The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Lützen

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LÜTZEN, lüt'sĕn, Germany, small town of Prussian Saxony, nine miles southwest of Leipzig. It derives all its interest from the two battles fought in its neighborhood. The first belongs to the Thirty Years' War, being fought on 16 Nov. 1632, between the Swedes under Gustavus Adolphus, and the Imperialists under Wallenstein. The Swedish monarch, having joined his forces with those of Bernard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, attacked the enemy in a strongly intrenched position. The issue was long doubtful, but the Swedes finally triumphed, though Gustavus fell in the action. The place of his death is marked by a square block of granite, called the Schwedenstein (the Swedes' stone). The second battle was fought 2 May 1813, somewhat farther south, at Gross-Görschen. It was the first important conflict between the allied Russian and Prussian armies and the French under Napoleon in that decisive campaign. The French numbered 115,000, while the allies had only 70,000. Napoleon maintained his position though at a loss of 18,000 men, against 10,000 of the allies killed and wounded. Napoleon being unable to press his advantage owing to lack of cavalry, the allies retreated in good order. Pop. about 4,086.