The New International Encyclopædia/Hill forts
HILL FORTS. Defensive positions on hills. The customs of early groups of people as to defensive locations for residence on elevations have determined the foundation of many of the most famous cities. Hill forts of various periods from the most ancient are common throughout the world, and refer to the monuments and settlements of small groups of men, both securing them from attack and forming a base for industrial occupations and forays. Rome, Athens, and Jerusalem were such hill forts. Settlements on plains or shores represent either times or localities of greater security or the weight of large bodies of men discounting attack, and they supply the means of building great artificial fortifications. The history of nearly every nation gives evidence of this period, and these forts are still found among the more primitive tribes, especially in India.