The New International Encyclopædia/Maine (United States)

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MAINE (called ‘The Province or Countie of Mayne’ in the charter granted by Charles I. in 1639, because regarded as part of ‘the Mayne land of New England’). A North Atlantic State of the United States, belonging to the New England group. It is the most northeasterly State of the Union, and lies between latitudes 43° 4’ and 47° 28’ N.. and between longitudes 66° 57’ and 71° 7’ W. It is bounded on the northwest by the Canadian Province of Quebec, on the northeast by the Province of New Brunswick, on the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the west by the State of New Hampshire. Its extreme length is a little over 300 miles, its extreme width 185 miles, and its total area 33,040 square miles, the land amounting to 29,895 square miles. Maine is nearly as large as all the rest of the New England States combined, and thirty-fifth in size among the States of the Union.

Topography. The surface of the State is in general moderately hilly, becoming mountainous in the west and north. The elevation rises from the coast northward and from east to west toward the interior. Along the coast in the southwest corner the surface falls into low, flat, and even marshy land, and the country maintains its low and generally level character as far as the Kennebec River. East of the Kennebec the coast region rises to abrupt and bold elevations of 1000 to 1500 feet. The general slope of the State is determined by the main plateau which crosses it in a northeasterly direction and is the continuation of the Appalachians. This system appears here only in somewhat isolated heights which, while preserving the continuity of the Appalachians, can scarcely be called a mountain range. The height of this divide varies from 2000 feet above sea level on the west, where it enters the State, to 600 feet at its eastern extremity, where it dies away in the Aroostook region on the border of New Brunswick. The most prominent peak is Mount Katahdin, 5200 feet high. Nearer the western border stand Mount Abraham, 3388 feet, and Mount Bigelow, 3600 feet.

The fringe-like coast, with its tasseled edge of bold promontories and rocky islands, has given rise to the appropriate appellation of ‘hundred harbored Maine.’ The fiord-like harbors are the result of the drowning of the river valleys scored out by glacial action, and extending seaward far beyond the present shore line. This has provided Maine with excellent natural harbors, perfectly protected by the islands, but suffering from a serious disadvantage in the great rise and fall of the tides and the resulting swift currents. At Portland the tide rises 11 feet, increasing northward. Yet in spite of this disadvantage the coast between Portland and Eastport contains proportionately the greatest number of good harbors to be found anywhere along the coast of the United States.

There are upward of 600 lakes and ponds, aggregating a total area of over 2300 square miles, or one-fourteenth the total area of the State. They lie for the most part in the elevated plateau region, and are of great natural beauty. The most noted are: Moosehead Lake, 120 square miles in extent, the largest inland body of water in New England, and the source of the Kennebec River; the Rangeley Lakes, with an area of 90 square miles, the headwaters of the Androscoggin River; Chamberlin Lake, supplying the Saint John; and Chesuncook Lake, connected with the Penobscot River.

The largest rivers of Maine are naturally those of the southern slope. The chief of these are the Saco, Androscoggin, Kennebec, Penobscot, and Saint Croix, the last named on the eastern boundary. They are of little value for commerce, being navigable only a few miles inland—the Kennebec 26 miles to Augusta; the Penobscot 27 miles to Bangor. They rise at high elevations, and their precipitous character offers the explanation of their value as sources of water power. The power available for industrial purposes is enormous, the Adroscoggin alone having developed over 70,000 horse-power. Besides, the lakes in connection with these rivers furnish reservoirs for the storage of water, and thus make possible a uniform and constant supply of power through all the year. It is estimated that about 2,000,000 horse-power is available. This is utilized especially at the falls which characterize most of the rivers, and which are due to the unyielding granite beds that cross their path. The Saint John River traverses the northwest corner of the State, and forms part of the boundary with New Brunswick.

NIE 1905 Maine.jpg


County Map
 County Seat.   Area in 

1890. 1900.

