason for religious contentions and persecution, so that no apology is necessary for stating frankly that the progress of Oregon as an American Colony was shadowed by two ever-present questions of vital import: First, and greatest of all, was Oregon to be American or British territory? Second, the fear of an Indian uprising instigated by British, or British and Catholic influences. On the first question all the Americans were lined up in solid column to fight a British control of the country.. On the second question all the Americans stood solid to fight the Hudson's Bay Co. and the Indians as a common enemy; but as to Catholic influence on the Indians, the Protestant missionaries alone, feared trouble from that quarter. The mountaineers and old trappers like Joe Meek and Dr. Newell among the Americans did not take much if any interest in the fears of the Protestant missionaries; and did not consider one form of religion better than the other. That these sentiments of nationality and religion had a large influence, and did color the thought and social conditions of the early colonists cannot be doubted, no matter how hard it is to be believed bj" the people of Oregon in 1912. The correspondence, books and literature of that early day, and of the pioneer survivors of later times clearly show Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/476 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/477 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/478 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/479 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/480
GUESSING ON THE METROPOLIS, AND STARTING RIVAL CITIES
Angora husbandry in Oregon now ranks well in importance with the livestock pursuits of the State. Oregon is second, if not first in number of Angora goats and production of mohair in the United States, the annual clip from its flocks of Angoras running in value well toward $50,000, while the value of their yearly increase approximates $400,000. More than half a million dollars of new wealth is added annually to the yield of Oregon farms from Angora goats. Oregon mohair ranks with the best in the eastern markets and commands the highest market prices.
FOUNDING THE FRUIT INTERESTS
As "Johnny Appleseed" (whose real name was Jonathan Chapman) was the fore-runner and fore-planter of apple trees in the Ohio valley in 1805, so also was Henderson Luelling in like manner the good missionary of all fruits to the region of Old Oregon in 1847. Johnny "Appleseed," so called by the first settlers in Ohio, came over the Alleghany Mountains through the pass that General Braddoek followed on his ill-fated expedition against the French at old Port Du Quesne (later Pittsburgh) in 1755. But "Appleseed" passed through about fifty years afterwards carrying with him a paekhorse load of apple seed and seedling trees which he planted in the settled places of Central Ohio. And forty-two years after "Appleseed" commenced planting nurseries on Licking river, Ohio, Luelling took up his line of march carying his precious load of grafted apple sprouts twenty-five hundred miles from Salem, Iowa, to Oregon. Thus it is seen by the unselfish labors of these two men, and by two long strides, apple trees were transplanted from Eastern Pennsylvania to the wilds of Western Oregon. "Appleseed" transported his cargo on a paekhorse, while Luelling planted his 700 little trees in boxes twelve inches deep and wide enough to fit snugly in the bed of the wagon; and thus day after day watering the precious young scions he safely landed them after six months of watchful care on the banks of the Willamette river at the place where the town of Milwaukie now stands, and there about half a mile north of the townsite started the first tree nursery in 1847, west of the Rocky Mountains.
Luelling 's trees were not the first fruit trees in Oregon; but they were the first grafted trees, trees that bear improved fruit true to name. The Hudson's Bay Company had fruit at Port Vancouver; but it was all the produce of seeds and pits of stone fruits brought out from England in 1825, and from its variety was at that time considered very fine.Narcissa Prentiss Whitman, one of the first two white women to cross the plains from "The States" to Oregon arriving at Port Vancouver on September 12, 1836, made the following entry in her diary under that date: "What a delightful place this is; what a contrast to the rough, barren sand plain through which we have so recently passed. Here we find fruit of every description — apples, peaches, grapes, pears, plums and fig trees in abundance; also, cucumbers, melons, beans, peas, beets, cabbage, tomatoes, and every kind of vegetable, too numerous to be mentioned. Every part of the garden is very neatly and tastefully arranged, with fine walks, lined on each side with strawberry vines. At the opposite end of the garden is a good house covered with grape vines. Here I must mention the origin of these grapes and apples. A gentleman, twelve years ago while at a party in London, put the seeds of the grapes and apples which he ate, into his vest pocket, soon afterwards he took a voyage to this country and left them here, and now they are greatly multiplied."
One of these old Fort Vancouver apple trees is still (1912) standing at the southwest corner of the U. S. Military Reservation in front of the Chief Commissary's office at Vancouver, in apparent good health after having borne crops of fruit annually for more than eighty years.
Subsequent to Luelling's other nurseries were founded; but Luelling's was substantially the foundation of all the good orchards started in the pioneer era of Oregon. In four years from planting these young trees Luelling had a few apples to sell, and sending a few boxes down to California, sold them out to the gold miners for a dollar for each apple. The trees soon came into bearing and apples were plentiful—so plentiful, that in less than fifteen years after Luelling sold apples for a dollar apiece, thousands of bushels rotted on the ground and the farmers were feeding them to their hogs to get rid of them. The fruit industry is now a great source of wealth to Oregon, and apples are shipped away to New York and for the European market by the train load; and it is in point of importance as well as years, as far back to Luelling's little grafts, and later on to the labors of Joseph A. Strowbridge traveling around over Multnomah, Clackamas, Yamhill and Marion Counties, gathering up little lots here and there to ship by steamship to San Francisco. Mr. Strowbridge did for the apple trade what Luelling had done for the orchardist—he pioneered the business, and on November 18th, 1854, the (Portland) Oregon Weekly Times newspaper gives his business the following notice:
"We were shown by our friend Jos. A. Strowbridge the largest quantity, and the best quality of apples we have ever seen in Oregon. He had some 300 bushels, comprising almost every desirable variety of grafts gathered from the orchards of the valley. It was a pleasant sight to the eye, and equally pleasant to the taste. Indeed, our visit to his storehouse was a tasty treat."
In the summer and autumn of 1857, ten years after Luelling's planting, the fruit interest had so increased that the enthusiastic fruit growers commenced to hold meetings and exhibit their choice fruit, making fine displays of apples, cherries, blackberries, strawberries, gooseberries, plums and pears, which were clean of all pests and fruit diseases. Among the growers of fruit attending those meetings were George Walling, Albert G. Walling, Morton M. McCarver, J. H. Lambert, Henry Miller, Thomas Frazar, James B. Stephens, Dr. Perry Prettyman, J. H. Settlemier, Seth Luelling, A. R. Shipley, and Dr. J. R. Cardwell, all of whom have passed on except Dr. Cardwell. Monthly meetings were held for several months, and called meetings were held two or three times in the summer and fall of 1858.
