The Origin and History of Glasgow Streets

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The Origin and History of Glasgow Streets  (1902) 
by Hugh Macintosh

The Origin and history


Glasgow Streets

Origin and history of Glasgow Streets (1902) - Title Page.png





It is impossible within the limits of a single volume to give the origin or history of every street—a great many having fancy names, to discover the meaning of which would be somewhat of the nature of a conundrnm. An instance occurs in Belmar Terrace, Pollokshields—the original proprietor of which having two daughters, Bella and Marion, took the first syllable from each of these cognomers, and produced a fair-sounding title for his property. Royalty and nobility are likewise utilised to a considerable extent, and although no pretence is made in this work as to an exhaustion of the subject yet it may safely be asserted that it contains more information anent the principal thoroughfares of this city than any previous publication. In regard to personal names connected with trades, from which they accrued, there are at present in the city, one Mason, a builder; Hair, a barber; Baxter, a baker; Clouts, a tailor; Soutar, a bootmaker; and Finnie, a fishmonger.

In compilation I have to thank Mr. Renwick, depute town clerk, for valuable information most courteously tendered; as also Messrs. Hedderwick & Sons, who gave me permission to give extracts from some articles which I contributed to their Saturday Weekly Citizen some years ago; likewise C. J. Maclean, Esq., for notes on the Plantation Estate.

Books Consulted.

The Diocesan Records, the City Protocols, the Regality Publications, "Origines Parochiales," by Innes; "History of Strathbrock," by the Rev. James Primrose; Glasgow: Past and Present," Jamieson's "History of the Culdees," "The Country Houses of theOld Glasgow Gentry," "Commissariat of Govan," Scott's "History of Langside," "Scottish Pasquils," edited by Maidment; "The Harlot's Progress," by Balzac; "Glasghu Facies," Clelland's "Annals of Glasgow," "Glasgow: its Municipal Organisation and Administration," by Sir James Bell and J. Paton; "Scottish Market Crosses," by J. W. Small; "Cunningham," by Timothy Pont.

Saint Mungo,

the patron saint of Glasgow, was also called Saint Kentigern. His father was Ewen ap Urien, a prince of Strath-Clyde; his mother was Thenaw, a daughter of Loth, King of Northumbria. Thenaw was visionary, and dreamed of being a second Virgin Mary; but her paternal parent was too matter-of-fact, so he sent her to sea in a little boat, which was ultimately driven to Culross, where Saint Kentigern was born, and partly educated by Saint Serf, who latterly handed him over to the care of Semanus, Bishop of Orkney, who, after taking the good little boy in charge, found him so loving and kindly in disposition that he called him by a pet-name of his own—Mungo, from the Norwegian phrase Mongah (my friend or dear one), and this stuck to him—hence the name Saint Mungo. Kentigern, his first title, means Lord-in-Chief.

The Arms of Glasgow.

The tree denotes the frozen branch with which, by blowing into a flame, Saint Mungo re-kindled the monastery fire at Culross. The bird is the robin he brought back to life after it had been decapitated. The fish and ring are emblematic of a miracle, by which he restored to Langueth, the wife of King Ridderch of Strathclyde, a love token she had lost; and the bell represents that which he brought from Rome. He died about 601, and for more than five centuries after that date Glasgow has no authentic records.

The Streets of Saint Mungo.

Up till 1750 there were only thirteen streets in Glasgow. These were—Bell Street, Bridgegate Street, Candleriggs Street, Canon Street, Drygate Street, Gallowgate Street, High Street, King Street, Princes Street, Kottenrow Street, Saltmarket Street, Stockwell Street, and Trongate Street. At the present time there are approximately two thousand one hundred streets within the bounds of the city, and, in addition, several squares, quadrants, and parades. The total length of streets maintained by the Statute Labour Department is two hundred and sixteen and one-third miles, the actual cost of maintenance and repair of which for the year 1901 was £73,072 16s. 4d. Sixteen new streets, 3589 yards in length, were taken over as public during the course of the twelve months. The Dean of Guild Court in the same time granted linings to the number of 460, the valuations of which were £1,430,312. In the previous year the linings granted numbered 579, and the value was £2,019,822. The streets were first lighted in 1717 with a few oil lamps which were hung on brackets; but in 1780 the first lamps were placed on the south-side of Trongate Street. They were erected as a reward for the formation of a pavement by the local proprietors between the Cross and Stock well Street. Gas was first introduced for street lighting on 15th September, 1818. Early in 1893 several of the leading thoroughfares were lighted with electricity; and towards the end of the same year the Welsbach incandescent mantle was utilised with satisfactory results.

H. M.




Abercrombie Street, opened in 1802, and named in honour of Sir Ralph, who fell in Egypt in 1801. It had previously been known as South Witch Lone.

Adam's Court Lane, named for John Adam, a contractor, who built the first foot-bridge over the river at Jamaica Street in 1768. He afterwards built several tenements in Argyle Street east of Jamaica Street and extending to this lane.

Adelphi Street was opened early in last century, and named in honour of the brothers Hutcheson.

Aird's Lane, named for John Aird, who was five times elected Provost of the city, the last time in 1721. His old mansion stood here till a few months since, when it was removed for railway extension.

Albany Street (Bridgeton), named for Charlotte Stuart, Duchess of Albany, who was the daughter of Prince Charlie. Burns sings of her as the Bonnie Lass of Albany. This lady was born in Paris and baptised at Liege on 29th October, 1753. Her mother, Clementina Walkinshaw, was the youngest daughter of John Walkinshaw of Barrowfield, and she died at Fribourg, in Switzerland, so late as 1802.

Albion Street, opened in 1808. It had been church lands, and the market for salt was for a time located in it.

Allander Street, named for the river of that name in Dumbartonshire.

Allan's Pen. Pen in common parlance means to coop up or confine. In the present instance, in East-end vernacular it is a big close or passage. Thus a close was generally taken to be a passage about five feet wide, but a pen close was always considered to be wide enough for the passage of a horse and cart. Allan's Pen however, so far as the writer can remember from the remnant of it remaining in his day, through which he has passed many a time, would be about eight feet by eight. It was virtually a subway or tunnel, the side walls of stone and arched with brick, extending from the south-east exit of Glasgow Green to Rutherglen Bridge, and was constructed by Alexander Allan of Newhall to give him unbroken access from his demesne to the river. This was done by turfing over the erection. It was an outrage on the public rights, but no action was taken as happened later in the Harvey's Dyke case. But the river coming down in high flood with broken ice during the ensuing winter destroyed the greater part of the structure, on seeing which the proprietor made only half-hearted efforts at repair. Meantime his action had incensed the Bridgeton people, who were at that period mostly employed as hand-loom weavers and nearly all strongly imbued with Radical ideas. The result was that every one became Mr. Allan's enemy, and he, while largely interested in the sugar trade of the West Indies, was also a manufacturer in the city and gave out webs to be woven. In this he was boycotted, as the weavers declined to work to him, even at increased rates. This was the first check that his arrogant and over bearing attitude to the public got. But coming events cast their shadows before, and worse was in store for him, as a year or two later a panic in the Indian cotton market, simultaneous with a big drop in sugar, led him to do some very foolish things, which ultimately caused him to take flight to Ireland, which was then, as America became later on, the receptacle of the greater number of those who left their country for their country's good. He never returned, dying there in 1809. The mansion of Newhall had been built by him, and as showing the extravagance of the individual, the flues of all the chimnej^s were lined with copper, under the mistaken idea that this would obviate sweeping. The building stood near the eastern extremity of Newhall Terrace, and was taken down several years ago. After Mr. Allan's flight the lands of Newhall were divided and sold. William Dixon of Govanhill, having bought the minerals, tried to sink a shaft near the southern boundary, but the attempt was vain, and after using up all the ideas of the most skilful mining engineers as well as many thousands of pounds in cash, the project was abandoned. The coal was reached several times, but the shifting mud always closed the shaft. Clydeview Terrace is built almost over the spot where the operations took place, and it was this, no doubt, which caused the subsidence of these buildings some years ago, creating considerable alarm among the residents. The mansion with a few adjoining acres were acquiied by Mr. Hussey, who was an extensive cotton-spinner, and son-in-law to Henry Houldsworth (see Houldsworth Street). Mr. Allan's daughters, the spinsters, resided for many years after their father's decease in a building which had originally been intended as offices for the mansion, while a widowed daughter (Mrs. Martin) resided with her family in a small jointure house within the grounds. The first-mentioned dwelling abutted on the boundary wall of the Green, the windows looking into the Planting, this being the local name for the pathway which runs parallel to the boundary wall of the Green eastwards from John-street to the river. At that time it was in great part a deep hollow or ravine thickly studded with saiigh trees and the lower part filled with a dense undergrowth, and towards nightfall it had rather a weird appearance, police in this locality being unknown at this period. The gamins made frequent raids from the Planting into the garden of the Allans, and occasionally defied the ladies, one of whom had rather prominent teeth, which had been operated upon by a clumsy dentist, who had left the metallic fixings quite too apparent, and in the course of her expostulations with the raiders the addition to her molars was spotted at once by the belligerents, who dubbed her "Jenny with the iron teeth," and this title getting exaggerated as time went on, the youngsters of the East End came to the belief that a veritable ogre existed on the other side of Greenhead wall, the result being that for many years children in their peregrinations through the paik invariably avoided the Planting through fear of Jenny. A year or two since, a correspondent in one of the daily papers, who claimed to be the representative of the Allan family, suggested that a metal tablet should be fixed up to mark the site of Allan's Pen. Rather a strange desire on the part of a descendant to have the memory of an ancestor perpetuated whose most notable action was that of depriving the public of a right of way, and who wound up a somewhat chequered career by ignominious flight. Byron in his "Childe Harold" thus descants on an individual of this sort:

"But one sad lozel soils a name for aye,
However mighty in the olden time,
Nor all that heralds rake from coffined clay
Can blazon evil deeds or consecrate a crime."

Alston Street, now swallowed up in Central Railway Station, was named for John Alston, grandson of Mr. Miller of Westerton, the maker of Miller Street.

Anderston, the village of, was formed on the eastern portion of the estate of Mr. Anderson of Stobcross.

Annfield Street, after Ann Park, who was the wife of James Tennant, a wealthy tobacconist, who built the mansion of Annfield.

Ann Street (Bridgeton), after a daughter of John Walkinshaw of Barrowfield, of which estate this formed a part.

Argyle Street was without the West Port, and was at first known as Dumbarton Road, then it changed to Wester Gate, and previous to assuming the patronymic of Archibald, Duke of Argyle, it was called Anderston Walk. In May, 1761, the corpse of Argyle, who had met his death in England, lay in state, while en route to the ducal burying-place at Kilmun, in the Black Bull Hotel, then known as the Highland Society's House, in this street, which but a short time previously had been named in his honour. The old hotel still standing between Glassford Street and Virginia Street, is now engrossed in the premises of Mann, Byars, & Co.

Argyle Arcade. The tenement fronting Argyle Street which forms the entrance to this popular promenade was built by John Reid, the father of "Senex," about 1780, but the Arcade was formed by John Robertson Reid of Gallowflat, who was of the same family. A practical joke was carried out here by an officer who was quartered with a troop of the Lancers in the Cavalry Barracks, which were at that time (about seventy years ago) situated in Eglinton Street. This officer and gentleman took a bet with some of his compeers that he would ride through the Arcade at mid-day in full military tog, including carbine, sword, and lance, and he did it entering at Buchanan Street and emerging at Argyle Street. The private constable had for the nonce been invited into a tavern by an emissaiy, which left the course clear, and the horse carrying the warrior pranced through the flagged way, much to the astonishment of the toyshop men and terror of the milliners. The soldier man, however, had to pay sweetly for his little escapade at the Police Court next day. The Argyle family, like another ducal line, are unduly commemorated in our city, which was never in any way indebted to them, and their record does not read well. The first peer of the family, Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochow, founded the Collegiate Church at Kilmun in the year 1442, and he died eleven years thereafter, and was buried in the church which he had set up From that time Kilmun became the burial-place of the Argyle family, and among the chiefs whose bones repose here may be mentioned that singularly unhappy nobleman, Archibald, first Marquis of Argyle. He was decapitated by the guillotine or "Maiden" at the Cross of Edinburgh on the 27th May, 1661. His head was stuck on the Tolbooth on the very pinnacle where the head of his heroic adversary the great Marquis of Montrose had been exposed for ten long years. The remains of Argyle were more tenderly dealt with, as on the 8th of June, 1664, King Charles the Second granted a warrant to have it taken down and deposited beside his body in the tomb of his ancestors at Kilmun. The son and successor of this peer, Archibald, ninth Earl of Argyle, was fated like his father to die on a scaffold at Edinburgh, but his dust found a resting-place in the neighbouring church of Greyfriars. Archibald, first Duke of Argyle, died under rather peculiar circumstances in England on 28th September, 1703. In extracts from the Argyle papers by James Maidment, advocate, Edinburgh, it is shown that John, Duke of Argyle and Greenwich, was by no means the estimable person represented by Sir Walter Scott in his "Heart of Midlothian." Woodrow does not speak favourably of him, saying his talents were much over-rated. Glover, in "Political Memoirs," at page 9, states that he was in his own person a most shameless prostitute to power, and extremely avaricious. He would sell nothing but himself, which he continually did with every circumstance of levity, meanness, and treachery. The late Duke was an eminently self-contained individual. His nature was cold and somewhat unsympathetic, and while in residence at his castle in Inveraray there was not much of that kindly intercourse between peasant and peer that tends to ameliorate and bridge the dividing gulf. He was a voluminous and versatile writer, and in his early day a fair orator, as older citizens can remember, when overflowing audiences were always the result of a lecture announced to be given by his Grace in the City Hall. The subject-matter, however, of several of these oratorical sliows was but shadows from the works of Hugh Miller and others. But the lecturer was a Duke (something of a rara avis in Glasgow), and the people rushed.

Arthur Street (Bridgeton), named for William Rae Arthur who was Lord Provost in 1869.

Bain Street, in honour of Sir James Bain, who was Lord Provost of the city in 1874.

Balgray. The town of the flock, such as sheep or goats.

Balmano Street, opened 1792, was formed on the garden belonging to a lady of that name. Her son was a well-known surgeon and druggist in Trongate Street.

Balshagrie. The windy town.

Baltic Street was formed on ground acquired by The Baltic Jute Works Co., who built extensive factories here. It did not succeed, and was wound up after a few years' operations.

Bankier Street, after William Bankier, a former Provost of Calton.

Bardowin Street, named for the estate of this name in the parish of Baldernock and county of Stirling, on the margin of Bardowie Loch. It is about six miles from the city.

Barrack Street, opened 1795. It formed the eastern boundary of the Infantry Barracks, which were built on lands anciently known as the Butts, where the citizens practised archery. A battle was fought here during the reign of Queen Marie between the Regent Arran and Lennox and Glencairn. Upwards of three hundred fell on either side, and the town suffered severely, as it was given up to pillage. A large portion of these lands was granted to the Government in 1795 as a site for an infantry barracks, for which purpose they were utilised for well-nigh a century, but the locality becoming unsuitable, new quarters were erected in the north-west portion of the city. In the circumstances it was fully expected that the ground which the War Office authorities had so long enjoyed the free use of would have been handed back to the city to be utilised as an open garden space, which was much needed in the district, but with that parsimony which is invariably shown to Scotland in things Imperial a deaf ear was given to all remonstrance, and the place was sold for a very large sum to a railway company.

Bartholomew Street, named for John Bartholomew of Cotton Hall. He was an extensive cotton spinner and proprietor of several factories. He died at Helensburgh, 30th September, 1824.

Bath Street got its name from William Harley, a speculative character, who early in last century built public baths and also extensive dairy premises at the north-east end of this thoroughfare.