Androscoggin  C 7  Auburn 480  48,968 54,242
Aroostook F 2  Houlton 6,408  49,589 60,744
Cumberland C 8  Portland 1,014   90,949   100,689  
Franklin B 5  Farmington  1,764  17,053 18,444
Hancock G 6  Ellsworth 1,390  37,312 37,241
Kennebec D 6  Augusta 880  57,012 59,117
Knox E 7  Rockland 327  31,473 30,406
Lincoln D 7  Wiscasset 520  21,996 19,669
Oxford B 5  Paris 1,981  30,586 32,238
Penobscot F 5  Bangor 3,254  72,865 76,346
Piscataquis E 5  Dover 3,626  16,134 16,949
Sagadahoc D 7  Bath 259  19,452 20,330
Somerset D 3  Skowhegan  3,831  32,627 33,849
Waldo E 6  Belfast 748  27,759 24,185
Washington H 6  Machias 2,456  44,482 45,232
York B 8  Alfred 957  62,829 64,885

Climate. Maine lies in the heart of the temperate zone, yet in climate it ranks as boreal in the northwestern part, and the southeastern part is only a region of transition into the austral zone—a region of overlapping floras and faunas. The winter is very severe, except in a narrow strip along the coast. The summers are never hot. The mean temperature for January is 20° F. and 10° in the north. In July the mean temperature is 65° F. in the north and 70° in the south. There is a wide range of temperatures through the year, the average maximum shade temperature of 90° F. occurring all along the coast to Eastport. The anticyclones and north winds of winter bring an average minimum of 20° F. below zero to Eastport and Augusta, while the vicinity of Mount Katahdin records an average minimum of 30° below zero. The weather is subject to sudden falls in temperature in short periods because of the frequent passage of cyclonic and anticyclonic centres and the subjection of the State to alternate oceanic and continental influences. The southern counties have a growing season of less than six months, and the northern counties of only about five months. The average annual rainfall for the whole State is 40 inches, very evenly distributed throughout the year, though there is a maximum precipitation in the late summer and autumn. There is an average annual snowfall at the coast of 60 inches, increasing rapidly to the north and west to over 110 inches. The relative humidity for the whole State is above 70 per cent., though the absolute humidity is rather low, on account of low temperatures. The normal wind direction for January is northwest, and for July is southwest. The State lies in the zone of maximum cyclonic frequency. The cool summers, the lakes, the forests and the rocky seaside attract multitudes of summer tourists, and the coast and lakes are lined with summer cottages. Some of the resorts, notably Bar Harbor, on the eastern end of Mount Desert (q.v.), are among the most popular of the American summer resorts.

For Flora and Fauna, see these paragraphs under United States.

Geology and Soils. Maine has had a very complex geological history. In pre-Cambrian time the State was crossed by two great mountain ranges. One extended along the northwestern boundary through the White Mountains to Long Island Sound east of the Connecticut River; the other extended northeast, along the coast. These mountains were much folded, largely gneissic and schistose, and they were worn down to base level in later Paleozoic time. Through the centre of the State, between these two ranges, a long gulf extended from Gaspé Peninsula to the southwest. By the end of Devonian time this trough was filled with sediments from the aging mountains, only to be uplifted, crumpled, and somewhat metamorphosed, again worn to base level and depressed, allowing carboniferous deposits to be laid down unconformably upon all the older beds. It was uplifted and again worn to base level in Cretaceous time, since which the region has been broadly lifted into a plateau of low elevation and again dissected. The Pleistocene ice sheet covered the State entirely, discharging its marginal ice into the sea. The effect of glaciation was to denude the higher lands, accentuate the river valleys, create many lake basins, and leave the surface strewn with a coating of till. Since Pleistocene time there has been a considerable subsidence, resulting in the submergence of the coastal lowlands, and converting the higher hills and ridges into a fringe of islands, and the drowned valleys into fiords. The latest crustal movement has been a very slight uplift along the coast, uncovering small plains of marine clays which interlock with the rocky headlands. This same slight uplift has revived the rivers, furnishing very valuable water power at the bay heads.

The soils of Maine, with the exception of the Pleistocene marine clays along the coast, are almost wholly glacial. Along some of the rivers and lakes and in many old lake bottoms, long since filled up or drained out, there are alluvial plains of great fertility. The higher outcrops of the crystalline old land are largely denuded of all soil, while the whole surface of the State is more or less strewn with glacial débris. The drift is in places arable, though in wide areas it is unsuited for agriculture. The character of the soil and the large supply and even distribution of rainfall have been determining factors in making the State a rich forest region.