Counties in the Willamette valley began organizing agricultural societies in the following order: Yamhill county, October 22, 1853; first fair held October 7, 1854, at Lafayette; F. B. Martin, president; Ahio S. Watt, secretary.Marion county, April 6, 1854; first fair held in Salem, October 11, 1854; Nicholas Shrum, president; Joseph G. Wilson, secretary.
Polk county, April 3, 1854; first fair, Dallas, October 12, 1854; James M. Fulkersou, president ; John E. Lyle, secretary.
Washington county. May 25, 1854; first fair, West Tualatin (Forest Grove),. October 5, 1854 ; Thomasi G. Naylor, president ; J. M. Keeler, secretary.
Linn county, May 3, 1856 ; first fair Albany, October 10, 1856 ; Delazon. Smith, president ; D. H. Bodine, secretary.
Lane county, April 7, 1859 ; first fair, Eugene City, October 11-12, 1859 ; Avery A. Smith, president; Stukeley Ellsworth, recording secretary; E. E. Haft, corresponding secretary.
Jackson county, February 8, 1859; first fair, Jacksonville, October 4-5, 1859 ; W. C. Myer, president ; J. H. Reed, secretary.
Benton county, August 2, 1859; first fair, Corvallis, October 13; A. G. Hovey, president; E. M. Waite, secretar}^ Multnomah county, November 19, 1859 ; first fair, Portland, October 2-3, 1860 ; Thomas Frazar, president ; Albert G. Walling, secretary.
Clackamas county, April 28, I860; first fair, Oregon City, September 27-28, I860; A. L. Lovejoy, president; William Abernethy, secretary.
The Umpqua Valley Agricultural Society was organized late in the summer of 1860; first fair, Oakland, November 2, 1860; R. M. Hutchinson, president; J. R. Ellison, secretary pro tem.
A pomological convention was held in Salem, October 20, 1858, as the result of a call by fruit-growers from Clackamas, Marion, Multnomah, Polk, Washington and Yamhill counties, and the "Fruit-Growers' Association of Oregon" was organized, with Amos Harvey, Polk county, president, and Chester N. Terry, Salem, secretary. The meeting was a successful one and thirty-one exhibitors were present.
The original members of this association were as follows:
Barnhart, C. Harvey, A. Stanton, Alfred Brock, D. Howell, Joseph Stone, E. G. Cox, Joseph Jones, George M. Ruble, William Cornelius, G. Ladd, J. W. Taylor, William B. Davenport, T. W. Lewelling, Seth Terry, Chester N. Gilbert, I. N. Pearce, Ashby Walling, J. D. Cox, William Prettyman, Perry Woodsides, J. Gilmore, S. M. Schnebley, D. J.
By concert of action all the county fairs in the year 1859 sent delegates to a convention appointed for February 22, 1860, in Salem. Nine counties were represented in the convention, of which J. Quinn Thornton was president, and Joseph G. Wilson, secretary. After discussion, the "Oregon State Agricultural Society" was organized, with William H. Rector, president, vice-presidents to represent every county; Samuel E. May, corresponding secretary; Lueien Heath, recording secretary; John H. Moores, treasurer — all of Marion county. An invitation was extended to the representatives of the "Oregon Fruit Grow- ers ' Association ' ' to merge that body with the Agricultural Society, and on Sep- tember 10, following the necessary action to that end was taken. On that day George Collier Robbins, Portland, was elected president. It being found impracticable to hold the first state fair on the Linn county fair grounds, as phinned in the spring, it was decided to postpone the matter for a year and hokl llic fair in (Mackainas county on October 1-4. The site of the fair was on the mirlli hank of the (Tackamas river, about lialf a mile cast IVoiii its junc- tion with the Wilhinu'tte river, near the present town of Ghidstone. The area occupied was four acres, and was upon thi' tlonation ehiim of Peter M. Rinear.son, a pioneer of 1>S45. 'I'hc day Ix'forc the fair was opened Robbins resigned as president, and Simeon Francis, then cditoi' of tiie Oregonian, was elected, and made the annual address. There were one hundred and forty-two exhibitors and two hundred and sixty-two premiums were awarded. The receipts were $1,446.17 and expenditures $1,200.67, leaving a balance of .$245.50.
In closing up the business of this first state fair in Oregon the board of directors decided that the site used was not satisfactory, and advertised for proposals for a place to hold the second state fair. In response four counties responded — Lane, Linn, Marion and Yamhill — and the proposal from Marion county was accepted as being the most favorable, and the date of the second fair was fixed on September 30, 1862, to continue four days. At a meeting of the Oregon Agricultural Society on September 18, 1862, the vote of the stock- holders was taken to settle the cpiestion of permanent location, and resulted as follows: Corvallis, luir1; Eugene, 1; Salem, 65; Oregon City, 2.
COMMENCEMENT OP TRADE AND COMMERCE
While the coming of ships into the Columbia river from Capt. Gray's discov- ery in 1792 down to the first steamship — the Beaver, in 1836, are matters of great historical interest, and noticed herein in other chapters, yet no one of them or all of them together, constitute the commencement of foreign commerce with Oregon. Gray's ship, and all the shipping of the Hudson's Bay Co., down to and including the first steamship, the Beaver, were strictly fur trading propo- sitions limited to a special interest and coming for a single purpose, and not for trade in general. Winship's and Wyeth's ventures, if successful, would doubtless have grown into a general business and served all interests and per- sons without discrimination. The mistake of these two American traders was that they anticipated the prospects in Oregon by a dozen years or more. The timber was here and to be cut without leave or license from any one; but there was no market for it to be reached l)y either Winship or Wyeth. The fish was here without limit, but modern methods of taking and curing them had not been discovered, and Indian labor was inadequate to the undertaking; and so Wyeth's efforts were fruitless at his fishery. Capt. John H. Couch who came out with the ship Maryland in 1840, made the same mistake that Winship and Wyeth did. But it was not his mistake, but the mistake of the owners of the ship — the Cush- ings of Newburyport, Mass. Couch quickly discovered that the Indians could not be relied on to load a ship with dried or salted salmon. It is generally believed that Jason Lee inspired the Cushings to make this venture. But Capt. Couch being a practical man, measured up the prospects and advantages of this country and returned to the Columbia river w'ith another ship in 1842, and a stock of general merchandise suitable for a new country; and with this merchandise opened a store at Oregon City and placed it in the hands of George W. Le Breton Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/498 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/499 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/500 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/501 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/502 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/503 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/504 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/505 Wheeling, Va., in 1825, and was married to Sarah Crawford of that place, No- vember 19, 1829. He moved to Burlington, Iowa, in 1837, where he became a licensed exhorter of the Methodist church. On going to Oregon he resided three years at Oregon City, after which he made Clatsop county his home. His family consisted of eleven children, only three of whom survived him. He died in Portland, January 2, 1876. Id. Jan. 27, 1876.