Beaconsfield Road, in memory of the famous political Earl, who first gained notoriety through an attack made upon him in Parliament by the redoubtable Dan, who in his diatribe styled him a veritable descendant of Judas Iscariot and no doubt closely related to the thief upon the cross.

Bedford Lane, previously known as Puddock Row, this title doubtless having arisen from the multiplicity of frogs in the district, these little reptiles always having been numerous in the open lands on the south-side of the river, particularly so in the districts of Little Govan and Polmadie.

Bellahouston. This place is mentioned in a Crown charter granted in 1597, where it reads Ballahawstene. In a charter of the following year it is printed Ballahowstene. Balla is from the Celtic baile (a town), and the name Howstene following would lead to the supposition that it meant Howstene's town, but the name Houston of old was written Hewston or Hughston, the town of Hugh, and was therefore complete in itself. This is clearly defined in the case of Houston in Renfrewshire, as likewise in the notes on Houston House in the parish of Uphall, given in the history of Strathbrock by the Rev. James Primrose, which would give rather a strange rendering of the name. A supposition that the place may have been held at one time by a rentaller of the name of Houston is also open to objection from the difference in spelling. The name is evidently purely Celtic, and its true meaning will have to be sought for in a Gaelic dictionary. These notes have been given in rectification of the popular idea that the place had been named by a former proprietor after a favourite daughter called Bella.

Bell Street (City), opened 1710, and named for Sir John Bell, who was Provost in 1680.

Bellfield Street, named for Isobel, wife of John Macdonald, who had a villa in it.

Bellgrove Street, previously known as Witch Lone. It is said to have been originated by the masons who built the Cathedral, they living in Rutherglen. It was also a drove road for cattle crossing Clyde at Dalmarnock Ford.

Bishop Street (Anderston) was formerly called Bishop's or Parson's Croft, having been church lands. After the Reformation King James the Sixth gave these lands, which consisted of about thirteen acres, to John Andrew, who was clerk of his Secret Council. It afterwards became the property of the Incorporation of Tailors.

Bishopbriggs derives its name from a bridge erected by a Glasgow bishop to facilitate communication with his rentallers in the district.

Blythswood Square, was laid off and opened in 1823 under the name of Garden Square, this title being given to it by William Hamilton Garden, who was a son of Francis Garden of Fetteresso. He was at that time head of a well-known West India firm in the city, and speculated extensively in porperty. He resided in the Crawford mansion, having bought it in 1813, the site of which is now occupied by the station of the North British Railway.

Blackburn Street (Plantation) was so named after the Midland town by one of the trustees of Mr. Maclean, because he had business connections with it.

Botanic Gardens, opened in 1832, on ground extending to 21½ acres which was feued from Campbell of Blythswood. They did not succeed as a company concern, and were taken over by the Corporation in 1892 at a cost of £59,531. The banks of Kelvin extending to 18½ acres have been added since then to the gardens at a cost of £9360. What was called the Old Botanic Gardens were situated on the north side of Dumbarton Road west of Claremont Street, and are now built over.

Bothwell Street. This thoroughfare was exploited by James Scott of Kelly about the middle of last century. He expended a large sum of money in forming it, having got a special Act of Parliament to enable him to construct the viaduct at its western extremity to carry it over Bishop Street into St. Vincent Street; but the scheme was a little too premature, as it is only now taking shape to rank as a leading thoroughfare.

Brand Street, named for Harvey Brand, who was proprietor of the ground on which it was formed.

Bridgegate Street, opened in 1100, and previous to the erection of the bridge over the river. It was known as the Fishergate from the fact that the fishers and fish dealers had incorporated themselves into a society and had built the greater part of it.

Bridgeton is formed upon a part of the lands of Barrowfield called Goosefauld. It was laid off for feuing by John Walkinshaw, the proprietor, in 1705, but it was very slow in being taken up, and the place was of little account until Butherglen Bridge was built in 1775. The bridge cost £1800, of which sum Butherglen contributed £1000.

Bridgeton Cross. The place at present so named is a misnomer. Camlachie Burn is the boundary between Bridgeton and Calton, and this so-called Cross, being on the west side of the burn, is therefore in Calton. The Cross proper is at the junction of Reid Street and Dale Street, and the spot was for many years marked with a cross in the roadway by stones sunk in the macadam. The writer has also seen it referred to in the minute-book of the Bridgeton Feuar Court, which was the governing authority previous to annexation to the city. This minute-book unfortunately got mutilated accidentally, and there is only a small portion of it now in existence. But sufficient has been stated to locate the Cross of this suburb, although there is no historic record to prove it, as Mr. Renwick seems to think is awanting in the case of the Cross in Bottenrow. Record indeed! Bridgeton is of yesterday, no building or house in it being yet 200 years old. J. W. Small, in his "Scottish Market Crosses," published last year, says:—"In many cases I did not find any Cross where I had been led to suppose a Cross existed, but in one exceptional case I found a cross marked in the causeway." So it was with Bridgeton, but on making a pilgrimage to the shrine a few weeks since I found the vandals had swept the mark away. Sanitary affairs were conducted in rather a primitive fashion in Bridgeton up till 1830, when the contractor for cleansing was bound to sweep the streets only six times during the year, for which he got the handsome remuneration of £3 10s. Two years later, when the contractor was James Roberton, farmer, Dalmarnock, it is mentioned in the minute-book that he was awarded an additional ten shillings for having given the streets an extra touch up. This gentleman, by the way, it may be mentioned, was the father of a late leading legal luminary in this city, Sir James Roberton. Pavements in this district up till this date were unknown, and, without even the Auld Reekie warning of "Gardie loo," buckets of slops were shot out from front doors on to the common thoroughfare, so that wayfarers had to be wary or they got soused.

Brook Street, so named from its contiguity to Camlachie Burn, which used to be spanned here by a footbridge.

Broomielaw, a grassy slope or meadow with broom growing on it. The first quay or jetty, with a weigh-house and crane, were erected here in 1662.

Broomward Street was formed on the lands of this name, whereon the Dunlops of Craigton early in last century erected extensive cotton-spinning works. The father of the late John Elder, of Fairfield Shipbuilding Yard, who had come from Strathaven as an operative, superintended the fitting up of the machinery when the place was being built.

Brown Street (City), opened in 1800. It was formed on the bleachfield of Brown, Carrick, & Co., and named for the senior partner.

Buchanan Street, opened 1780, and named for Andrew Buchanan, of Buchanan, Hastie, & Co., who were leading merchants in the city. He was proprietor of the ground on which it was formed as far north as Gordon Street.

Brunswick Street, opened 1790, named in honour of the House of Hanover. This street was formed on the garden attached to the house of a well-known sporting man, Mr. Baird of Craigton.

Byres Road was formed through a small village or clachan called the Byres of Partick. Sometimes it was called the Bishop's Byres. An attempt was made some years since to change the name to Victoria Road, but the public would not have it.

Calton is from a Gaelic word, coillduin, meaning wood on the hill. It had been known for some time as Blackfauld, and formed part of the Barrowfield estate. It was ultimately raised into a Burgh of Barony, and annexed to the city in 1846. The Cross was at the junction of Main Street and King Street, the latter at that time being known as New Street.

Camlachie or Cambuslachie are both Celtic terms, meaning the wild duck hollow or glen. Camlaiche, another form, means the muddy bend of the burn.

Campbell Street, opened 1784, from Gallowgate Street to Græme Street, was formed on ground belonging to James Campbell of Petershill.

Campbell Street (West) is named for Campbell of Blythswood.

Camperdown Street, to commemorate Camperdown's Red Fight, when Admiral Duncan routed the Dutch on 11th October, 1797. The local authorities forbade illuminations in celebration because it was said the Dutch were Protestants. From this it would appear that pro-Boerism is not a creation of yesterday.

Candleriggs Street, opened in 1724. A candle work formerly occupied a site at its north end.

Canning Street (Calton) is named for the Honourable George Canning, who died in 1827, Prime Minister of Great Britain. It had previously been known as Barrowfield Road, being the highway to the manor-place of that name.