Mineral Resources and Mining. The fact that the surface is largely made up of the bases of worn-down old mountains explains at once the nature of the mineral resources of Maine. Granite rock outcrops all along the coast and for many miles inland. The fiords are incised in it, making it possible often to load the blocks on to the boats direct from the quarry. This fact of convenience and cheap transportation is a large factor, explaining the rank of Maine as second of all the States in granite production, the output in 1889 being valued at $1,321,182. The granite occurs in great veins or in eruptive masses. Some of these were cooled very slowly, evidently at great depth, the crystalline structure being so extremely coarse that the quartz and feldspar constituents can be separated easily and marketed pure. Maine is one of the leading sources of feldspar and silica, used in the manufacture of earthenware, porcelain, glass, flour and wall tile, wood-filler, sandpaper, and scouring soap. The output of silica in 1899 was valued at $50,336, the supply occurring as vein quartz in the crystalline rocks. Along the coast in occasional places and in Aroostook County and other places in the interior, are found beds of crystalline limestone, often a fine quality of marble. The value of the limestones, including the marble, was in 1899 $1,028,375, giving the State the sixth place in the production of this commodity. In the central part of the State valuable slate quarries are worked for roofing, tables, and blackboards; the output in 1899, valued at $181,766, ranked the State fourth in this resource. The total value of quarry products in 1899 was $2,531,223. The crystalline rocks of Maine produce many rare minerals, one of which, tourmalin, is obtained in Oxford County in larger and more beautiful crystals than anywhere else in the world. Copper, silver, gold, iron, tin, and manganese occur in small amounts, the iron and manganese being used only in local smelters. The State reported 26 mineral springs in 1899 as of commercial importance, 10 of these being in Androscoggin County. In this year 1,850,132 gallons were marketed with a value of $179,450. Potable waters of the highest quality are found in great abundance everywhere, the glacial drift being the usual source of supply for domestic use.

Forests. Maine is one of the leading States in the Union in the extent of wooded area and in the annual value received from the forest products. The woodland is estimated at 23,700 square miles, or 79 per cent. of the total land area. The forests cover largely the interior and northern portions of the State, the coast and lower valleys being generally cleared. The land rapidly reforests, and since most of the land is not well suited to cultivation, reforestation is extensive. Large areas at one time under cultivation have been allowed to go back to woodland. The primeval forests of pine are all gone, and the second growth is being used to some extent. The spruce forests are the most extensive and most heavily drawn upon at present. Authorities estimated in 1890 that the State had 21,239,000,000 feet of standing spruce. Of this nearly a third was in the region drained by the Saint John River, and nearly a fourth in the region drained by the Penobscot. The densest spruce forests—the largest, finest trees—are found in the upper basin of the Androscoggin River. The basin of this river has contributed about 44 per cent. of the supply used in the manufacture of pulp and paper. The Kennebec and Penobscot basins have contributed the remainder. The table on the following page shows that the paper and wood pulp industry is largely a development of the last decade of the nineteenth century. The pulp mills are located along the three rivers above mentioned. A belt of white birch timber extends entirely across the State, and this species figures prominently in the lumber industry. From it spools to the value of a million dollars are manufactured annually. Spool timber is shipped extensively to Scotland. Poplar is cut most extensively in the Kennebec region, where it is used in paper manufacture. In the Saint John and Penobscot basins there are extensive forests of cedar. Much has been done in the way of constructing dams, canals, and sluices to facilitate the transportation of logs.

Fisheries. Maine ranks second among the New England States in the value of its fisheries and first in the number of men engaged in the fishing industry. In 1898 the total number of persons so employed was 16,954, of whom 8237 were shoresmen and 6770 were employed in shore or boat fisheries. The total value of the product for the same year was $2,654,919, of which $992,855 represented the lobster fisheries, this being more important in Maine than in all the other New England States combined. Clam fishing ranks next, being also more important than in any other New England State. The salmon fishery on the Penobscot River, though small, is the largest on the Atlantic Coast. The canning industry is very prominent in connection with the shore fisheries, particularly the preparation of small herring as sardines. Clams also figure prominently in the canning products. The State law of 1895 resulted in the discontinuance of lobster-canning, which was formerly very important. The preparation of smoked herring is of considerable moment.

Agriculture and Live Stock. Like that of the other New England States, the surface is too rugged and broken, also the soil for the most part too sterile, to admit of the extensive development of agriculture. In the river valleys, however, the soil is very fertile. The Aroostook Valley, in the northeastern part of Maine, is the largest district of fertile farming land in New England. Only 32.9 per cent. of the total land area is included in the farms, and of this acreage only 37.9 per cent. is improved. But these areas increased steadily until 1880. Since then both have decreased—the latter very considerably. During the period from 1850 to 1900 the average acreage per farm remained nearly constant, the average for the latter year—106.2 acres—being the largest for the entire period. The average size of the farms varies greatly in the different counties. The State is remarkable for the small percentage of rented farms—less than 5 per cent. of the total.

