The New International Encyclopædia/Boston (Massachusetts)

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BOSTON. The capital of Massachusetts, and the county-seat of Suffolk County, the commercial metropolis of New England, and the fifth city of the United States in in population (Map: Massachusetts, E 3). It is in latitude 42° 21′ 27″ N., longitude 71° 3′ 30″ W., 232 miles by rail northeast of New York City, on Boston Harbor, an arm of Massachusetts Bay, at the mouths of the Mystic and Charles rivers.

Description. The original site of Boston, including Beacon, Copp's, and Fort hills, all of which have been considerably cut down, though the first still rises to a height of 110 feet, was a peninsula of less than 800 acres in extent, connected with the mainland by an exceedingly narrow neck, one mile in length and so low that it was not infrequently submerged. The shore, deeply indented, was surrounded by tidal marshes, which have been filled in at great expense, adding over 1000 acres to the original area, a part of which, on the Charles River, is now the location of the well-known Back Bay district of the modern city. The limits of the old town have been extended to include East Boston, on Noddle's Island, added in Colonial times; South Boston, originally Dorchester Neck, annexed in 1804; Roxbury, in 1868; Dorchester, in 1870: and Charlestown, West Roxbury, and Brighton, in 1874—the modern Boston occupying a total area of about 43 square miles.

The appearance of the old town is still retained in the narrow and irregular streets of the North End, now one of the most squalid parts of the city. As historical relics remain three old burying-grounds—Copp's Hill Burial Ground, containing the graves of the Mathers; Central Burying-Ground, dating from 1756; and Old Granary Burial Ground, in which are buried several persons noted in history. A few old buildings are still standing—Christ Church (Old North Church) (1723), from the spire of which were hung the lanterns for Paul Revere; Faneuil Hall (q.v.); the old State House (1748), restored in 1882 as nearly as possible to its provincial appearance, one of the most noteworthy historic buildings in the United States and the repository of an interesting collection of relics and paintings; King's Chapel (1754), occupying the site of the first Episcopal church, of 1688, with the oldest cemetery in Boston; the Old Corner Bookstore, long known as a rendezvous of literary persons; and the Old South Meeting House (1729), with which are connected many notable events in the history of the city, and which now contains historic relics and in winter is used as a hall for lectures on American history.

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The modern city has about 590 miles of streets, of which all but 95 miles are paved—the greater part with macadam, granite, Belgian blocks, and gravel. In the new sections they are handsomelv laid out. Beacon Street and Commonwealth Avenue, the latter 240 feet wide and one of the finest boulevards in America, with other streets of the Back Bay region, are representative of the beauty of Boston's residential avenues. Washington and Tremont streets are the headquarters of the retail trade, and State Street is the important financial centre—the Wall Street of Boston. Intercommunication between the various districts of the city is afforded by an efficient street-railway system which operates about 200 miles of track, and by a number of bridges, East Boston alone being connected by ferry.

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Buildings. Boston is replete with objects of architectural interest. The State House, on Beacon Hill, built in 1795 after designs by Charles Bulfinch, and subsequently enlarged at various times, is a prominent structure some 400 feet long, crowned by a guilded dome. The Shaw Monument, by Saint Gaudens, the reproduction of the Beacon Monument which was erected in 1790, and statues of Daniel Webster and Horace Mann, are of interest in this locality. The City Hall, an Italian Renaissance structure, on School Street, is fronted by statues of Benjamin Franklin and Josiah Quincy, and the granite County Court House, a type of German Renaissance, is 450 feet long, erected at a cost of $2,500,000. On State Street stands the Custom House, of granite, in form a huge Greek cross; not far distant is the United States Government Building, which covers an entire block and accommodates the post-office, sub-treasury, and United States courts. The total cost of this edifice, including construction and land, was nearly $6,000,000.