Mrs. Mary Watson, one of the ai-rivals in 1847, died at King's valley, Benton Co., February 11, 1873, aged 64 years. Id., Feb. 27, 1873.
Henry W. Davis, known as the Hillsboro hermit, was born in London, Eng., whence he emigrated to Canada, where he participated in the Patriot war of 1837-8, having commanded a gun in one of the battles, and is said to have been a Colonel. After the insurrection he fled to the United States to escape arrest. He was employed in a flouring mill at Cincinnati for some time, and when he went to Oregon took with him a set of mill-stones. He erected a flouring mill on Dairy creek near Hillsboro, Washington county, which was in operation for several years. Davis lived alone, dressed in rags, and avoided his fellowmen. He was once tried by a commission of lunacy, who decided him sane, but eccentric. He died alone in his cabin in the summer of 1878, leaving considerable real estate and several thousand dollars in money, which went to a nephew by the name of Tremble. Portland Bee, August 30, 1878.
J. H. Bellinger was born in the state of New York in 1791, served in the War of 1812, and built the flrst canal-boat for the Erie Canal. He settled in Marion county, and his family have been much noted in state politics. He died of pa- ralysis, November 13, 1878. Portland Bee, November 14, 1878 ; Corvallis Gazette, November 22, 1878. Jesse Monroe Hodges was born in Melbourne Co., S. C, December 18, 1788. In 1811 he married Catherine Stanley of N. C. He served in the war of 1812, and fought under General Jackson at Horse Shoe Bend. In 1817 he moved to Tenn., thence to Ind., and thence in 1839 to Mo., making his last remove to Oregon in 1847, and settling in Benton county. He died at the residence of his son, D. R. Hodges, March 28, 1877. His mental condition was sound up to his latest mo- ments, though over 88 years of age. Albany Democrat, April 6, 1877. J. H. Crain, born in Warren Co., Ohio, in 1831. He removed with his parents in 1837 to Fountain Co., Ind., and thence to Oregon. He remained in and about Portland till 1852, when he went to the mines of Southern Oregon finally settling in the Rogue River valley. He served as a volunteer in the Indian war of 1855-6, after which he married and followed the occupation of farming. In 1876 he still resided in Jackson county. Ashland Tidings, Oct. 14, 1876. John Baum, born in Richland county, Ohio, August 12, 1823, removed with his parents to Porter Co., Ind., in 1835, and came to Oregon when 24 yeai-s of age. He located at Salem, but the gold discovery of 1848 drew him to California. Here he mined for a few months, but finding his trade of carpentering more attractive, and also profitable, he followed it for a season. In 1850 he drifted back to Ore- gon from the Shasta mines, and in July, 1851, married Phoebe S. Tieters, who died in July, 1873, leaving eight living children, three of whom were sons, namely, James T., John N., and Edgar C, Sonoma Co., Hist., 631. Jonas Specht, another who went to the California mines, was born in Pa., and had lived in Ohio and Mo. He settled in California, to which state his biog- raphy properly belongs. See Sutter Co. Hist., 24, and Yuba Co. Hist., 36. Morgan Lewis Savage, was born in 1816; came to Oregon in 1847; died in Oregon, February 9, 1880. He was twice married, and left a widow and six chil- dren. "Lute" Savage, as he was familiarly called, was a favorite among the Pio- neers of the Pacific coast. He served in the Cayuse war in the battalion raised in the spring of 1848, and was elected to the Senate after Oregon became a State. As a citizen, soldier, legislator, husband, father, friend, he did his whole duty. Nesmith, in Ore. Pioneer Asso., Trans., 1879, 54-5.Rev. St. M. Faekler, a native of Staunton, Virginia, removed to Missouri, and Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/509 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/510 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/511 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/512 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/513 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/514 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/517 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/518 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/519 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/520 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/521
THE WHITMAN MASSACRE—THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT ARMY—THE CAYUSE INDIAN WAR—ROGUE RIVER INDIAN WARS—BATTLES OF BATTLE ROCK AND BIG MEADOWS—GENERAL LANE BLUFFS OUT 150 SAVAGES—CHIEF JOHN, THE LAST "BRAVE" TO SURRENDER—THE YAKIMA WAR—THE MODOC WAR—THE CANBY-THOMAS MASSACRE.
The most appalling horror in the history of Oregon and equal in demoniac savagery to anything in the history of the entire country was the unprovoked massacre of Dr. Marcus Whitman and wife, and twelve other persons at the Whitman missionary station in Walla Walla valley on November 29-30, 1847. And while there was not the sickening ferocity of burning at the stake which has in past times attended the deadly strife between competing races and rival creeds, yet that element of diabolical depravity was more than equaled in the fact that the victims of this bloody deed were purely, honestly and patiently sacrificing their lives to benefit and lift up the savages that struck them down.
The actual facts of the bloody deed are briefly stated. During the forenoon of the day on which the massacre was executed Dr. Whitman assisted at the funeral of an Indian who had died during his visit to the Umatilla, and was struck with the absence of the tribe, many of whom mounted, were riding about, and giving no attention to the burial; but as there had been a slaughter of beef which was being dressed in the mission yard, an occasion which always drew the Indians about, the circumstances was in part at least accounted for. School was in session, several men and boys were absent at the saw-mill near the foot of the mountains; the women were employed with the duties of housekeeping and nursing the sick, and all was quiet as usual, when Whitman fatigued with two nights' loss of sleep entered the common sitting-room of his house and sat down before the fire to rest thinking such thoughts as—Ah! who will say?