As elsewhere in New England, the influence of the Western competition has obliged the Maine farmers to give up cereal farming in part, especially wheat. Oats is now the principal cereal, although this too decreased in the last two decades of the century. Buckwheat, the next most important cereal, has more than held its own, but corn and wheat decreased from 1880 to 1900. The area devoted to cereals is rapidly increasing in Aroostook County, constituting in 1900 one-half of the total for the State. The potato crop, though having a less acreage than oats, produces a greater income than all the cereal crops combined. In Aroostook County an average of 6.6 acres per farm is devoted to potatoes. Intensive methods of cultivation are used, and a very high per acre product is obtained for potatoes, as also for most other crops. The acreage of hay and forage is over seven times as great as that of the cereals. Increased attention is being given to dairying and market gardening, the poorer soils being turned into permanent pastures and the most fertile being appropriated for the raising of market products. Sweet corn is the most important of these crops. Much attention is given to the raising of apples, the total number of trees in 1900 exceeding 4,100,000—an increase of 39.3 per cent. for the decade ending in that year. Other orchard and small fruits receive little attention.

Stock-raising is not a leading industry. Since 1880 the number of sheep has decreased over one-half, and the number of neat cattle had decreased rapidly after 1860 until the last decade of the century. The number of horses more than doubled during the last half of the century. Likewise the growing interest in dairying has resulted in the number of milch cows increasing considerably during the same period. In 1900, 29.9 per cent. of the farms of the State derived their principal income from dairy produce. The production of milk increased 71.8 per cent. during the decade ending in that year. Over $5,600,000 was realized from the sale of dairy products, about two-fifths being the returns for milk, two-fifths for butter, and one-fifth for cream.

The following tables show the importance of the leading kinds of crops and farm animals for the census years 1890 and 1900:

1900 1890

Hay and forage, acres   1,270,254   1,300,302 
Oats, acres 108,661  121,612 
Buckwheat, acres 25,292  22,395 
Corn, acres 16,856  10,891 
Barley, acres 8,809  11,972 
Potatoes, acres 71,765 

1900 1890

Dairy cows 173,592  157,278 
Other cattle 165,255  141,832 
Horses 106,299  109,156 
Mules and asses  401  278 
Sheep  252,213   370,484 
Swine 79,018  91,297 

Manufactures. Manufacturing is of much importance, 74,800 wage-earners, or 10.8 per cent. of the population, being engaged in this line in 1900. The percentage of the population thus occupied has increased continuously in the last half century. It was only 4.8 in 1850. The total value of the product in 1900 was $127,361,000. The development of the manufacturing industry is due to the extensive water power afforded by the numerous rivers of the State and also to the excellent commercial advantages offered by the harbors, and, in later years, by the railways. The factories are located, almost without exception, along the rivers or on the coast, and most of them are run by water power. The manufacture of textiles—cotton and woolen goods—leads in importance. Both cotton and woolen mills were in operation during the early years of the nineteenth century. The cotton mills of to-day are all west of the Kennebec River. Lewiston is the chief centre. The woolen mills are more widely distributed, but also derive their power from the streams. The manufactures of cotton show a slight decrease in value during the decade 1890-1900. This is probably due in part to the increasing competition of the Southern States.

Shipbuilding formerly depended upon the forests for its supplies, but with the increased use of steel in vessel construction, the shipbuilding industry of Maine has declined. The industry is one of the oldest in the State, a vessel having been built as early as 1608. For a long time Maine held first rank in the industry, and indeed constructed more than half of all the sea-going vessels of the nation. At Bath, the principal shipbuilding centre, the construction of steel vessels has attained considerable importance. The leather industry also dates from an early period. It was one of the State's leading industries between the years 1861 and 1870. The bark of the hemlock was used in tanning, and the industry is declining as the supply of this bark becomes scarcer. Other noteworthy industries are represented by the foundries and machine shops and printing and publishing houses. The following table gives a comparison of the chief industries for the years indicated:

INDUSTRIES  Year  Number of
Value of products,
including custom
 work and repairing 

Total for selected industries for State 
 1900  1,689  43,730  $73,368,312 
1890 1,580  39,651  54,631,124 