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Copley Square is perhaps the city's greatest architectural centre. Here are the Public Library, facing Trinity Church, and the Museum of Fine Arts, and the Second Unitarian and the New Old South churches. The library is built of Milford granite, in Italian Renaissance style, and is nearly square, inclosing an open court which contains a fountain by Martigny and is surrounded by a fine arcade. Over the main entrance are reliefs by Saint Gaudens, while the interior is richly decorated with colored marbles and mural paintings by well-known artists, among them Puvis de Chavannes, Edwin A. Abbey, and John S. Sargent. The entrance hall leads to a magnificent marble staircase flanked with lions. Statues of Emerson and Sir Harry Vane add to the interior decoration. The Boston Public Library is the largest free circulating library in the world. It has accommodation for 2,500,000 books and contains about 775,000 volumes, among which are included several valuable special collections, that of Shakespeariana being one of the finest in the world. The general reading-room (Bates Hall) is of spacious dimensions, 42 feet wide by 217 feet long, and extends across the Copley Square front. The churches on this square are worthy examples of ecclesiastical architecture, and, with the Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Holy Cross in Washington Street, the First Church of Christ (Scientist), and the First Spiritual Temple (Spiritualist) are perhaps the most striking church edifices in the city. The New Old South Church is in Italian Gothic, with a fine campanile and an interior noticeable for its rich marble. Trinity Church, by Richardson, said to be the finest church in New England, is a specimen of French Romanesque. It has the form of a Latin cross, and is particularly notable for its beautiful interior decorations and stained-glass windows. The Museum of Fine Arts, on the east side of the square, is of red brick, in Italian-Gothic style, and is the repository of works of inestimable value, the collection of Japanese art and that of antique casts being among the best in the world. Other points of interest in various parts of the city are the buildings of the Massachusetts General Hospital, the great Exchange Building, containing the Stock Exchange Chamber, the Chamber of Commerce, the tall Sears and Ames buildings, the Unitarian and Congregational buildings, the Masonic Temple, Tremont Temple, the Youth's Companion Building, the Natural History Museum, with a library and valuable collections, the Massachusetts Historical Society Building, the Armory of the First Corps of Cadets, and the new buildings of the New England Conservatory of Music.

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In Charlestown are the famous Breed's Hill and Bunker Hill. In this section of the greater city the principal points of interest are the Bunker Hill Monument, a granite obelisk 220 feet high, which affords from the top an extensive view, and the navy yard, occupying nearly 90 acres, and containing machine-shops, ship-houses, etc., and a large granite dry-dock. Charlestown has also statues of Col. William Prescott and Gen. Joseph Warren, a soldiers' monument, and a monument to John Harvard.

Parks. The Common, a most characteristic feature of Boston, esteemed by the people as few other public parks are, because of its intimate connection with the history of the city, was set off in 1634 as a training-field and common ground, and has since been carefully preserved for public use. Its 48 acres are crossed by paths shaded by grand old elms, while toward the centre, near where the ‘Great Elm’ stood until blown down in 1876, is the Soldiers' Monument, erected in memory of the men of Boston who “died for their country.” Near the Tremont Street Mall stands the Crispus Attucks Monument, commemorating the ‘Boston Massacre of 1770.’ The bronze figure represents Revolution breaking the chains, and the scene of the massacre is portrayed in bas-relief on the base; the names of the victims are on the shaft. Adjacent to the Common is the Public Garden, of 24 acres, the entrance to the Back Bay district, tastefully laid out and in season a mass of brilliant flowers. It contains an artificial lake, spanned by a ponderous bridge, and an equestrian statue of Washington by Ball, statues of Edward Everett and Charles Sumner, a representation of “Venus Rising from the Sea,” and the group by J. Q. A. Ward, commemorating the discovery of ether, first successfully used in 1846 by Dr. Morton, in an operation at the Massachusetts General Hospital.

Among other noteworthy statues of the city are a bronze statue of Governor Winthrop in Scollay Square, one of Samuel Adams in Adams Square, another of Governor Andrew in the State House, the statues of Alexander Hamilton, John Glover, William Lloyd Garrison, and Leif Ericson in Commonwealth Avenue, the statue of Farragut in the Marine Park, of Beethoven in the Music Hall, and of Columbus in front of the Roman Catholic Cathedral.