While he thus mused, two chiefs, Tiloukaikt and Tamahas, surnamed "The Murderer," from his having killed a number of his own people, presented themselves at the door leading to an adjoining room, asking for medicines, when the doctor arose and went to them, afterward seating himself to prepare the drugs. And now the hour had come! Tamahas stepped behind him, drew his tomahawk from beneath his blanket, and with one or two cruel blows laid low forever the man of God. John Sager, who was in the room prostrated by sickness, drew a pistol, but was quickly cut to pieces. In his struggle for life he wounded two of his assailants, who, at a preconcerted signal had with others crowded into the house. A tumult then arose throughout the mission. All the men encountered by the savages were slain. Some were killed outright; others were bruised and mangled and left writhing back to consciousness to be assailed again until after hours of agony they expired. Dr. Whitman himself lived for some time after he had been stricken down, though insensible. Mrs. Whitman, although wounded, with Rogers and a few others also wounded, took refuge in an upper room of the dwelling, and defended the staircase with a gun, until persuaded by Tamsucky who gained access by assurances of sorrow and sympathy, to leave the chamber, the savages below threatening to fire the house. On her way to the mansion house, where the terror stricken women and children were gathered, she fainted on encountering the mangled body of her husband, and was placed upon a wooden settee by Rogers and Mrs. Hays, who attempted to carry her in this condition through the space between the houses; but on reaching the outer door they were surrounded by savages who instantly fired upon them, fatally wounding Rogers, and several balls striking Mrs. Whitman, who, though not dead, was hurled into a pool of water and blood on the ground. Not satisfied with this, Ishalhal, who had formerly lived in Gray's family, and who had fired the first shot at her before she escaped to the chamber from which Tamsucky treacherously drew her, seized her long auburn hair, now blood-stained and disheveled, and lifting up the head happily unconscious, repeatedly struck the dying woman's face with a whip, notwithstanding which life lingered for several hours.It is unnecessary to relate the butchery of other innocent persons which lasted for several days and seemed to be carried on for the gratification of the savage mind. The victims of this awful tragedy were Dr. Marcus Whitman, Mrs. Narcissa Whitman, John Sager, Francis Sager, Crocket Bewley, Mr. Rogers, Mr. Kimball, Mr. Sales, Mr. Marsh, Mr. Saunders, James Young, Jr., Mr. Hoffman, and Isaac Gillen. Peter B. Hall, while not killed at the mission, fled to Fort Walla Walla, but was denied admission, and was never heard of afterward. And of the remaining persons at the Whitman mission, fifty-three in number, young and old and mostly women and children, none were spared from outrage of any sort that lust or thirst of blood could devise. In fact the sufferings inflicted on the survivors by the savages were even more horrifying than murder itself. Everything that the brutal Indian could suggest, or any mind could imagine, was inflicted not only on mothers whose husbands had been slaughtered but on little girls these mothers could not protect. Grown women and little girls were carried away to Indian tepees for wives and subjected to all the outrages that brutal lust could inflict. Miss Lorinda Bewley, a teacher of the Indian children, eleven days after the massacre was dragged from a sick bed and torn from the arms of sympathizing women, placed on a horse in the midst of a high fever and carried through a winter snow storm twenty-five miles to the lodge of an Indian chief named Five Crows, and there for weeks in her sick and enfeebled state forced to submit to the brutal outrages of the savage. During the day time she was allowed to visit the house where Vicar General Francis Norbert Blanchet, and Vicar General J. B. A. Brouillet, Catholic priests made their home, but at night was dragged back to the lodge of the Indian. Afterwards at the trial of these murderers at Oregon City, the girl testified that she cried and appealed to these priests to be protected either at the house of the priests, or to be by them sent to the Hudson's Bay Co.'s. Fort Walla Walla; but they would not interfere to protect her; and to add insult to injury Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/563 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/564 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/565 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/566
THE INDIAN WARS
It is impracticable to include in this history the long and tedious account of the Indian wars of Oregon. The narrative would crowd out other and more important matter. And whilst the personal experiences of beleaguered settlers, the courage of reckless Indian fighters, and the hair-breadth escapes from savage brutality would be to many readers interesting in some ways, yet it would not teach any useful lesson. But leading examples of the Indian war game will be given, which will fully illustrate the whole period of the wars; and important battles upon which depended the fate of the dying Indian tribes and confederacies will be given.
The Whitman Massacre was the opening chapter of seven years of more or less uninterrupted warfare with the Indian tribes of Oregon. The first call for men to punish the Cayuses for the murder of Whitman and safeguard the immigration to Oregon was made by Governor Abernethy of the Provisional government. The news of the massacre reached Oregon City on December 8th after the horrible deed, being communicated to the governor by a letter from Fort Vancouver carried by a special messenger. That night a meeting was called for volunteers to go to the Dalles and defend that Mission and stop any marauding party that might attempt to descend the Columbia and attack the white settlers. The meeting resulted in a volunteer company of forty-five men, who adopted the name of "Oregon Rifles" as the name of their organization. Most of the men had their own rifles, but those who lacked arms were furnished by Dr. McLoughlin on their own credit. H. A. G. Lee was made captain; J. Magone, 1st lieutenant; and John E. Ross, 2nd lieutenant. This being the first military force called in to existence to defend the infant state of Oregon, the names of all these brave men going out to defend their homes and the homes of their neighbors and furnishing their own arms and rations without pay, deserve to be mentioned here as "The First Defenders" and have their names recorded here as follows:
Joseph B. Proctor, George Moore, W. M. Carpenter, J. S. Rinearson, H. A. G. Lee, Thomas Purvis, J. Magone, C. Richardson, J. E. Ross, I. Walgamoutts, John G. Gibson, B. B. Rogers, Benj. Bratton, Samuel K. Barlow, Wm. Berry, John Lassater, John Bolton, Henry W. Coe, William Beekman, Nathan Olney, Joel Witchey, John Fleming, John Little, A. J. Thomas, Geo. Westby, Edward Robson, Daniel P. Barnes, J. Kestor, D Everest, J. H. McMillen, Jno. C. Danford, Ed. Marsh, Joel McKee, H. Levalley, J. W. Morgan, 0. Tupper, R. S. Tupper, C. H. Devendorf, John Finner, C. W. Savage, Shannon, G. H. Bosworth, Jacob Johnson, Stephen Cummings, Geo. Weston.
As forty-five men could not make war upon the powerful tribe of the Cayuses, or do more than hold the "pass" at The Dalles, as the Greeks had the Thermopylae "in the brave days of old," Governor Abernethy submitted the exigency to the Provisional Legislature then in session; which at once took up the weighty matter and passed laws providing for an army of fourteen companies with Field, Staff and Line officers as follows:
Colonel, Cornelius Gilliam (accidentally killed).
Lieutenant-Colonel, James Waters (promoted to Colonel).
Major, H. A. G. Lee.
Adjutant, B. F. Burch.
Surgeon, W. M. Carpenter.
Assistant Surgeons, P. Snyder and H. Saffaraus.
Commissary, Joel Palmer.
Quartermaster, Berryman Jennings.
Paymaster, L. B. Knox.
Judge Advocate, Jacob S. Rinearson.
Company A—55 men—Captain, Lawrence Hall; "First Lieutenant, Hugh D. O'Bryant; Second Lieutenant, John Engent.
Company B—43 men—Captain, John W. Owens; First Lieutenant, A. F. Rogers; Second Lieutenant, T. C. Shaw.