Increase 1890 to 1900 ...... 109  4,079  $18,737,188 
Per cent. of increase ...... 6.9  10.3  34.3 
Per cent. of total of all industries in State
1900 25.2  58.5  57.6 
1890 31.5  56.3  57.1 
Cotton goods
1900 15  13,723  $14,631,086 
1890 23  13,912  15,316,909 
Fish, canning and preserving
1900 117  5,567  4,779,733 
1890 35  2,342  1,660,881 
Flouring and grist-mill products
1900 227  192  3,399,832 
1890 210  262  3,254,690 
Foundry and machine-shop products
1900 112  2,143  3,298,706 
1890 82  1,768  2,628,572 
Leather, tanned, curried, and finished
1900 31  587  2,451,713 
1890 51  852  3,363,672 
Lumber and timber products
1900 838  6,834  13,489,401 
1890 894  11,540  11,849,654 
Paper and wood pulp
1900 35  4,851  13,223,275 
1890 17  1,509  3,281,051 
Printing and publishing, newspapers and periodicals 
1900 120  1,309  2,190,017 
1890 105  949  1,719,477 
Ship and boat building, wooden
1900 115  1,369  2,491,765 
1890 85  1,450  2,818,565 
Wool manufactures
1900 79  7,155  13,412,784 
1890 78  5,067  8,737,653 

Transportation and Commerce. Maine is the only one of tlie New England States in which there was a large railroad construction in the last decade of the nineteenth century. This mileage increased from 1377 miles in 1800 to 1928 in 1900. Prior to this decade railway construction had been confined mainly to the central and southwestern parts of the State. During that decade the Bangor and Aroostook line was built into the northeast counties, and its influenoe was largely responsilile for the rapid development of the forest and farming industries which has taken place in that section. The Canadian Pacific crosses the State from east to west. The construction of electric railways, including interurban lines, is increasing rapidly. The electric railway mileage in 1901 aggregated 280 miles. Among the many fine harbors, that of Portland (Casco Bay), especially, is easy of access, deep, large, and well protected, and is often unobstructed by ice when harbors farther west and south are frozen over. Lines of steamers ply regularly between the largest cities of the State and Boston; also between Portland and New York, Saint John, N. B., and Halifax.

For the year ending June 30, 1901, the exports from the Portland and Falmouth customs district amounted to $12,403,958 and the imports to $633,114. The chief imports are coal, fish, sugar, iron, molasses, and wool; the chief exports are cotton goods, canned vegetables, boots, shoes, lumber, bacon, hams, etc.

Banks. In 1902 there were 86 national banks with loans aggregating $27,837,000; cash, etc., $2,027,000; capital, $10,531,000; and deposits, $26,263,000. In 1901 there was $69,533,058 deposited in savings banks, the total number of depositors being 196,583.

Finance. Receipts of the State Treasury for the two years ending December 31, 1900, were $3,953,647; disbursements, $3,754,768; balance on hand, December 31, 1900, $198,879. The principal sources of State revenue during 1899 and 1900 were: From cities, towns, etc., $1,815,902; savings banks, $851,566; railroads, $323,052; insurance companies, $131,405; new corporations, $71,565. The total revenue for the State during the two years was $1,783,021. The bonded debt at the close of 1900 was $2,103,000, a reduction of $516,300 since 1890. Outstanding temporary loans against the State aggregated $350,000.

Government. The present Constitution was adopted by the people in town meetings, in December, 1819. To secure an amendment a two-thirds vote of both Houses and a majority vote of the people at their next biennial meeting are necessary. A three months' residence in the State and the ability to read English are required of voters. The suffrage is withheld from paupers, Indians not taxed, and persons under guardianship. Soldiers from the State may vote when serving outside the State.

Legislature. The Legislature, composed of a Senate of 31 members and a House of Representatives of 151 members, elected on the second Monday of September, biennially, meets on the first Wednesday in January. The Representatives are elected from the towns, the Senators from districts bounded by county lines. The Governor's veto is overcome by a two-thirds vote of each House. Revenue bills originate in the Lower House. The power of impeachment rests with the House, the trial of impeachments with the Senate. The State has four representatives in the Lower House of Congress.

Executive. The Governor is elected biennially (a plurality being necessary to election). He has the advice of a council of seven members elected biennially by the Legislature on joint ballot, but only one councilor can be elected from any district prescribed for the election of Senators. The Governor and Council have power to remit penalties and grant reprieves, pardons, and commutations. The president of the Senate and Speaker of the House are respectively in the line of succession to the Governorship in case of vacancy in that office. A Secretary of State and a Treasurer are elected biennially on joint ballot.