Owing to the natural beauty and accessibility of its suburbs, and the existence of the Common and the Public Garden in the heart of the city proper, Boston was late in initiating a system of public parks. There are now two phases of park development—the nuinicipal, dating from the seventies, and the metropolitan, of more recent inauguration and of vast extent, requiring years for its completion as planned. The municipal system, of over 2600 acres, includes, besides numerous playgrounds and open-air gymnasia, and independent parks in various parts of the city, a chain of parks connected by fine parkways, and almost encircling the city from the Charles River Embankment to the Marine Park in South Boston. From its terminus at the Charles River, the boulevard extends through a narrow section, Charlesgate, to ‘The Fens,’ then by the narrow Riverway to Leverett Park, approaching Jamaica Park with Jamaica Pond, passing the Arnold Arboretum, where may be found every tree and shrub that will grow in Boston's climate, reaching Franklin Park, of 520 acres, in West Roxbury, the central feature of the system, and ending with the Marine Park at City Point, South Boston. The Marine Park is connected by a pier with Castle Island, also a part of the park system. This locality is a popular headquarters for yachts, and affords facilities for boating and bathing (municipal bath-houses). The Metropolitan Parks District, in which are included a number of municipalities, is administered by a commission of five members, appointed by the Governor. The scheme comprises such reservations as the Blue Hills (4000 acres), Middlesex Fells (3200 acres), Stony Brook Woods (400 acres), connecting the first-named with the Boston municipal system at the Arnold Arboretum, Lynn Woods (2000 acres), Beaver Brook Reservation, of greater interest than its small extent presupposes, Revere Beach, which is open to public use for several miles, and improvements along the Charles, Mystic, and Neponset rivers.

Education, Libraries, etc. Boston is noted as one of the greatest educational and literary centres of the country. Its public-school system comprises, besides kindergarten, primary, and grammar schools, a liberal number of high schools, and also normal and Latin schools. The Boston Latin School, founded in 1635, and the English High School occupy the largest school building in the United States. Among the higher institutions of learning are Boston University (Methodist Episcopal), Boston College (Roman Catholic), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the medical and dental schools of Harvard University, Tufts College Medical School, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Saint John's Ecclesiastical Seminary (Roman Catholic), and the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. The New England Conservatory of Music has an enviable reputation, and the Lowell School of Design, the Massachusetts Normal Art School, and the school connected with the Museum of Fine Arts are representative of Boston as a centre of art education. Besides these regular institutions, the great system of free lectures on a wide variety of subjects practically constitutes a great university. The lectures in the Old South Meeting House have been mentioned; the work of the Lowell Institute, which is specially endowed for this purpose, is also worthy of note.

The Boston Public Library maintains fifty-seven or more agencies, including several branch stations with large permanent collections, besides numerous reading-rooms and delivery and deposit stations. In the metropolitan district there are some 30 free libraries, with a total of 1,300,000 volumes, while the collections open to investigators aggregate 3,000,000. Among other noted collections in the city are those of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Boston Athenæum (founded in 1807, with nearly 200,000 volumes), Boston Library Society, Congregational Library, Massachusetts Historical Society (founded in 1791), Massachusetts Horticultural Society (founded in 1829), New England Historic Genealogical Society, State Library, Social Law Library, and Natural History Society, besides those of the leading educational institutions.

Charitable Institutions. In the number and efficiency of institutions of this class, both public and private, Boston holds high rank. Among these, mention may be made of the Massachusetts General Hospital, one of the best equipped in the world; Massachusetts Homeopathic Hospital, Carney Hospital (in South Boston), the City Hospital, Women's Charity Club Hospital (in Roxbury), Massachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary, New England Hospital for Women and Children, Boston Insane Hospital (separate establishments for males and females), Children's Hospital, the Horace Mann School for Deaf Mutes, and the Perkins Institute for the Blind, which has a large library of raised-character books. On islands in the harbor are the principal almshouse, House of Correction, and House of Refuge for Boys.

Theatres, Clubs, Societies, Hotels. The Boston Theatre, seating 3000, is the largest in New England, and the Colonial, Boston Museum, Tremont, Hollis Street, Park, Castle Square, Columbia, Keith's, Howard Athenæum, Bowdoin Square, and Bijou theatres have seating capacities ranging from 1000 to 2000. The Boston Museum, noteworthy for the first appearance of several famous actors, is the oldest in the city. The old Tremont Theatre, which occupied the site of the present Tremont Temple, was also known for the eminent persons who appeared on its stage. The celebrated Boston Symphony Concerts are given in Symphony Hall, one of the finest music halls in the country.