Company C—84 men—Captain, H. J. G. Maxon; First Lieutenant, I. N. Gilbert; Second Lieutenant, Wm. P. Pugh.
Company D— 36 men—Captain, Thomas McKay; First Lieutenant, Charles McKay; Second Lieutenant, Alex. McKay.
Company D—52 men—Captain, Phil F. Thompson; First Lieutenant, Jas. Brown; Second Lieutenant, Joseph M. Garrison.
Company E—44 men—Captain, Levi N. English; First Lieutenant, Wm. Shaw; Second Lieutenant, F. M. Munkers.
Company E—36 men—Captain, Wm. Martin; First Lieutenant, A. E. Garrison; Second Lieutenant, David Waters.
Company E—63 men—Captain, W. P. Pugh; First Lieutenant, N. R. Doty; Second Lieutenant, Maxwell Ramsby.
Company G—66 men—Captain, James W. Nesmith; First Lieutenant, J. S. Snook; Second Lieutenant, M. Gilliam. Company H—49 men—Captain, George W. Bennett; First Lieutenant, J. R. Bevin; Second Lieutenant, J. R. Payne.
Company I—36 men—Captain, William Shaw; First Lieutenant, D. Crawford; Second Lieutenant, B. Dario.
Company No. 7—27 men—Captain, J. M. Garrison; First Lieutenant, A. E. Garrison; Second Lieutenant, John Hersen.
F. S. Water's Guard—57 men—Captain, Wm. Martin; First Lieutenant, David Weston; Second Lieutenant, B. Taylor.
Reorganized Company—Captain, John E. Ross; First Lieutenant, D. P. Barnes; Second Lieutenant, W. W. Porter. The following brief of the operations of Colonel Gilliam is taken from Himes' History of the Willamette Valley:
"Colonel Gilliam reached The Dalles on the twenty-third of February, with fifty men, followed a few days later by the remainder of the regiment. On the twenty-seventh he moved to the Des Chutes with one hundred and thirty men, crossed to the east bank, and sent Major Lee up that stream about twenty miles on a reconnoisance, where he found the enemy, engaged them, killed one, lost some of his horses and returned to report progress. On the twenty-ninth Colonel Gilliam moved up to the Des Chutes to Meek's Crossing, at the mouth of the canyon in which Major Lee had met the Indians. The next morning, on entering the canyon, a skirmish followed, in which were captured from the hostiles, forty horses, four head of cattle and $300 worth of personal property, all of which was sold by the Quartermaster for $1,400. The loss of the Indians in killed and wounded was not known. There was one white man wounded. The result was a treaty of peace with the Des Chutes Indians. The command pushed immediately forward to the Walla Walla country and reached the Mission prior to March 4. On the way to that place a battle occurred at Sand Hollow, on the emigrant road, eight miles east of the Well Springs. It commenced on the plain where washes in the sand made natural hiding places for a foe, and lasted until towards night.' The volunteer force was arranged with the train in the road, protected by Captain Hall's company. The companies of Captain Thompson and Maxon, forming the left flank, were on the north side of the road, and those of Captains English and McKay, as the right flank, were on the south, or right side of the command. Upon McKay's company at the extreme right the first demonstration was made. Five Crows, the head chief of the Cayuses, made some pretentions to the possession of wizard powers, and declared to his people that no ball from the white man's gun could kill him. Another chief of that tribe named 'War Eagle,' or 'Swallow Ball,' made similar professions, and stated that he could swallow all the bullets from the guns of the invading army if they were fired at him. The two chiefs promised their people that Gilliam's command should never reach the Umatilla river, and to demonstrate their invulnerability and power as medicine chiefs, they dashed out from concealment, rode down close to the volunteers and shot a little dog that came out to bark at them. Captain McKay, although the order was not to fire, could hold back no longer, and bringing his rifle to bear, took deliberate aim and shot War 'Eagle through the head, killing him instantly. Lieutenant Charles McKay brought his gun down to the hollow of his arm, and firing without sighting it, so severely wounded Five Crows that he gave up the command of his warriors. This was a serious, chilling opening for the Indians—two chiefs gone at the first onset and their medicine proved worthless—but they continued to battle in a skirmishing way, making dashing attacks and masterly retreats until late in the afternoon. At one time during the engagement. Captain Maxon's company followed the enemy so far that it was surrounded, and a sharp encounter followed, in which a number of volunteers were disabled, in fact, eight of the eleven soldiers wounded that day were of Maxon's company. Two Indians were known to have been killed, but the enemy's loss could not be known as they removed all their wounded and dead except two."That night the regiment camped on the battlefield without water, and the Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/575 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/576 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/577 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/578 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/581 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/582 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/583 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/584 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/587 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/588 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/589 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/590 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/593 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/594 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/595 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/596 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/597 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/598 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/599 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/600 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/603 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/604 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/605 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/606 CHIEF JOSEPH OF THE NEZ PERCES Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/609 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/610 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/611 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/612 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/613 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/614 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/617 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/618 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/619 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/620 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/621 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/622 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/623 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/624 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/627 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/628 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/629 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/630
rebuilt on higher and safer ground. The census shows the followiug growth of population.
For the year 1890— 4.211.') ; lOOO— 1.151 ; I'JIU— 4,;557.
Gilliam county was organized in the year 1885, and named in honor of Colonel Cornelius Gilliam, an Oregon pioneer of 1844, and who was accidentally killed at Wells Springs in the territory of that county while in command of a regiment of Oregon volunteers who had gone out to capture the murderers of Dr. Whitman. Gilliam was a good man, a good citizen, a good soldier and deserved the honor, its county seat is Condon, in honor of Thomas Condon.
The growth of the population of the county is shown by the census reports as follows:
For the year 1890—3,600; 1900—3.201; 1910—3,701.
Wallowa county was organized on February 11, 1887, being carved out of the territory of Union county, and is located in the northeastern corner of the State. The county gets its name from the beautiful Lake and river which dis- tinguishes the beautiful mountain valley, the most attractive mountain scenery of the whole State, and not excelled by that of any other region in the world. This beautiful valley was the home of that branch of the Nez Perce tribe of Indians whose government was the rule of the great Indian Chief Joseph, and whose likeness appears on another page. Joseph and his people claimed that they had been unjustly driven out of the valley by the white man, and on being refused restoration to their ancient home went to war in 1877, and being at- tacked by the U. S. Troops under General 0. 0. Howard, Joseph effected such a masterly and successful retreat over the Rockj' Mountains as to win the re- spect and admiration of the General and all his men. To recognize the dis- tinguished Chief the settlers in the valley have named their principal town "Joseph" in honor of the Indian; the only town or county named in honor of an Indian on the Pacific Coast.