Canon Street, opened in 1360, was formed upon the site of what had been a seminary for canons.

Carlton Place, opened 1802. It was laid off by James Laurie of Laurieston, who put up gates at either end to stop cart traffic, but the attempt failed. The internal decoration, particularly the plaster work, in some of the lodgings in this terrace, which was executed by artificers from Italy, has not up till the present time been equalled by local tradesmen.

Carment Drive, named for Dr. Carment, of Carment, Wedderburn, and Watson, the well-known legal firm in Edinburgh who are the agents of Sir John Maxwell of Pollok, on whose estate this thoroughfare is formed.

Carmunnock means the round hill of the monk.

Carmyle, from the Gaelic cathirmaol, meaning the bare town. It was a poor little hamlet till 1741, when Mr. Mackenzie, a Glasgow merchant, started a muslin manufactory in it.

Carrick Street, opened 1800, was formed on the bleachfield of Brown, Carrick & Co., and named for the junior partner.

Carstairs Street, named for the residential estate of Henry Monteith.

Castle Street, opened 1100, was the highway to the Bishop's Palace or Castle, which was used for either purpose as the exigencies of war or religion demanded.

Cathcart Street (Hutchesontown), opened 1798, named for Lord Cathcart.

Cathedral Street, opened 1840, previous to which date there was a narrow road called Potter-row Lone a short distance south of the present street, which ran in the same direction, but the operations of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway Co. swept it away and altered the locality.

Charles Street (Mile-end), named after a former East-end proprietor. There was a close or entry in the locality that was known as Charley's Close, and it latterly had an unenviable notoriety from being the haunt or gathering-place of the roughs of Calton and Bridgeton. Who Charley was history sayeth not, but when he departed this life it was found that he had left a legacy to the East-enders in the shape of a small green which was to remain an open space for ever, but the little oasis has been utilised by a railway company, who have not given an equivalent.

Charles Street (St. Rollox), named after Charles Tennant the elder, grandsire of the present Baronet. He founded St. Rollox Chemical Works in company with George Macintosh of Dunchattan in 1788.

Charlotte Street, opened 1779, and named for the grandam of our late Empress Queen, Victoria. It had previously been known as Merkdaily, that is the daily market where fruit and vegetables were sold. David Dale the Socialist, and founder of Lanark Mills, had his town house here, still standing at the south-west corner. He built it in 1782 at a cost of £6000. It and the garden were acquired in 1850 for an Eye Infirmary, at the price of £2800.

Charlotte Lane. Previous to the formation of London Street in 1824 this was a labyrinthine passage extending from Great Hamilton Street to Saint Andrew Square. The operation cut it in two, and the eastern portion became for a time London Lane. But the dwellers in the East liked not the title, and imagined that they saw some resemblance in the passage to the narrow way where the Mesopotamian soothsayer and his poor old donkey encountered the celestial messenger with such marvellous results, so they named it Balaam's Pass, pronounced Balaum's Pass, and it was better known by this cognomen than any other for many years. The authorities have lately put up fresh name-plates bearing the legend Charlotte Lane.

Cheapside Street, after the thoroughfare of this name in London, which got its title from having been the site of a cheap market.

Church Place (off Main Street, Anderston) has been the site of a place of worship for well nigh one hundred and fifty years. The Rev. James Stuart, who was the second minister of the Kelief Church here, was ordained in 1775, having previously been assistant at Saint Andrew's Church. He was a son of Prince Charles Edward Stuart, and was born in Dunblane in 1745. He died in 1819.

Claythorn Street was formed on the lands of Clay thorn, which belonged to John Luke, who was an extensive merchant in the city.

Clyde Street (Great) was formerly known as the Horse Brae, from the slope that led down to the ford. Here the fairs and markets were held for the sale of all kinds of quadrupeds.

Clyde Street (Calton) was formed on the property of John Clyde, who was a brewer in Craignestock (which is in the vicinity) in 1777. This family were the maternal ancestors of Robert Dalglish of Kilmardinny, who was for many years a popular representative of the city in Parliament.

Clyde (River), from the Gaelic word clith, meaning strong. It is not to be confounded with Clwyd in Wales, it being the name of the son of Cunedda Wledig, who conquered the Gwyddel or Irish settlers in North Wales.

Cochrane Street, opened 1787, named for Andrew Cochrane, who was Provost in 1760. It had previously been known as Cotton Street, from the fact that it was almost entirely taken up with the offices of cotton brokers, spinners, and yarn agents. The Bird Market was held on the north side of this street previous to its removal to a lane on the north side of Bell Street, City.

Colebrooke Street, named for Sir Thomas Edward Colebrooke, Bart. He was for many years a popular Lord Lieutenant of Lanarkshire.

College Street, off High Street, was formed by the Corporation in 1794.

College Street (West) was formed on the site of a monastic establishment, which at the Reformation was bestowed by the Crown upon the College of Glasgow.

Collins Street, in honour of Sir William Collins, who was Lord Provost in 1877. He was senior partner of William Collins, Sons & Co., the well-known publishing firm.

Commerce Street was at first called Queen Street.

Cook Street, named for James Cook, a well-known engineer whose works were there. He engined some of the earlier steamers on the Clyde.

Cornwall Street, Plantation, was named for a relative of Mrs. Maclean, wife of the first proprietor of that name.

Corunna Street, commemorative of Sir John Moore's victory over the French on 16th January, 1809.

Cowcaddens Street was formed through the village of. So named from being the place where cows were milked.

Cowlairs was part of the commons belonging to the town. In the burgh records of 9th March, 1631, it is recorded that part of the lands of Cowlairs was let for £6 13s. 4d., and the mikle hill nearest Flemington, the Sagie Holm, part of Kowlairs, and Channel Moss were let for 52 merks.

Craigtehall Street. This was the name of the greater part of the Plantation estate, on which this street is formed, previous to its acquisition by Mr. Robertson in 1783.

Cranstonhill was formerly called Drumother Hill. Some sapient historian twisted this ancient title into Drumover Hill, stating that it had acquired the latter cognomen from being the spot to which all vagabonds were escorted when to the tune of the "Rogues' March" they were drummed out of town. This was a pure invention. The vagabonds were ejected at the Gallowgate Port, so that they might benefit by a sight of the permanent gallows (which stood on the Butts) en passant. "Senex" mentions that he saw a Highland woman escorted to Cranstonhill. This must have been an exceptional case, and may have been done to give her a chance of getting back to her native wilds. The true solution of the name is to be found in two Gaelic words—druim odhar—pronounced somewhat like "drumover," and meaning the grey ridge. Peden, the Scottish prophet, prognosticated that the Cross of Glasgow would ultimately be on this spot. At the present rate of extension in this direction his prediction seems likely to be fulfilled at no very remote date.

Crosshill derives its name from an ancient cross which stood on a height still named the Cross Hill. This monument was about ten feet high and three-and-a-half wide, and bore a sculptured representation of Christ entering Jerusalem riding on an ass. It was removed by some vandals about the end of the eighteenth century.

Crossmyloof. The origin of this name has been ascribed to Queen Mary. The village, however, was not in existence in her time, and the lands went under that name long anterior to the Battle of Langside. It is said by A. M. Scott, the historian of Langside, to be a compound of Latin and Gaelic in connection with a cross of elm wood with which it was customaiy in Catholic times to mark the boundary of the parish.

Crownpoint Roat deiives its name from Crown Point House, built here in 1761 by William Alexander, the name being that of a famous stronghold on the Canadian frontier which was taken from the French by General Amerhst.

Cumberland Street (Hutchesontow^n) is marked on M'Arthur's map, made from actual survey in 1778, as Shields Lone.

Cumberland Street (Calton) is intersected by Canning Street, and was originally known as North and South Cumberland Streets respectively. There are no less than four thoroughfares of this name in the city, and why the Butcher of Culloden comes to be so unduly commemorated is past the comprehension of any patriotic Scotsman; but in the earlier days it was sufficient for those who imposed those titles to sink all national feeling in the bigotry and superstition of the time, and only to remember that he crushed for ever the hopes of a pseudo Roman Catholic in his aspirations to the throne. Tolerated somewhat in the same spirit, there ramps as the chief ornament at the Ci'oss of our city the bonnetless and sandalled effigy of one whose whole life was permeated with holy zeal, yet he lent himself to the carrying out of the Massacre of Glencoe and the destruction of the Darien Expedition.