Boston is the home of a large number of historical, scientific, literary, and musical societies. In the last-mentioned class are such well-known organizations as the Apollo, Cecilia, Harvard Musical, Handel and Haydn, and Orpheus. The social and literary clubs include, among numerous others, the Somerset, Algonquin, Saint Botolph, the University, Boston Art, Union, New England Women's, Mayflower, Boston Athletic Association, Appalachian Mountain, the Temple (the oldest in the city), and the Country Club, at Clyde Park, Brookline.

The principal hotels include the Adams House, the Parker House, Young's Hotel, the Hotel Touraine, the Somerset, the Lenox, and the Essex.

Commerce and Industry. Boston is the terminus of the Boston and Albany, the Boston and Maine, the Fitchburg, and the New England railroads, the Old Colony System of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, and the Boston, Revere Beach and Lynn (narrow-gauge) Railroad. There are two large union stations on the water-fronts and on opposite sides of the business district; the northern used by the Boston and Maine and the Fitchburg railroads, and the southern, one of the largest stations in the world, over 800 feet long by 700 feet wide, used by the Boston and Albany and the New York, New Haven and Hartford railroads. There are several regular steamship lines to Europe. The harbor is spacious and safe. It is about 8 miles wide and more than twice as long, with a minimum depth in the main channel of 23 feet at low tide. There are several lights and beacons, and numerous islands, upon certain of which are situated the old Fort Independence and Forts Warren and Winthrop, besides the charitable and reformatory institutions already mentioned.

Boston's interests are commercial rather than industrial, the factories owned by Boston capital being mostly out of town; the manufactures, however, are extensive and varied. According to the census of 1900, a total of nearly $145,000,000 was invested in the various manufacturing industries, which had a production valued at over $205,000,000. The city is the second wool market in the world, ranking next to London, and is second to New York only among American ports in the value of its foreign traded which amounts to about $200,000,000 annually. The exports, which represent five-eighths of the total, comprise provisions (including animals), breadstuffs, cotton and its manufactures, leather and its manufactures, iron and steel manufactures (the above-named classes constituting 90 per cent. of the whole amount), wood and its manufactures, and distilled spirits. The principal imports are wool and woolen manufactures, fibres, sugar, hides and skins, cotton and cotton manufactures, chemicals, manufactures of iron and steel, leather and manufactures of leather, wood and wooden products, fruits, fish, and paper-stock. The facilities for handling this great traffic are excellent: a system of freight terminals brings together the railroads and ships, deep-water terminals making accessible docking facilities for the largest vessels. In 1900 the internal revenue collections at Boston were about $8,000,000, and the post-office receipts $3,200,000. The fishing industry, which formerly was one of the chief sources of Boston's prosperity, is still of importance, the value of its products amounting annually to more than $500,000. Boston is the centre of immense mining, railroad, and insurance interests, which are operated all over the country, particularly in the West.

Administration, Municipal Activities. The government is vested in a mayor, elected every two years, a bicameral city council composed of 13 aldermen and 75 councilmen, and subordinate administrative officials, of whom the street commissioners are chosen by popular vote, the city clerk, the city messenger and clerk of committees elected by the council, the police board appointed by the State Governor and council, and all others appointed by the mayor, a number of the appointments, however, being made subject to the consent of the upper house of the municipal council. A prominent feature of the municipal government is the large number of public-spirited citizens who administer, without remuneration, important departments; among these may be mentioned the trustees of the Public Library, trustees of the City Hospital, overseers of the poor, Park Commission, boards governing the institutions for paupers, children, and insane; also the Board of Municipal Statistics, which published weekly, until 1900, the City Record, an official gazette.

There has been of recent years a great increase in the activities undertaken by the municipality, which is one of the most progressive in the United States. These now extend to a municipal printing plant, work in the repair and construction of city buildings, watering of the streets, municipal bath-houses, lectures and concerts, free excursions for children, a camp for boys, etc. Besides these, and the greatest of municipal enterprises, the new subway, there are the combined municipal works comprised in the metropolitan systems of parks (already mentioned), of sewerage, and of water supply. The metropolitan districts are not, however, coextensive. The sewerage system comprises a network of mains (550 miles in Boston) which discharge into deep water in Boston Bay. The water-supply is obtained from the Nashua River, each municipality controlling its distributing system; and the plan is arranged to include other sources in case the demand exceeds the capacity of the present source. The first water-works of the present system were completed in 1848. The entire system, including 715 miles of mains, has cost about $23,000,000.

