The New Student's Reference Work/Saskatchewan (province)
Saskatche′wan, a province of the Dominion of Canada lying west of Manitoba and having Alberta on the west, Mackenzie on the north and the United States on the south. It has an area of 251,000 square miles. The province is a vast plain, containing 159,038,720 acres, and the greater portion of its southern two thirds is situated in the great wheat-growing belt. The portion adjoining or lying near to Manitoba possesses much of the characteristics of that province as to soil, topography, climate, rainfall and, consequently, productive adaptabilities. The soil is a friable loam, easily worked and producing excellent crops of wheat, coarse grains and vegetables. The winter climate answers all requirements, both as to degree of cold and as to sufficiency of snowfall, for the production of the No. 1, hard wheat for which Western Canada is now noted. The valleys along Saskatchewan, Qu’Appelle, Assiniboine and Souris Rivers, Pipestone, Long and other creeks, are specially adapted for mixed farming, and the open prairie beyond affords large areas for grazing or grain-growing. The region is well-served by the Canadian Pacific Railway. Southwestern Saskatchewan is entered at McLean station, and its first considerable town is Regina, the capital of the province. The land here is a rich, fertile loam, as well to the south as to the north. Several new and important towns have sprung into existence along the “Soo” line, as Halbrite, Weyburn, Yellow Grass, Estevan, Milestone and Rouleau. The cultivation of flax is carried on to a considerable extent. Wheat-raising, however, is the important industry of this district, and the yields are highly satisfactory to the producer. Between Regina and Moose Jaw there is splendid land, and mostly occupied by prosperous farmers. The central portion of the province is almost centrally divided by the main Saskatchewan River, which is altogether within the district, and by its principal branch, the North Saskatchewan — most of the navigable length of which lies within its boundaries. It includes, in the south, a small proportion of the great plains, and in its general superficial features may be described as a mixed prairie and wooded region, abounding in water and natural hay and well-suited by climate and soil for the raising of wheat, cattle and sheep. As a general thing, the surface is gently undulating prairie. Northern Saskatchewan consists of the eastern half of the late Territory of Athabasca and embraces an area of about 70,000,000 acres, enough for a fine-sized province in itself. As yet it is not opened for settlement because of its inaccessibility and distance from railway systems, the nearest railway station being Prince Albert. The province had a yield of wheat of 112,369,405 bushels in 1913 and of oats 110,210,436 bushels. The mean summer temperature at Regina is 62.7° and in winter is 6.9°. The population is 600,000. Its capital city, Regina, has a population of 45,000, Moose Jaw has 25,000, Prince Albert 12,300 and Saskaloon 27,500.