The census reports of the county show population as follows: For 1890 — 3,661 ; 1900—5,538 ; 1910—8,364 ; Enterprise is the county seat.
Malheur county was organized by the legislature February 17, 1887. It occupies the southeastern corner of the State. It gets the name from the prin- cipal river in the county; and the river got the name from the fact that the Indians had stolen a cache of furs and goods the Hudson's Bay Co. trapper, Peter Skene Ogden, had hid on the banks of the river. The word is pronounced as if spelled "Maloor, " and is a French tei-m signifying "bad luck." It is as yet a sparsely settled region. But now in this year 1912, the Oregon Short Line iailroad is being constructed westerly across the county.
The census reports population of the county as follows :
For 1890—2,601 : 1900—4,203 ; 1910—8.601 : The County seat is now at tlie town of Vale.
Harney county was created by legislative enactment February 25, 1889, and embraces the great Harnej* Valley, including the large lakes Malheur and Harney. The county is named in honor of ilajor-General William S. Harney, a distinguished soldier of the United States army, who had seen bard service fight- % ing Indians in Florida, Illinois and Oregon, besides active service in the war with Mexico, and finally against the Southern rebels in Missouri, Being given command in Oregon in 1858, he opened the Harney valley to settlement after it had been closed against white settlers by General Wool. A good likeness of the distinguished soldier appears on another page.
Harney is now the scene of great activity, in taking up the long neglected rich lands of that region. Burns, the principal town and county seat, contains the U. S. Land office, with two banks and many prosperous mercantile houses; and it has tributary territory of rich land large enough to make a greater State than many of the New England States. The census reports the gi'owth of population as follows:
For the year 1890—2,559; 1900—2,598; 1910—4,059.
Sherman county was organized by the legislature on February 25, 1889, having been once the northeastern portion of Wasco County. It is named in honor of Major General Wm. T. Sherman, the hero of the march through Georgia to the sea which cut the Southern Confederacy in twain and broke the backbone of the Southern Rebellion. This is one of the great wheat producing counties of the State, and upon which many farmers have grown rich. The county seat is Moro.
The growth of population is shown by the census reports as follows:
For the year 1890—1,792; 1900—3,477; 1910—4,242.
Lincoln county created by legislative act on February 20, 1893, is located on the Pacific ocean west of Benton county, embracing the Siletz Indian reservation, the Siletz valley, vast bodies of the finest timber in the world, the health resorts of Yaquina and Newport, and is named in honor of the martyr President, Abraham Lincoln.
The census reports the white population as follows:
For the year 1900—3,575; 1910—5,587, and the Indian population for 1900 —465; and for 1910— 392.
The county seat is at the town of Toledo.
Wheeler county was organized February 17, 1899, out of portions of Crook, Gilliam and Grant Counties. It is named for Henry H. Wheeler, an old settler in that part of the State. Its county seat is at the town of Fossil, which is so named for the great varietj' of fossil remains of the ancient animal life of that region.
The census shows its population as follows: For the year 1900—2,443; 1910—2,484.
Hood River is the last county organization of the legislature, and the Act for which was passed by an initiative petition at an election held June 1, 1908. Its territory Avas taken off of Wasco county. The county gets its name from the great mountain at the head of its river; and the mountain was named bj' Lieut. Broughton, for Lord Hood, an English nobleman. The county seat is the town of Hood River; so the English lord dominates the whole aggregation of mountains, county and town. Its population according to the census of 1910 is 8,016.
The settlement of the Klamath country had its commencement or inception in the desire of some young Oregon volunteers who, serving on the frontier, noticed its varied beauties of lake, valley and mountain, and having been reared
A locator of the Applegate Trail into Southern Oregon, 1845
FOUNDER OF FRUIT GROWING IN ROGUE RIVER VALLEY
Its remoteness from markets, its lack of transportation facilities or even passable wagon roads to connect it with the older and settled portions of either Oregon or California, were deterring factors in preventing its agricultural development, while its bunch grass covered hills, its native meadows and abundant springs,naturally indicated its adaptability to stock raising; an industry that did not of necessity require transportation other than upon its own legs. Hence its introductory history was that of a stock country only, and as the large stock owners required for their business a free range for their herds, scanty encouragement was given to settlers, who would fence up and improve the land.
The writer was one of the first to demonstrate the agricultural possibilities of the soil; and having no means other than the small sum saved during his two years and eight months service in the army, he very naturally tried to cultivate a little garden, and raise some grain to help defray the cost of living which was necessarily high from the fact that all provisions, clothing, and other supplies, were brought in over the mountains by mule trains, or in wagons, from a long distance. No railroads were then built either in Oregon or California, and the river steamers were the freight handlers to the head of navigation, whence the mule train or the freight wagon were the distributing agents.
The greatest drawbacks in the settlement of the country were not however, the natural obstacles that confronted the settler. These he could overcome and conquer, but the unjust and inefficient land laws that deterred settlement, and which the state authorities made no attempt to remedy, deprived many an honest hardworking family of their home, and discouraged many would be settlers from attempting to make homes in the country.
The first settlers located in the near neighborhood of Link River and the shores of Little Klamath Lake. This land had been surveyed in 1859, by D. P. Thompson and others, when it was far in advance of any prospective settlement. But in those days the surveying of public lands was a very lucrative business, and the contracts were let far in advance of the actual needs of settlement to accommodate administration supporters. As the country was occupied with Indians who, though not actively hostile to the white man, were yet extremely jealous of intrusions into their territory, and resented the marking of their lands, very many of the stakes and monuments were destroyed almost as soon as erected and the surveyors became very careless about the permanency or accuracy of their work. Many of the corner and half-mile posts were simply small branches of trees stuck in the ground with blazed surfaces to receive the survey markings, or a boulder set up on end upon which the symbolic characters were lightly chiseled.
Nearly or quite all of the lands embraced in this early survey had been selected from the field notes as a part of the five hundred thousand acre grant given the state by congress "to aid in internal improvements," but had not been approved as such by the secretary of the interior. The only way to get a recognition of right to these lands was to file an application describing the tract, with the secretary of the state land board, who charged a fee of three dollars ($3.00) for filing the same. Then whenever the state selections were approved the party making the first application could pay one-third of the purchase price, which was then two dollars per acre, give his notes for the remaining two-thirds in two equal payments, and receive from the state a certificate of purchase. This certificate was transferable. Any person, a citizen of the United States and over eighteen years of age, could, if a settler on such lands purchase three hundred and twenty acres; in case the applicant was not a settler, the amount of land that could be bought by one person was limited to one hundred and sixty acres.