The new subway, constructed in 1895-98 at a cost of $4,350,000, was the first example in the United States of municipal enterprise in this field—a notable work of engineering undertaken for the relief of the congested traffic in the business district and to afford rapid communication with the suburbs of the south and west. It was partly opened for traffic in 1897, when it was leased for operation to a private company for a term of 20 years. The subway is substantially constructed, is well lighted and ventilated, and is attractively finished at the stations with glazed white brick. Its immediate success has led to an extension of the system to the suburban districts on the east. With the facilities afforded by the subway, the Boston transit system has attained a high degree of efficiency; the elevated and electric roads supplement each other, and connect also with the steam-railway terminals. The elevated road system, opened in 1901, extends through the city, from Roxbury to Charlestown, and is connected with each end of the subway. The structure is of steel and the trains are operated by electricity.

The annual expenditures of the city for maintenance and operation amount to about $20,000,000 (including $1,500,000 by the county), the main items of expense being about $3,000,000 for schools, $2,000,000 for interest on debt, $1,750,000 for the police department, $1,500,000 for street expenditures (other than street cleaning and sprinkling, which amount to $500,000), $1,250,000 for the water-works, $1,250,000 for the fire department, $1,200,000 for charitable institutions, $750,000 for municipal lighting, over $600,000 for garbage removal, and about $500,000 for parks and gardens. The assessed valuation of property, real and personal (the basis of assessment being 100 per cent.), is about $1,130,000,000; the bonded debt is, approximately, $82,000,000, including $3,500,000 county bonds. The legal borrowing limit is fixed at 2½ per cent. of the average assessed valuation for three years.

Population. From the earliest date of the country's history, Boston has ranked among the largest American cities. The growth of its population has been gradual and steady, as seen from the following figures: 1790, 18,320; 1800, 24,937; 1850, 136,881; 1870, 250,526; 1890, 448,477; 1900, 560,892. As in nearly all large modern cities, two interesting facts may be noted in connection with the distribution of the population in Boston—the segregation of various classes in certain localities, and the gradual shifting of the quarters of the various classes following in the wake of industrial changes.

The first section to be settled in Boston was the northern end of the peninsula. Until the middle of the Nineteenth Century the population was still largely confined to the peninsula. After that period the population began to spread out into Charlestown, East Boston, South Boston, and of late years has turned to Roxbury, West Roxbury, Dorchester, and Brighton. Boston proper contains now less than a third of the total population, business buildings crowding out dwellings. What was once the most fashionable quarter—the North End—has become the business section of the city, and is partly taken up with the dwellings of the poorer, largely immigrant people. The fashionable quarters first moved to the South End, and, after being crowded out once more by business interests, have become located in the Back Bay section.

While it is claimed for Boston that it still retains its old American spirit and character, the city has a larger foreign element than many other large American cities. The percentage of people of foreign birth in 1890 was 35.27, and those of foreign parentage constituted 60.9; while in 1900 the former constituted 35 per cent. of the total population. Of the foreign nationalities, the Irish are most strongly represented. The largest immigration of Irish took place in the decade 1845-55, the immigrants settling in the once fashionable section of the North End. The Scotch, English, and Germans are represented in much smaller numbers, while lately the immigration has been made up largely of Italians and Russian Jews, the latter having taken the place of the Irish in the North End of the city. The colored population is very small, having been less than 12,000 in 1900. The geographical conditions, unlike those of New York, have allowed of an easy expansion of the city limits, thus preventing excessive overcrowding. However, the North and South ends have a congested population huddled largely in tenements.

