The New International Encyclopædia/John, Baptist Joseph Fabian Sebastian

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JOHN, Baptist Joseph Fabian Sebastian, Archduke of Austria (1782-1852). An Austrian prince and general. He was born at Florence, the son of Leopold I., Grand Duke of Tuscany, afterwards the Emperor Leopold II. At an early age John showed considerable military talent, and in the wars with France he played an important part. As commander he was extremely unfortunate. His army was crushed by Moreau at Hohenlinden (1801); he was defeated at Salzburg soon afterwards; shared in the disaster of Austerlitz in 1805; was overthrown at Raab, June 14, 1809; and was unsuccessful in an attempt to join the army of his brother, Archduke Charles, at Wagram. He was popular, however, on account of his amiability, the interest he took in the sciences and public improvements, and above all his favorable attitude toward German unity, in which he stood alone among those who represented the Austrian policy. When the German National Assembly met at Frankfort, after the commotions of 1848, he was called by a great majority, on June 29th of that year, to be Vicar (Reichsverweser) of Germany. The progress of events being unfavorable to the Austrian interests, he resigned his office December 20, 1849. He died at Gratz.