Judiciary. The Supreme Court, composed of eight judges, is appointed by the Governor and Council for a term of seven years. The County of Cumberland, embracing the city of Portland, has a Superior Court of one judge appointed in the same way. Probate judges are elected by the people of each county for terms of four years. Judges of inferior courts are appointed by the Governor and Council for terms of seven years. Judges of municipal and police courts are similarly appointed, and hold for four years. An Attorney-General is chosen biennially on joint ballot.

Local Government. A sheriff is elected biennially in each county. The indebtedness of a municipality is limited to 5 per cent. of its valuation.

Other Constitutional or Statutory Provisions. In 1846 Maine passed the first prohibitory liquor law, and in 1884 inserted a prohibition clause in the Constitution. The laws against the manufacture of and the traffic in intoxicating liquors are very strict and supported by severe penalties. Liquors for medicinal, mechanical, and manufacturing purposes are sold in towns and cities under the supervision of State agents. Husbands are not liable for debts contracted by their wives in their own name, but the latter may be sued for them. A wife may hold real and personal estate separately from her husband, and may convey or devise the same by will. The legal rate of interest is 6 per cent., and any rate is allowed on contract.

Militia. In 1900 there were 142,175 males of militia age. In the State militia force there were 93 commissioned officers and 1165 enlisted men.

Population. The following figures indicate the growth of the population: 1790, 96,540; 1810, 228,705; 1830, 399,455; 1850, 583,169; 1860, 628,279; 1870, 626,915; 1880, 648,936; 1890, 661,086; 1900, 694,466. In 1900 Maine ranked in respect to population thirtieth among the States of the Union. The West has drawn heavily upon the population here. The increase in the last decade amounted to 5 per cent., as compared with 20.7 for the United States. The largest increase for the decade, as also for the last half of the century, was in Aroostook County. The foreign population in 1900—mostly Canadian—numbered 93,330. The French element is prominent in the southwestern counties. In 1900 there was an average of 23.2 inhabitants to the square mile. In the same year twenty-five cities had each a population exceeding 4000, and together constituted 36.2 per cent. of the total population.

Cities. The following figures give the population for the largest towns in 1900: Portland, 50,145; Lewiston, 23,761; Bangor, 21,850; Biddeford, 16,145. Augusta is the capital.

Religion. The immigration into the State during recent years, including the large number of French Canadians, has increased the Catholic population until the Catholic communicants number over one-third of the total Church membership. The strongest Protestant denominations in their order are the Baptists, Methodists, and Congregationalists.

Education. In the year 1900, 5.1 per cent. of the population ten years of age and over was illiterate. For the native white population alone it was 2.4 per cent. As in the other New England States, much attention was given here to education from the earliest colonial period. In 1821, soon after the establishment of Statehood, a law was passed requiring every town and plantation to raise and expend not less than forty cents annually per inhabitant for school purposes. A law of 1828 set apart twenty townships of public land for the establishment of a public school fund. This was augmented by certain moneys received from Massachusetts on account of claims against the United States for services in the War of 1812. The district plan of school supervision has been abolished and town management has taken its place. There is a strictly enforced compulsory attendance law which covers the age period from seven to fifteen inclusive. The whole number of scholars in attendance during the school year of 1901 was 132,802, of whom 97,038 were in average daily attendance. In 1901 there were 1349 graded and 2896 ungraded schools. The average length of the school term in 1900 was 141 days. Secondary education was very generally provided for, even before public aid was extended to it, by a large number of private or denominational academies. In 1873 provision was made for State aid to towns which maintained schools fur free academic instruction. This proved a death blow to many of the old academies. In many instances the old academy buildings were occupied by the free high school. In 1889 towns were authorized to contract with any academy or high school for the tuition of their scholars, and to receive the same aid from the State as if they had established a free high school within the town. A large number of academies now receive State aid. In 1901 there were 211 free high schools receiving aid from the State, with a total attendance of 13,183. In 1900 the State employed 6445 teachers, of whom 5360 were women. State normal schools are maintained at Farmington, Castine, and Gorham. In 1895 the State authorized the State superintendent to hold three or more summer schools, each of two weeks' duration, for the benefit of teachers. In 1901, 1408 of the State's teachers had graduated from normal schools. The State has charge of the examination and certification of teachers. The total expenditure for schools in 1900 was $1,712,795, of which $1,229,004 was paid as salaries to teachers and superintendents. Higher education is provided for at the State University at Orono, and by the following denominational colleges: Bowdoin (Congregational) at Brunswick, Bates (Free Baptist) at Lewiston, and Colby (Baptist) at Waterville.