In the case of the writer, who took up one of the first places in the country he filed his application accompanied b3' the affidavits of two disinterested parties, that the applicant was an actual settler on the lands applied for, and was cultivating and improving the same as a home.
In spite of this precaution six other filings were allowed on top of his first filing, the clerk of the board realizing a goodly sum for permitting them to be recorded. This rendered it necessary to hire lawyers to defend his title in order to secure the certificate.
It was also found that nearly all the most valuable meadow lands, and many large tracts of higher sage brush lands that protruded into the marsh lands had been returned by the early survey, as a part of Little Klamath Lake, and as many settlers were coming into the country who •wished to locate homes on these lands, the writer drew up a petition to the secretary of the interior reciting the conditions and asking for a resurvey of these lands in order that all lands susceptible of settlement might be thrown open for entry. This petition was signed by nearly all the settlers in the country, and resulted in a resurvey being made during the fall of 1872, in spite of a large number of exparte-affidavits sent to prevent the resurvey. These affidavits,—some five or six in number were largely made by people living in California and engaged in stockraising, who were deeply interested in preventing the settlement of the ranges.
To give an idea of the motive for these strenuous efforts to balk the settlement and development of the country, it is necessary to go back to the legislative session of the Oregon legislature of 1870, when a bill drawn up by Quiney A. Brooks, to select and dispose of swamp lands in the State of Oregon, to which the state was entitled by Act of March 12, 1860. This bill was cleverly drawn to enable a few individuals to secure control of all lands that could by any means be construed as swamp or overflowed, within the state, as it provided among other things that the lands could be selected in advance of the U. S. surveys, by describing them by natural boundaries, such as mountain ranges, lakes, rivers, etc. There was no limit to the amount any one could file on, and the price was one dollar per acre, 20 cents to be paid after the acceptance of the state selection by the secretary of the interior, and the remaining 80 cents to be paid when the lands were finally reclaimed.As Q. A. Brooks had visited this country the previous year and had been largely instrumental in securing additional filings upon state lands both occupied and unoccupied, and had plots and lists made out for nearly all the swamp and overflowed lands in the Klamath Basin, and his applications ready for immediate filing before the bill passed, it should have aroused a suspicion in the minds of sensible legislators that such a measure was contrary to the best interests of the state, but no serious opposition was encountered and the infamous bill passed.
The Last of the Rogue River Indians in the Valley
THE DALLES METHODIST MISSION - 1838
"Antelope are less numerous than in years past, there being probably about 4,800 in the high desert. These are not killed so extensively as deer and, being fleet of foot, are not destroyed by predatory animals so readily, save when young.
"Of game birds, grouse are being killed in great numbers by hunters and birds of prey, while supervisors in the forests report that pheasants gather in great numbers in the low mountains along the river bottoms and small streams. Their number seems to remain about stationary. Quail are found in all the forests, but in smaller numbers than grouse or pheasants, while sage hens and prairie chickens are scarce. The forests, it is estimated, contain about 40 per cent of the productive capacity of game birds."
Water fowl are either decreasing in numbers, or remaining stationary, the reports stating:
"Ducks, geese and swans are found in the lakes, sloughs and streams of the Des Chutes drainage system area. A large number of them nest there each year. Very few are found in the streams west of the summit of the Cascades, as there are no suitable feeding grounds. The geese and swans do not seem to be decreasing, though there is no apparent increase. The present condition seems to be about 85 per cent of the productive capacity. Ducks seem to be decreasing at the rate of about 2% annually, due mainly to hunters.
"The Crater forest seems to be an exceedingly attractive region for the hunter and fisher, including campers and huckleberry pickers.
"It is estimated that there are not less than 5,000 persons who pass from one to six weeks time each season hunting and fishing in this forest. This seemingly large number is due mainly to the fact that the Crater Lake national park is surrounded almost entirely by the Crater national forest, and of course a great number of the persons who visit the lake, do more or less hunting and fishing on their way to the Forest, both going and coming.
"In the national forest area of Oregon there are estimated to be about 24,000 coyotes, 12,000 wildcats, 7,500 bears, 300 cougars (panthers), and 900 wolves, which annually kill stock valued at $120,000, besides being responsible for the destruction of numerous game animals and birds. A cougar will destroy, during its lifetime, on an average, 1,800 to 2,500 deer, while the grey wolf is hardly less destructive. In a snowfall of only two and a half feet, a wolf will easily pull down any deer within a short time. The cougar kills cattle and horses, while the coyotes chief prey is sheep.
"Other species, such as red and grey foxes, lynx and skunks, are very destructive to game birds."
The notice of the fish and game resources of the State in the year 1912 would be imperfect and insufficient if the work of President Taft and State. Game Warden Wm. L. Finley was not duly recognized. On May 6, 1911, the President issued an order making Clear Lake reservoir and site, and contiguous lands owned by the government, in Klamath county, a bird reserve. This will make about 25,000 acres in one body a reserve for wild birds where no pot hunter will be allowed to get in his deadly work. This is a natural breeding place for water fowl. Following up this policy with an intelligent and energetic administration of his office, Mr. Finley has secured all the State lands about the State capital. Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/742 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/743 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/744 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/745 in horse power what he can see in the power of a mountain stream for a year; hut he cannot measure the life of the stream any more than he can determine the age of our planet. Man is wholly powerless to increase or decrease the fundamental unit of a water power. He may for a brief period store up in a reservoir the surplus energy of a stream, and thus increase its value ; but he cannot increase the original unit of value. For these considerations this greatest gift of nature made known to mankind by unravelling the secrets of electricity, should be absolutely controlled and administered by the State for the use of all its citizens on exactly the same terms and conditions. And thus it is seen that the mountains and forest reserves, holding and conserving the great blanket of snow deposited by winter storms, to be turned loose by the summer's heat and sent down the streams to turn innumerable turbine wheels generating electric power, are one of the State 's greatest sources of wealth and power. And by the .just and wise use of this power, furnished and administered under the control of State laws, every household and citizen of Oregon should soon have all the light, heat and power needed to make the house comfortable throughout the year, and do the work of plowing the fields, harvesting the grain and hauling to market the crops at one-fourth of the expense for such necessaries by present methods.