History. The peninsula on which old Boston was built was known as Shawmut, or Sweet Waters, to the Indians, and was named Trimontaine by the early colonists, from the three-peaked top of one of its hills. It was first visited by an exploring party from Plymouth in 1621. In July, 1630, the colonists brought by John Winthrop to Salem established themselves at Charlestown; but on the invitation of William Blackstone, or Blaxton, a ‘bookish recluse,’ who had lived on the peninsula since 1626, Winthrop and the greater part of his company moved to Trimontaine on or before September 17, 1630, when the place was renamed Boston, after the Lincolnshire town whence many of the colonists had come. The old ‘Trimontaine,’ changed to Tremont, is preserved in Tremont Street and several buildings. Early in 1632 the first meeting-house was erected, at the head of the present State Street, and three years later the first free schoolhouse was built on the present School Street. In 1635 the first grand jury of the country met in Boston. Boston soon became the chief town of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the centre of Puritan religious life and learning. In 1636 the Antinomian controversy (see Hutchinson, Anne) broke out, and, with the disturbances caused by Roger Williams (q.v.), led to the emigration of many prominent citizens. Between 1648 and 1688 four women—Margaret Jones, of Charlestown; Mary Parsons, of Springfield; Ann Hibbins, and Goody Glover—were executed for witchcraft; and between 1659 and 1661, during the excitement caused by the Quaker immigration, four quakers were hanged on the Common for returning after banishment on pain of death. A post-office was opened in 1649. Two years later a mint was established, at which the ‘pine-tree’ shillings were coined for many years. A printing-office was opened in 1674, and in 1704 the Boston News Letter, the first regular newspaper to be printed in America, began publication. At the beginning of the Eighteenth Century Boston was the largest and most important town in America, and its citizens took a leading part in the expression of public opinion in the conflict of the colonies with Great Britain. The impressment of seamen by the home Government in 1747 caused several riots, and the spirit of independence increased till the Stamp Act in 1765, and later the revenue acts, incited riots, which led to the quartering of two British regiments in Boston. On March 5, 1770, the ‘Boston Massacre’ (q.v.) occurred. On December 16, 1773, occurred the famous Boston Tea Party which caused Parliament to pass the Boston Port Bill (q.v.)—in effect June 1, 1774—virtually closing the Boston Harbor to commerce. At the outbreak of the Revolution, Boston was occupied by British troops, but was besieged by the American Army after the skirmish at Lexington, and attempts to fortify Charlestown were followed by the battle of Bunker Hill (q.v.), June 17, 1775. By fortifying Dorchester Heights, Washington forced the British to evacuate the town, March 17, 1776. Since the Revolution Boston's prosperity has been almost continuous, the most important interruption having been caused by the Embargo of 1807. The city received its charter in 1822, and had then a population of 47,000. In 1840 the Britannia, the first of the Cunard liners, entered Boston harbor and began the present system of transatlantic passenger traffic. In 1849 there was an epidemic of cholera, 5080 dying out of a population of 130,000. Slaves were owned in Boston as early as 1635, and continued to be held till after the Revolution. In 1831 William Lloyd Garrison began the publication of The Liberator, and organized (1832) the New England Anti-Slavery Society, the first society to advocate immediate emancipation. Boston thus became the centre of the radical Abolitionist movement, though in 1835 there was an Anti-Abolitionist riot. Intense excitement was caused throughout the country by the rescue here of Shadrach, in February, 1851, and the return to slavery from here, under the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, of Thomas M. Sims (q.v.), in April, 1851, and of Anthony Burns (q.v.), in May, 1854. During the Civil War Boston strongly supported the measures of the Federal Government, and sent more than 26,000 men to join the army and navy. The city has suffered severely from fires, the most destructive occurring in 1676, 1679, 1711, 1760, 1872, 1889, and 1893. That of 1872 was especially disastrous, 50 acres in the business portion of the city having been thoroughly devastated, and property valued at over $75,000,000 destroyed. On September 17, 1880, the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the settlement of Boston was celebrated with great enthusiasm.

Consult: Dr. Winsor's exhaustive and scholarly Memorial History of Boston, Including Suffolk County, 4 vols. (Boston, 1880-81); also Quincy, A Municipal History of the Town and City of Boston, from 1630 to 1830 (Boston, 1852); Hale, Historic Boston and Its Neighborhood (New York, 1898); Drake, History and Antiquities of Boston, from 1630 to 1670 (Boston, 1854); Drake, Old Landmarks and Historic Personages of Boston (Boston, 1900); and Lodge, “Boston,” in the Historic Towns Series (London, 1891); Sprague, Government of Boston: Its Rise and Development (Boston, 1890); Directory of the Charitable and Beneficent Organizations of Boston (Boston, 1899); “The Completion of the Boston Subway and New Arrangements of Street Cars,” in Railroad Gazette, No. XXX. (New York, 1898).