Dalbeth. This is a Celtic word signifying the field or meadow covered with birchwood.

Dale Street (Bridgeton), named after David Dale, of Lanark Mills. See Charlotte Street.

Dalmarnock Road was the highway to the estate of this name, which is said to have been derived from Saint Marnock, who had a cell at Kilmarnock; but this is mythical. In 1174 it was written Dalmurnech, which is purely Celtic, from two words dael and muranach, meaning the meadow or plain abounding in bent and iris.

Dean Street was formed on the lands attached to the Deanery. Deanside Lane adjoins.

Delftfield was that part of the Broomielaw Croft which lay between Robertson Street and Brown Street. It was named after the town of Delft in Holland. A pottery was for many years in operation here under the name of the Delftfield Co., which had been established in 1749.

Dempster Street, opened 1792, is only a fragment of its oiiginal size, it having originally extended over a great part of what is now Love Loan. It was named in honour of George Dempster of Dunichen, who was M.P. for the Perth Burghs from 1761 till 1790. Dempster visited Glasgow in 1787, and as he had opposed the repeal of the duty on French cambrics he was made the hero of a torchlight procession which was organised by the Bridgeton and Anderston weavers. This street when first opened was called Botany Bay. Burns alludes to Dempster in his epistle to James Smith.

Dennistoun. This suburb comprises several properties acquired iit different times, the first purchase being Golfhill by James Dennistoun, who bought it from the trustees of Jonathan Anderson in 1814. He built the mansion-house, where he resided till he died on 11th October, 1835. His heirs and successors continued to purchase adjoining lands up till 1864, when the estate in cumulo extended to considerably over 200 acres, which is now fairly well covered with tenements and villas. The Dennistouns have had a long and honourable connection with this city, both as Virginia Dons and cotton magnates, and politically they followed their heart more than their own interest, and it is well known that they gave more than sympathy to the mifortunate Prince of the Forty-five when he honoured Saint Mungo with his presence. The Colgrain branch is the recognised head of the name, they having a pedigree that goes back beyond history when their ancestor gave the place-name to the district beyond Finlayston in Renfrewshire. The Maxwells of Stanely Castle came into possession of that holding through intermarriage with the Dennistouns, it having been granted to Sir Robert de Danielston by King Robert the Third on 24th August, 1392.

Dixon Street, named for William Dixon of Dixon's Blazes. He was born at Govan in 1788. His wife, Elizabeth Strang, was a sister of the City Chamberlain. He died in 1862, and was succeeded by his son, the late W. S. Dixon.

Dobbie's Loan is in great part an old Roman or military road, and was until the beginning of last century a straggling path which in the sixteenth or seventeeth century formed the access to the crofts and common pasture on the north-west of the city, and apparently had its name from John Dobbie, who owned land early in the seventeenth century outside the Stable-Green-Port, and members of the Dobbie family continued to hold land in the district for a hundred and fifty years afterwards.

Douglas Street, named for James Douglas of Mains. James Campbell, the younger brother of Colin Campbell, the fifth of Blythswood, was left the estate of Mains by his mother's father, and he then assumed the name of Douglas.

Dovehill (Great and Little) was originally the Dow Hill, which was intended to mean dew hill. In Gaelic it is dhu or black hill. The monkish conveyancers, however, rendered it the Hill of Doves.

Drury Street. Two youths residing here when it was in a state of chaos, having got stagestruck through reading about Drury Lane Theatre, and wishing to impart as much of a theatrical air as possible to their environs, got the name printed and posted on a corner building, where it stuck to the wall, and has stuck to the locality ever since.

Drygate Street is undoubtedly the oldest thoroughfare in the city. In Jamieson's history of the Culdees it is stated that the Pagans brought the word dry from Germany, as being the name by which every German priest was called. In ancient times, anterior to our ecclesiastical history, a Druidical place of worship stood on the site of the present Necropolis, the only approach to which must have been the Drygate, hence it was designated the priests' road. A mint-house was erected here during the reign of Robert the Third.

Duke Street, opened 1794, is named for the Duke of Montrose, whose lodging overlooked it. Previous to 1801 it extended as far west as Balmanno Street, the name being cut deep in the east corner tenement. It was at first known as Carntyne Road, and is the longest street in any city in the United Kingdom, which came out in the following way:—In the course of a controversy in a weekly periodical on this question, a prize being offered to the person who solved the matter, Oxford Street, London, was given and accepted as the longest; but our respected townsman Mr. M. Gemmel, the well-known property agent, had reason from his own knowledge to be dissatisfied with the award, and he had the street measured, it turning out to be, as he expected, considerably longer than Oxford Street.

Drumbreck is a corruption of the Gaelic word dunbreac, meaning the hill speckled with daisies, otherwise the spotted rising ground or ridge where heather, bracken, and pasture alternated. The name at present embraces a large area, but originally applied only to Bellahouston Hill, now included in the public park. This in the olden time was the property of the Rowans, one of the oldest territorial families in Govan. The old mansion of Holmfauldhead, near Linthouse, and at present (1901) in course of demolition, was their last residence in the district. By the way, the late Earl of Dufferin's lady is the eldest daughter of the late Archibald Rowan Hamilton of Killyleagh Castle, County Down, whose grandsire was Archibald Hamilton Rowan, a son of Old Holmfauldhead, as he was called. This Archibald was rather advanced in his politics, and went to Ireland, where he became secretary to the Society of United Irishmen in 1793, in which year he came to Edinburgh, and for challenging the Lord Advocate of Scotland to fight a duel had to cut and run. Time toned him down, and he behaved better after.

Duncan Street (Calton), named in honour of Admiral Duncan, the hero of Camperdown.

Dundas, Port, named for Sir Laurence Dundas, who cut the first sod of the Forth and Clyde Canal on 10th June, 1768, and the eastern portion, on his own estate, was the foundation of Grangemouth, of which the Earl of Zetland, his descendant, is the superior.

Dunchattan Street is formed on the lands of Dunchattan, of which George Macintosh was the proprietor. The name means the hill of the Cattanach or Clan Chattan, of which The Macintosh was chief.

Dunlop Street, opened 1772. Colin Dunlop of Clyde Iron Works, who was Provost in 1770, opened this street, and built the mansion fronting Argyle Street in 1750. It is the second from the east corner, and is the oldest building in the street. George Murdoch, who was Provost in 1766, had a residence at the corner. It was almost identical with Dunlop's, and latterly was for many years occupied as the Buck's Head Hotel.

Eaglesham Street (Plantation), after the village in Renfrewshire of this name, where the paternal ancestors of the present proprietor of this estate had been engaged in cotton-spinning, they having been proprietors of the factory there in the palmy days of the trade. The late John Ramsay of Kildalton, who was M.P. for the Falkirk Burghs in 1874, was in his youthful days a clerk in this factory when it was being run by Mr. White.

Eglinton Street was originally called Marlborough Street, but at the opening of the Paisley and Johnstone Canal, of which concern the Earl of Eglinton was chairman, the name was changed.

Finnieston Street was formed on the lands of Stobcross, at that time held by John Orr of Barrowfield, who named it after a Mr. Finnie, who was a tutor in his family.

Firpark Street formed the northern boundary of what was previously known as the Fir Park, now the Necropolis.

Flemington Street. Part of the lands of Cowlairs, through which this street was formed, was known of old as Flemington.

Fordneuk Street, as its name denotes, was the ford in the corner over Camlachie Burn.

Fox Street, named in honour of Charles James Fox, the celebrated statesman.

Franklin Street, named in honour of the American Benjamin, who was at once statesman, scientist, and philosopher.

Fraser Street, named for D. D. Fraser, a well-known clothier in the east end of the city, who speculated extensively in property.