This vast water power is generated by the grand elevations of the Oregon mountains ; which are as follows :
Adams, Mt 12,424 feet Crater Lake : 6,177 feet Crescent Lake 5,025 feet Diamond Peak 8,807 feet Hood, Mt 11,225 feet Jeffei-son, Mt 10,350 feet McLoughlin, Mt 9,760 feet Odell Lake 4,990 feet Pauline Peak 7,387 feet Pilot Rock 6,104 feet Saddle Mountain 6,976 feet Scott Peak 8,938 feet Siskiyou Peak 7,662 feet Sterling Peak 7,377 feet Sugar Loaf 8,415 feet Thielsen, Mt 9,250 feet Three Sisters 10,250 feet Union Peak 7,698 feet Yainax Butte 7,277 feet Tamsay Peak 8,248 feet Eagle Cap 9,686 feet
The United States geological survey has completed a careful estimate of the available water power of Oregon from which is taken the following statistics: Horsepower
Columbia River (proper) 4,060,000 6,250,000 Willamette v 602,000 1,670,000 Deschutes 953,000 1,920,000 Umpqua River 80,000 160,000 Mt. Hood Rivers 200,000 400,000 Rogue River 80,000 160,000 Minor Tributaries Columbia 718,000 1,230,000 Totals 5,975,(H)() 10,560,000
With possibilities of developing 10,000,000 horsepower in Oregon, where less than one-fourth of a million horsepower is now utilized, and when it is considered that only a little more than 5,000,000 horsepower are today utilized in the entire United States, it is argued by the directors of the geological survey that there is not a remote possibility that the water power of this region can ever be monopolized by a single corporation combine or commercial trust. Such a prediction is based upon the hope that justice and common user rights of the gifts of nature may prevail. But experience has already shown, that on account of the controlling power of the money trust of the United States, and the friendly, if not directly interested relations of the managers of the money trust with that of the associated power companies of the Northwest, it is now practically impossible to secure capital to develop water power enterprises in opposition to those now already established. So that the price to the consumer of electric water power service in the State of Oregon is now ten times greater than similar service to the people of Ottawa in the Canadian Dominion. And notwithstanding the vast water power of the State of Oregon, larger than that of all the States of the Union from the Mississippi river to the Atlantic ocean, the people of Oregon are compelled to pay higher rates for light, heat, and power than the people of any other State in the Nation.
For the value and importance of the water power of Oregon, reference is again made to the most valuable public service of State Engineer Lewis. He joins in the opinion that the Des Chutes river is the most wonderful stream in the world, and states the following, facts to prove it and says :
"Between Benham Falls and Cline Falls there is 1,300 feet fall. About sixty per cent of the one million acre feet of water will be discharged through the dam for irrigation purposes, during July and August, and will be available for the development of power which can be transmitted economically from two to four hundred miles for the pumping of water to irrigate other lands say along the Columbia river. This water at a 100 foot drop immediately below the dam will furnish 56,800 horsepower, which at 50 per cent plant efficiency will lift 2,500 second feet, 100 feet above the Columbia river, for the irrigation of 200,000 acres of land. There is another fall of 100 feet a short distance below and above the first diversion for irrigation, and the amount of summer power which can be developed in the 1,300 feet fall to the last diversion at Cline Falls is almost inconceivable.""Sixteen dam sites have been located on the Des Chutes in the narrow rock Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/748 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/749 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/750 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/751 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/752 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/753 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/754 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/757 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/758 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/759 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/760 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/763 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/764 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/765 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/766 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/767 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/768 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/769 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/770 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/773 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/774 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/775 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/776 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/779 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/780 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/783 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/784 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/785 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/786
THE "HONOR" CREDENTIALS, ANNUALLY ISSUED TO JACOB KAMM. NOW NEARING HIS NINETY-YEAR MILE POST, THESE PAPERS HAVE BEEN ISSUED TO MR. KAMM FOR OVER SIXTY YEARS
AGRICULTURE—HORTICULTURE—ANIMAL INDUSTRIES—FARMS, FARM LANDS AND VALUES—COMMERCE—MANUFACTURES—THE STATE FAIR—THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPOSITION.
Cultivation of the soil for food in Oregon was commenced at Oak Point on the south side of the Columbia river in the year 1810 by Capt. Nathan Winship of Boston, Mass. Captain Winship and his brother Jonathan had decided to establish a trading post on the Columbia river, and this point was selected for the enterprise. Here they cleared some land in May, 1810, commenced building a house and planted a garden, but on account of the annual Columbia river freshet they were forced to abandon the site and move to higher ground.
In 1811 the Astor men building the Fort at Astoria in May of that year planted twelve potatoes that had been brought from New York around Cape Horn, which started the cultivation of potatoes in Oregon, and from the twelve first planted a crop of fifty bushels was produced in 1813. The first bushel of wheat was brought overland from Canada by order of Dr. John McLoughlin in 1825, and was planted that year. In 1837 Lieut. Slacum reported to the U. S. War Department that the H. B. Co. had produced on their farm near Vancouver that year 8,000 bushels of wheat, 5,500 bushels of barley, 6,000 bushels of oats, 9,000 bushels of peas, and 14,000 bushels of potatoes, besides turnips, pumpkins and other vegetables. At that time the Company had 1,000 head of beef cattle, 700 hogs, 200 sheep, 500 horses and forty yoke of working oxen, a threshing machine, a flouring mill and a distillery. Outside of the Hudson's Bay Company the first farms were opened in Marion county, Louis Bichette settling near Champoeg in 1825, Joseph Gervais near where the town of Gervais is located, in 1828, and Etienne Lucier in 1830. A number of the remnants of the Wilson Price Hunt party also settled on the prairie near Gervais and Lucier; and all of them being Canadian Frenchmen they gave the name to the neighborhood — "French Prairie," which identifies that region to this day. When Jason Lee came in 183-4 he found here these Frenchmen and although they were all Catholics, and he was a Methodist, he deemed it a good place to found a mission and start the first school in the Willamette valley. These first farmers and Americans who came in 1843 and 4 prospered in raising wheat, as the H. B. Company took all they raised at a fair price. Gervais had the first orchard in the present state of Oregon, his trees having been procured from Dr. McLoughlin at Fort Vancouver; but they were all seedling apples, and not to be compared with the grafted fruit introduced by Luelling in the fall of 1847.
The first market the pioneer Oregon farmers had for their wheat was the Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/828
THE MODERN WAYLumbering in Oregon Forests in 1910 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/831 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/832 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/833 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/834 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/837 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/838 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/839 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/840 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/843 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/844 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/845 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/846 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/849 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/850 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/851 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/852 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/855 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/856 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/857 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/858 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/861 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/862 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/863 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/864 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/865 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/866 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/869 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/870 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/871 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/872 Page:Centennial History of Oregon 1811-1912, Volume 1.djvu/873