The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Mosquera y Arboleda, Tomás Cipriano de

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MOSQUERA Y ARBOLEDA, mōs-kā'rä ē är-bō-lā'dä, Tomás Cipriano de, Colombian politician and President: b. Popayan, 20 Sept. 1798; d. Coconuco, 7 Oct. 1878. After three years of service in the patriot army he was captured by the Spaniards, when he was only 18, but he escaped at Jamaica, returned to the army and in 1829 was made general by Bolivar, who made him also envoy to Peru. After Bolivar's death Mosquera traveled in North America and Europe. He became a senator in 1833; was President of New Granada 1845-49; in 1859 led the federalist revolt against Ospina, adopted a federal constitution by which the name of the country was changed from New Granada to the United States of Colombia, and became dictator of the new federation. His power was checked by a revolt led by Canal, with whom Mosquera in 1862 came to terms. Under the constitution then adopted Mosquera was elected President in 1863 and in 1866; the latter term was cut short by a successful revolution due to the President's arbitrary use of power. He was banished to Lima for four years, but upon his return again entered politics, was governor of Cauca and became a member of Congress. He was strongly anti-clerical; and wrote on the geography of New Granada, and a valuable life of Bolivar (1853).