Frederick Street, opened 1787, was named for the Duke of York.

French Street. It was at first called Papillon Street, after Pierre Jacques Papillon, who was brought from Rouen in France in 1785 by George Macintosh to superintend a Turkey-red dyeing establishment, which latterly assumed such large dimensions in the hands of Henry Monteith & Co.

Gairbraid Street was formed on the lands of this name, which was the patrimonial estate of Miss Mary Hill.

Gallowgate Street was formed through the Gallow Muir, which was outwith the Gallowgate Port, near St. Mungo's Lane.

Gardner Street (off Dumbarton Road) was formed on the lands of Muirpark, which had been acquired by Mr. Gardner, flesher, Partick.

Garscadden Street, after the estate of this name in the parish of New Kilpatrick and county of Dumbarton.

Garscube Road, named for the estate on the bank of the Kelvin, in the parish of New Kilpatrick, and about four miles from Glasgow. It is the seat of Sir George Campbell, Bart. of Succoth.

Garthland Street, opened 1793. William Macdowal of Garthland, having bought the Shawfield mansion, formed this street in the garden which was behind. It extended to the Back Cow Lone, now Ingram Street.

George Square, opened 1787, and named in honour of King George the Third, of whom it was intended to have a statue in the centre. The public were incensed when it was enclosed, and drew down the railing several times.

George Street, east from George Square, was opened in 1792, and is named for King George the Third, its extension westward being called West George Street.

Germiston Street, after the lands of that name, which are on the north side of the Monkland Canal, east of Saint Rollox.

Gibson Street (Hillhead), named for John Gibson, the superior. It had previously been called King Street.

Gibson Street (off Gallowgate Street) is named for James Gibson, a joiner, who feued the ground and formed the street.

Gilmorehill, whereon sits the College. The first part of the name is purely Celtic, the latter English, and means the servant of Mary's (Saint Mary) hill.

Girgenti is the rather foreign-sounding title of the small estate which has been acquired for the isolation of habitual inebriates. Timothy Pont, at page 61 of his "Cunningham," mentions, in relation to it, that a small section of the Barony of Bonshaw was acquired by a Captain John Cheape of the army, who resided on it during the last 20 years of his life. This obscure little farm had been previously known by the name of Muirhead; but the new owner changed the name to Girgenti, in compliment to the town of that name in the island of Sicily, to which place in his former peregrinations he mayhap had found cause to form an attachment. He resided here from 1829 till his death, which occurred in the spring of 1850. The property consisted of about 50 Scotch acres. He built a new mansion-house and expended about £6000 on a property the original cost of which was £1350.

Glassford Street, opened 1793, is formed on the site of Henry Glassford of Dougalston's garden. The Shawfield Mansion was its southern boundary, the eastern wing of which is still there, though considerably altered; and the writer remembers seeing, previous to the last alteration, the hooks in the wall whereon had hung the old garden gate. Since the foregoing was written, the remaining remnant of the old mansion has been swept away, the site having been acquired for a bank.

Glebe Street, as its name denotes, was formed on church lands.

Goosedubbs Street originally extended from Stockwell Street to the Old Wynd, but railway extension has curtailed it. The name originated from the geese belonging to Provost Aird, who resided in Aird's Lane, which adjoins, disporting in the dubbs or puddles in the street.

Gorbals. Garbales is an old term in Scotch law meaning teinds, which may be the origin of the name. The Magistrates and Council bought the lands of Brigend or Gorbals from Sir Robert Douglas of Blaickerston in 1647 for £81,333 6s. 8d. Scots—the half for Hutchesons' Hospital, and the other half between the City and the Trades' House. This purchase included Kingston, Tradeston, Laurieston, and Hutchesontown, bounded on the south by Strathbungo.

Gordon Street, opened 1802, was formed on ground belonging to Mr. Gordon of Stirling, Gordon & Co. They were extensive merchants. The family are now represented by Henry Erskine Gordon of Aikenhead.

Govan. Chalmers, in his "Caledonia," says the name is a modifictition of a Gaelic word gamhan, pronounced gavan, and signifying a ditch. Leslie, a historian, thinks it comes from two Saxon words, god and win, signifying good wine; but this is too far fetched, as the burgh never had much to do with wine, so that the first is the more likely origin.

Grace Street is formed on the lands of Stobcross, and is named in memory of the youngest daughter of John Geddes of Verreville Pottery, she having been burned to death one night when dressing for a ball.

Græme Street (off High Street) was named after Robert Græme, a former Sheriff-Substitute.

Grahamston, a district in Anderston, on the north side of Argyle Street, was named for John Graham of Dougalston, who died in 1749.

Guildry Court (off Bridgegate Street) is immediately behind the site of the Old Merchants' House, which was begun to be built in 1651, but the steeple was not finished till 1663. It is still in existence, but the grand old hall was taken down many years since. The Merchants' House Corporation returns five of the nine members who constitute the Dean of Guild Court, including the President or Lord Dean.

Hallside Street, after the estate of this name, which is in the parish of Cambuslang, and is distant about seven miles from Glasgow.

Hamilton Street (Great), opened 1813, and named for John Hamilton of North Park, who was Chief Magistrate. It had previously been a footpath known as The Pleasants, and was interspersed with self-contained houses, which had gardens back and front. It was at that time nine or ten feet above its present level, and culminated in a hillock about fifteen feet high near its eastern extremity, where stood the toll-house. The Green reached in at this point with a clump of trees, whose branches overhung the roadway till within the last fifty years. The street ends a few yards east of this, where a small burn or gott crosses it, and this burn was of old the dividing line between the City and the burgh of Calton.

Hamilton Street (Little), opened 1791. This street had previously been known as the Beggars' Bow.

Hangingshaw, a place where people were executed. Aitkenhead Road and Prospecthill Boad converge upon and cross each other in this district, and both of them, previous to assuming their present titles, were known as the Hangingshaw Boad.

Hangman's Houses. This was a row of small dwelling-houses, which stood on the north-east boundary of the ground pertaining to the College, on the line of Drygate Street. They are marked on a map printed in 1775. The last of the professionals who resided there was known as Hanging Wattie. Tam Young, who died in 1835, was the last of the stock executioners, and "Senex" mentions that his family, ashamed of the odium attached to the calling, went into a far country and sank out of sight. They did not do anything of the kind. Tarn's son and name-bearer, who was well known to the wiiter, followed a professional occupation in this city till the day of his death, which took place several years ago.

Hanover Street, opened 1787, and is named for the Elector of Hanover. This title was borne by the kings of Britain from the time of King George the First till the death of William the Fourth, when, in virtue of the Salic law, it passed by inheritance to Ernest, Duke of Cumberland. This thoroughfare had previously been called David Street.

Harvey Street (off Paisley Road), from the Christian name of Harvey Brand, who was proprietor of the ground on which it was formed.

Harvey Street (Port-Dundas), after Thomas Harvey, who was originally a carter; but he ultimately became proprietor of several licensed shops, where he sold meal and whisky, and amassing considerable wealth, he built a distillery in this street, and became proprietor of the lands of Westthorne, which abut upon the banks of the Clyde near Belvidere, where he resided. To secure complete privacy in his domain, he tried to stop the right-of-way by the river bank, and built a high wall close down to the water. The public threw it down, only to be rebuilt, this time surmounted with a cheveaux de frise and a watch-tower. A gang from Bridgeton, assisted by some miners, blew up the greater part of the little fort with gunpowder. The military latterly had a skirmish in the affair. Meantime Harvey's shops were boycotted. The matter was fought in the Court of Session, culminating in the House of Lords in favour of the public, which spelled ruin for Tam Harvey of Harvey's Dyke.

Harvie Street (off Dalmarnock Road), named for Douglas Harvie, sometime a contractor there.

Havannah Street, opened 1763, and named by Gavin Williamson in honour of the capture of the capital of Cuba. He had been with the naval contingent, and with his prize-money hnilt the first tenement in it. This thoroughfare has been swallowed up in extending the College Railway Station.