Charitable and Penal Institutions. There are insane hospitals at Augusta and Bangor, an orphan asylum in Bangor, the military and naval orphans' asylum at Bath, and the Maine General Hospital, a school for the deaf, and an eye and ear infirmary, all at Portland. The National Government maintains a soldiers' home at Togus and a marine hospital at Portland. The State prison is at Thomaston, the reform school is near Portland, and the industrial school for girls is at Hallowell. Convicts at the State prison are employed in the manufacture of carriages, harness, furniture, and brooms. At some of the county jails the prisoners make heels and inner soles for boots and shoes. In a few counties the jails are leased, together with the labor of the convicts. Farm labor and certain other lines of work are engaged in at the reform school.

History. Maine attracted the interest of explorers early in the sixteenth century. Giovanni da Verrazano sailed down the coast in 1524, Estevan Gomez followed him in 1525, and before the middle of the sixteenth century more than one navigator had sailed up the Penobscot River in search of splendid Norumbega (q.v.). with its columns of crystal and silver. In 1580 John Walker, sailing in the employ of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, led an expedition to Maine, but with no results. The voyages of Gosnold (1602), Pring (1603), and Weymouth (1605) were followed by that of John Smith (1614), who left an account of the country in his Description of New England. In 1604 a French expedition under De Monts (q.v.) planted upon Neutral Island, in the Saint Croix River, a colony which was abandoned in the following year. Maine fell within the limits of the grant made to the Plymouth Company by James I. in 1606, and in the following year an English expedition sent out by Sir John Popham and Sir Ferdinando Gorges effected a settlement at Sabino Point, at the mouth of the Sagadahoc or Kennebec River. In 1608 the settlement was abandoned and most of the colonists returned to England. French Jesuits landed on Mount Desert as early as 1608, and in 1613 they were joined by a number of fishermen; but Captain Argall (q.v.) broke up the colony within a short time. In 1622 Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason received from the Council for New England a grant of the territory between the Merrimac and the Kennebec rivers extending for sixty miles inland. The proprietors divided their possessions, the former taking the land east of the Piscataqua River. A colony of fishermen settled on Monhegan Island in 1623, but disappeared three years later. The first permanent settlement in Maine was made at Pemaquid in 1625-26; Agamenticum (York) was founded about the same time, and after 1630 Saco, Biddeford, Port Elizabeth, Portland, and Scarborough sprang up in rapid succession. In 1639 Gorges received a large accession of territory and was confirmed in his old possessions with the title of Lord Palatine, and established a provincial government at York. Before this time the Council for New England had issued many patents covering lands already granted to Gorges, and in the disputes that followed Massachusetts was called in as arbitrator. Taking advantage of the civil war that was then raging in England, the Massachusetts Government proceeded to bring Maine under its own authority. In 1652 it annexed all the towns as far east as Casco, basing its right on its charter, which granted it all lands three miles north of the source of the Merrimac. By 1660 all Maine west of the Penobscot was reduced, and it was retained in spite of royal orders from Charles II. and a grant made in 1664 to the Duke of York of all the territory between Pemaquid and the Saint Croix. In 1677 the claims of the Gorges heirs were bought by Massachusetts, and by the charter of 1691 Massachusetts was confirmed in possession of the territory. East of the Penobscot the French held the land and assiduously stirred up the Indian tribes against the English. In 1675 an outbreak of the Tarentine tribe marked the beginning of a long struggle in which most of the towns on the coast east of the Piscataqua were laid waste. The country suffered greatly, too, in the French and Indian wars. During King William's reign the inhabitants of Cocheco were massacred by the Penacook Indians. Pemaquid was taken, and the settlements east of Falmouth were abandoned. From 1722 to 1725 the tribes of Nova Scotia and eastern Maine waged a fierce warfare against the colonists, and security was not really established till the Treaty of Paris in 1763. During the Revolution Maine was active in the patriot cause. At the end of the war Massachusetts retained possession of the territory, exercising jurisdiction over it as the ‘District of Maine.’ Disputes with the mother State were frequent, and between 1783 and 1791 steps toward independence were taken. The tendency toward separation was hastened by the fact that the inhabitants of Maine were Democratic in their political sympathies and tolerated with difficulty the rule of Federalist Massachusetts. In the War of 1812 Maine was left ill defended by Massachusetts, and its territory east of the Penobscot was occupied by the British. After the war the separatist movement grew rapidly. Probably, however, the desire for separation from Massachusetts would not have been so quickly realized if the struggle over the admission of Missouri into the Union had not brought about the necessity of admitting a Northern State to preserve the balance of power. On March 15, 1820, Maine became a State. Industry and commerce received a great impetus after the War of 1812, but throughout the nineteenth century the increase in wealth and population was rather steady than swift. The dispute with England concerning the northeastern boundary of the State was the cause of constant quarrels between the inhabitants of Maine and New Brunswick. The officials sent out by both to take possession of the disputed lands on the Saint Croix River came into collision and hostilities were prevented only by the negotiation of the Ashburton Treaty (q.v.) in 1842. The only important subject of legislation in the State of other than local interest has been that of prohibition. After some tentative lawmaking, a stringent prohibitory law, passed in 1858, was incorporated into the Constitution, and has remained in force ever since. Many minor regulations looking toward the effectual execution of the prohibitory law have been passed at frequent intervals, but prohibition on the whole has not turned out entirely successful, and evasions of the law are frequent. Before 1856 Maine was generally Democratic in State elections, and only once (1840) voted against the Democratic candidate in Presidential elections. Since 1856 it has been emphatically Republican except in the years 1878 and 1880. when the Democrats and Greenback Party in fusion succeeded in electing their candidate for Governor. The Governor chosen in 1878 was Alonzo Garcelon. In 1879 an election for members of the Legislature took place, and Governor Garcelon, desirous of gaining the Legislature for the fusion party, seized every opportunity afforded by the irregular but time-honored way in which elections were conducted to refuse certificates to Republican candidates and seat Democrats in their place; a Democratic majority was thus secured, and the Legislature was organized. The Republicans organized a rival body and proceeded to elect a Governor, since no candidate had received a majority at the polls. Peace was preserved by the militia until a decision of the Supreme Court established the legality of the Republican Legislature. In 1891 the Australian ballot law was passed. The Constitution of Maine was adopted on October 29, 1819, and is still in force, having been amended hetween 1841 and 1881.

