The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Dashkoff, Princess Ekaterina Romanovna

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DASHKOFF, däsh'kōf, Princess Ekat'erina Romanov'na, Russian scholar: b. Petrograd 22 March 1743; d. Moscow 16 Jan. 1810. She married Prince Dashkoff when only 15 years old, but was left a widow three years after. She was an intimate friend of the Empress Catherine II, and one of the heads of the conspiracy formed against Peter III, the success of which secured the throne to Catherine. Soon afterward, quarreling with Catherine, she obtained permission to travel, and visited Germany, England, France and Italy, making the acquaintance of many eminent men. On her return the princess was appointed director of the Academy of Arts and Sciences; and in 1783, president of the Russian Academy, established at her own suggestion in imitation of the French Académie. Besides writing several comedies and occasional papers, the Princess Dashkoff was mainly instrumental in inducing the Russian Academy to draw up a dictionary of the Russian language, and herself executed part of the work. On the death of Catherine she was removed from office and retired to Moscow. Consult her autobiography (trans. by Mrs. W. Bradford, London 1840.)