High Street, opened in 1100. It led to the highest part of the town, but it was of little account until the University was erected in it.

Hillhead. Andrew Gibson had been tenant of these lands conjointly with those of Byres of Partick up till June 1702, when he became proprietor, his forbears having been rentallers of the same for a considerable period prior to his succession. The same family were also proprietors about this time of the estates of Overnewton and Balshagrie, and as showing the state of society in the good old days, we find it on record that John Gibson of Hillhead is outlawed for non-appearance at the Court of Paisley in 1687 to answer a charge of robbing an orchard at Whyteford, and in company with others, committing an outrage upon the proprietor, Mr. Kibble, who was ancestor of the Kibbles of Greenlaw. Another member of the same family was a sort of Greirson of Lagg in regard to the Covenanters who came under his ban while holding the office of Chief Magistrate.

Holm Street formed the southern boundary of the holm or hollow called Blythswood Holm.

Hope Street, when first opened, was called Copenhagen Street.

Hospital Street is formed upon the site of St. Ninian's Leper Hospital, founded by Lady Lochow in 1350.

Houldsworth Street is named after Henry Houldsworth. He came from Nottingham towards the end of the eighteenth century to manage a cotton-spinning factory which stood on the banks of the Kelvin. His success was phenomenal, as by the beginning of last century he was running on his own account a large factory in Cheapside Street and also a machine shop in John Street (City), where he was the first to make cotton-spinning machinery in Scotland. On the decay of the cotton trade he merged into that of iron, by starting the Anderston Foundry; and the family are now represented by the Houldsworths of Coltness, which estate they purchased in 1836.

Howard Street (City), opened 1798, and named after the famous philanthropist. This street was in great part formed upon the line of the old rope walk, which extended at one time from Ropework Lane to Oswald Street. The eastern part of the street from Maxwell Street to Stockwell Street is called East Howard Street, and it occupies to a considerable extent the graveyard of the old Town's Hospital, which stood a few yards east of Saint Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral.

Hozier Street (Biidgeton) was named for James Hozier of Mauldslie, who was Superior of the Barrowfield estate. The name was originally M'Ilhose. His grandfather was a maltman in Gallowgate Street, and built the tenement at the south-west corner of Candleriggs Street. The family are now represented by Lord Newlands.

Hutcheson Street, opened 1790, occupies the site of the first Hutchesons' Hospital. George Hutcheson, the founder, was born sometime between 1550 and 1560. He was joined in the work by his brother Thomas. Their father was Thomas Hutcheson of Lambhill. George was a lawyer and money-lender. His office and house were on the north side of Trongate Street, near the site of the Tontine. In 1611 he built a house in Partick on the banks of the Kelvin. He died in 1639.

Hyde Park Street was formed through the demesne of Hyde Park, whereon were a mansion-house, a tan-yard, and its adjuncts.

Ibrox is both British and Gaelic, and is said by a local historian to mean the haunt of the badger (brock, Gaelic bruic, a badger). Another savant thinks that the name may have come from a rentaller, Broc—this name, and Brokas, both occurring in the rental book of the Diocesan Registers. In a charter dated 1580 the name is written Ibrokes.

Ingram Street, opened 1781, is named for Archibald Ingram, who had been Provost in 1762. It was previously known as the Back Cow Lone.

Jackson Street (from Stockwell Street to Dunlop Street) was formed by Mr. Jackson, who built the first theatre in Dunlop Street in 1782. This thoroughfare is now swallowed up in the G. & S.-W. Railway Station.

Jamaica Street, opened 1763. This was about the height of the rum and sugar trade, hence the name.

James Watt Street, in honour of James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine. It had previously been known as Delftfield Lane. An old mansion which stood here till 1849 was known as Watt's House. It was said to have been utilised by him as a workshop for several years. A sketch of this house is given in Simpson's "Glasgow in the Forties."

Janefield Street was formed on the lands of that name, which had been acquired by Robert M'Nair, grocer in King Street (City), and named for his wife, her maiden sobriquet being Jean Holmes. The place has since then been converted into a burying-ground—the Eastern Cemetery.

John Street (City) was named for several municipal magnates at that time (1785) in office; therefore it should have been Johns' Street.

John Street (Bridgeton), named for John Walkinshaw, third of Barrowfield.

Keir Street, named for the patrimonial estate of the Stirlings, who were the successors of the Maxwells of Pollok.

Kelvin, the wooded river.

Kent Street, opened 1802, and named for the Duke of Kent, father of our late beloved Queen. It is formed on part of the Round Croft, which belonged to Mr. Struthers, the brewer. He, like another townsman, had a penchant for English names, and styled the other street on the croft Suffolk Street.

Killermont Street, after the lands of this name, on the banks of the Kelvin, in the parish of New Kilpatrick, about four miles from the city.

King Street (City) and King Street (Calton) were both called New Street till early in last century.

Kingston consists of the western portion of the lands purchased by the Magistrates and Council from Sir Robert Douglas in 1647. They extended from West Street to Kinning House Burn, and from the River Clyde to the lands of Shields.

Kingston Dock, authorised by Parliamentary Acts of 1840-46, was not completed till 1867. It was formed on the lands of Springfield, which had previously been occupied by the cotton-spinning factory of Todd & Higginbotham.

Kinning Park. This burgh was formed on the lands of the name. The mansion of the estate (Kinning House) stood till within the last thirty years a few yards east of Kinning Place, on Paisley Road. The name is said by a local historian to signify "rabbit park," but this is a misnomer. The true derivation is from cunyie or cunnyng, a corner. As shown in old maps, Cunnyng Park was a field formed into an angle by the intersection of the burn and the road.

Kirk Street (Townhead), opened 1 1 24, or earlier. A distillery was ill operation here in 1786, carried on by William Menzies, who was the first in the West of Scotland to have an entered still, his license being the fourth in Scotland, the duty at that time being about one penny per gallon, and the best malt spirits were sold for three shillings per gallon. The name of this street has disappeared in the march of improvement. It was formerly the western boundary of Cathedral Square, being a continuation of High Street till it joined Castle Street.

Ladywell Street. The name originates from a well, which is in a niche in the wall on the north side of the street, which is bounded by the Necropolis; and it having contaminated the water, the well, which is in the form of an urn, was closed some years since.

Lambhill Street (Plantation) was so called out of compliment to the late William Graham of Lambhill, he having been one of the trustees of Mr. Maclean, proprietor of the estate.

Lancefield Street was formed on the lands of this name, which were acquired early in the last century by David Napier, the father of iron shipbuilding and marine engineering on the Clyde.

Landressy Street should be Landres Street, after a small village in France, from whence came one of the Turkey-red operatives, who built the first house in this street. It was the division between the lands of Burn Nook and Silver Grove.

Langside is rich in historic names. Battlefield and Battlefield Road are there to commemorate the struggle which quenched in blood the hopes of Scotland's beauteous but unfortunate Queen. The memory of her secretary, Maitland of Lethington, is revived in Maitland and Lethington Avenues, and that of Lord Claud Hamilton, the commander of her forces on that inauspicious day, in Hamilton Avenue. The four Maries, as the old song runs—

There was Marie Beaton,
And Marie Seyton,
And Marie Carmichael and me

—are each brought to mind in Beaton Road, Seyton Avenue, Carmichael Road, and Queen Mary Terrace, with Queen Mary Avenue in Crossbill.

Laurieston. This is a district on the south side of the river, which was feued from the trustees of Hutchesons' Hospital about the beginning of last century by James Laurie, son of David Laurie, timber merchant, Jamaica Street. It was bounded on the west by Bridge Street and Eglinton Street, on the east by Buchan Street and Portugal Street, on the south by Cavendish Street, extending north to Carlton Place, at the river side. Mr. Laurie had a penchant for high-sounding English names, and in laying off the lands gave us Bedford, Cavendish, Cumberland, Norfolk, Oxford, Portland, Salisbury, and Warwick Streets. These cognomens have remained, but Bridge Street, which he had named Bloomsbury, has got a more suitable title.