The following have been the Governors of the State since its admission into the Union:

William King Democrat 1820-21
William D. Williamson (acting) Democrat 1821  
Albion K. Parris Democrat 1822-27
Enoch Lincoln 1827-29
Nathan Cutter (acting) 1829-30
Jonathan D. Hunton 1830-31
Samuel E. Smith 1831-34
Robert P. Dunlap 1834-38
Edward Kent Whig 1838-39
John Fairfield Democrat 1839-40
Edward Kent Whig 1840-41
John Fairfield Democrat 1841-43
Edward Kavanagh 1843-44
Hugh J. Anderson 1844-47
John W. Dana 1847-50
John Hubbard 1850-53
William G. Crosby Whig and Free-Soil 1853-55
Anson P. Morrill Republican 1855-56
Samuel Wells Democrat 1856-57
Hannibal Hamlin Republican 1857  
Joseph H. Williams (acting) 1857-58
Lot M. Morrill 1858-60
Israel Washburn 1861-63
Abner Coburn 1863-64
Samuel Cony 1864-67
Joshua L. Chamberlain 1867-71
Sidney Perham 1871-74
Nelson Dingley 1874-76
Selden Connor 1876-79
Alonzo Garcelon Democrat-Greenback 1879-80
Samuel F. Davis Republican 1880-81
Harris M. Plaistead Democrat-Greenback 1881-83
Frederick Robie Republican 1883-87
Joseph K. Bodwell 1887  
Sebastian S. Marble (acting) 1887-89
Edwin C. Burleigh 1889-93
Henry B. Cleaves 1893-97
Llewellyn Powers 1897-1901
John F. Hill 1901—

Bibliography. Thoreau, The Maine Woods (Boston, 1881); Boardman, “The Climate, Soil, Physical Resources and Agricultural Capabilities of the State of Maine,” in United States Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Special Report iv. (Washington, 1884); Drake, The Pine Tree Coast (Boston, 1891); Hubbard, Woods and Lakes of Maine (Boston, 1891); McDonald, The Government of Maine, Its History and Administration (New York, 1902); Little, “One Hundred Books on Maine,” in Bowdoin College Library Bulletin (Brunswick, 1891); Hall, “Reference List on Maine Local History,” in New York State Library Bulletin Bibliography, vol. ii. (Albany, 1891); Maine Historical Society Collections (Portland, 1831 et seq.); De Costa, The Northmen in Maine (Albany, 1870); Chamberlain, Maine, Her Place in History (Augusta, 1877); Varney, Brief History of Maine (Portland, 1888); Abbott and Elwell, History of Maine (Portland, 1893).