written between December 1851 and March 1852, and originally published in 1852 in Die Revolution, a German-language monthly magazine. The pamphlet shows Marx in his form as a social and political historian, treating actual historical events—those leading up to Louis Bonaparte's coup d'état of 2 December 1851—from the viewpoint of his materialist conception of history. The "Eighteenth Brumaire" refers to November 9, 1799 in the French Revolutionary Calendar—the day Louis Bonaparte's uncle Napoleon Bonaparte had made himself dictator by a coup d'état. The work is the source of one of Marx's most quoted statements, that history repeats itself, "the first as tragedy, then as farce".
190701The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis NapoleonKarl MarxDaniel De Leon