London Street was foimed by the Corporation. It cut through a densely-populated locality. The foundation-stone of the first tenement in it was laid with Masonic honours on 30th April, 1824. It was originally intended to carry this street eastward in front of Monteith Row and through the lands of Greenhead to join London Road at what is now called Bridgeton Cross. This, it was considered, would have been a more convenient route for the stage coaches from London to enter the town than via Gallowgate; but the advent of railways and opposition of proprietors caused the scheme to be abandoned, and the street remains with an awkward twist at its eastern extremity.

Macalpine Street, opened in 1800, was formed on the bleach-field of Brown, Carrick & Co., and named for a junior partner.

Macfarlane Street, opened 1815, is named for Alexander Macfarlane of Jamaica, who founded the observatory which formerly stood on the summit of the Dowhill, which is now occupied by a railway company.

Macintosh Street was formed on the lands of Dunchattan, which had been acquired by George Macintosh about the beginning of last century. He was proprietor of the Cudbear Works in Duke Street, and the original partner of the Hurlet and Campsie Alum Co. He was also associated with the St. Rollox Chemical Works when the firm was Macintosh, Tennant & Co. His son Charles was the inventor of the waterproof coat.

Maclean Street (Plantation), named for William Maclean, who acquired this estate in 1828.

Macphail Street, after Dugald Macphail, who was an extensive cotton-spinner, and proprietor of several factories. His mansion, which fronts the Green in Greenhead Street, is now occupied as the Buchanan Institute.

Macpherson Street was formed on ground belonging to John Macpherson of Blantyre Farm, whose coat-of-arms is emblazoned till this day on the tenement at the south corner fronting High Street. Saint Thomas Chapel stood at the eastern end of this street in the olden time.

Main Street (Anderston) was called High Street previous to 1810.

Main Street (Gorbals) was called High Street up till the beginning of last century.

Mains Street, for the estate of Mains, which came to the Campbells of Blythswood through intermarriage with a Douglas of Mains on the female side. About 1844 the name of this street was altered to Minto Street, but it soon reverted to its old title.

Mair Street (Plantation), after John Mair, a former proprietor of this estate.

Malta Street. This little street, which formed the east end of Norfolk Street and led into Main Street, has disappeared in the march of improvement. It was at first called Malt Street, from the circumstance that from time immemorial it had been inhabited by maltmen, who made malt and brewed ale.

Maryhill was named for Mary Hill, proprietrix of the estate of Gairbraid. She, with the consent of her husband, Robert Graham, feued a plot of ground on 21st July 1793 to Robert Craig, grocer, one of the conditions of the feu contract being that the plot was in all time coming to be known as Maryhill. This was the foundation of the burgh.

Mason Street was originally the site of the manse of the Rector of Renfrew. It was acquired in 1598 by John Rankene, a mason; he named it after his trade.

Mauldslie Street is named for the residential estate of Lord Newlands, whose ancestor, James Hozier, was superior of the ground.

Maxwell Street, opened 1771. The ground upon which it is formed belonged to John Maxwell of Fingalton, from whom it was bought by Stephen Maxwell of Morriston, who was an extensive coppersmith. He was also chief partner in the Merchant Bank, the office of which was in this street, and it was he who named it.

Merchants' Lane is the eastern boundary of what was the old Merchants' House property.

Merryflats, rather a strange title for a poorhouse. It was originally the muiry or miry flats. In the commissariot of Govan John Rowand or Rowane is mentioned as proprietor of Merrielands in l680.

Miller Street, opened 1760 by Mr. Miller of Westerton, whose property it was carried through.

Mitchell Street derived the name from a Mr. Mitchell, who had a distillery in it.

Molendinar Burn was in ancient times called the Gyrth or boundary burn.

Monteith Row. In 1819 lining was granted for the erection of a terrace south of and parallel to Great Hamilton Street, to front the Green, and to be named in honour of Henry Monteith, who was at that time Provost of the City. He was one of the Turkey-red magnates and the founder of the Carstairs family. John Mathieson, who was manager to Henry Monteith & Co., built the first tenement in the Row. The Carstairs estate passed lately into the possession of ex-Lord Provost Sir James King.

Monteith Street (Bridgeton) is also named for Henry Monteith.

Montrose Street, opened in 1787, was named for the Duke. This is one of the steepest streets in the City, and the writer's paternal parent, while attending an educational establishment in it during the early years of last century, was in the habit during the course of a severe winter of tobogganing down the slope in company with his schoolmates. One day, while half a dozen of the little wretches were careering down on their temporary sleigh, the boy in front got skeered, and at this moment Dr. Rankin, of the Ram's Horn Church, which is in the vicinity, came stepping out of Richmond Street, halfway down the slope, carefully watching his footing on the ice-bound street and all unweeting of the avalanche behind. It was on him in an instant, and in rushing past, one of the boys, in desperation, grabbed the reverend gentleman's nether limb, with disastrous results. Instantly his heels were in the air; hat, cane, and spectacles—where, oh, where! He was virtually a wreck, and never thoroughly recovered the shock, dying not long after in February 1827, in ignorance of the author of his unfortunate coup. Montrose is perhaps unduly commemorated in having two streets named for him, but as he is the only Duke on record that had a residence of his own in town, he is perhaps entitled to the extra recognition, as even at the present day the patent nobility seem to eschew this city, every titled personage having a residence in it, with three exceptions, having acquired their honours from civic services.

Mordaunt Street, for Lady Mordaunt, who gained considerable notoriety some years since.

Mount Florida was at first called Mount Floiidon. Advertisements anent these lands can be seen in files of the Glasgow Herald of seventy years ago.

Mount Vernon was named after a tobacco plantation in Virginia.

Muirhead Street (Gorbals) was named for Robert Muirhead, who was a Bailie in the town in 1798. It was, however, for many years better known as Warm Water Street, from a flow of waste hot water that came from a factory and ran down the side of the street into the river.

Muirpark Street was formed on the lands of this name, which had been acquired by Mr. Gardner, flesher, Partick.

Napiershall Street was formed on land belonging to Thomas Napier, who was a watchmaker in Glasgow in 1763.

Nelson Street (City), opened 1797, was named in honour of Lord Nelson.

Newhall Street was formed on the lands of Newhall, which were originally possessed by Mr. Allan.

Nicholas Street was formed on the site of St. Nicholas Hospital, which was founded in 1450.

Norfolk Street. See Laurieston.

North Street (Anderston) was formerly known as the Lang Road.

Nuneaton Street was formed on the property of the late George Wilson, coalmaster, and his widow, who had gone to reside in Nuneaton, Warwickshire, thought so much of it that she named the new street for it. The name comes from a nunnery founded by Robert, Earl of Leicester.

Orr Street is named for the superior who succeeded John Walkinshaw in the Barrowfield estate.

Oswald Street (City), opened 1817, is named for James Oswald of Shieldhall. He and James Ewing of Strathleven represented the City in Parliament after the Reform Bill of 1832. It was the western boundary of this gentleman's property, which extended eastward to Stockwell Street, and the rope walk, which was in operation till well on in last century, reached the entire length, crossing Jamaica Street in an overhead gallery.

Oswald Street (Bridgeton) was formed on ground pertaining to Barrowfield Spinning Factory, which was owned by the same gentleman, who is deservedly commemorated by a statue at the north-east corner of George Square.

Oswald Street (Whiteinch) and the lands of Scotstoun belong to another branch of the same family.

Oxford Street. See Laurieston.

Overnewton Street is formed on the lands of that name, which was the patrimonial estate of Walter Gibson, who was Provost of the town in 1688.

Partick, of old Perdyec, from the Gaelic aper dhu ec, meaning the place at the confluence or mouth of the dark river.

Peel Street, named in honour of Sir Robert Peel, who passed the Reform Bill of 1832. From his name originated the title of "peeler," as applied to the police; and from the interest he took in the cause of Orangeism, the irrepressible Dan frequently prefaced his attacks upon him in Parliament by addressing him as his friend "orange peel."

Phœnix Park is formed on the site of the Phœnix Foundry, which was carried on for many years by Thomas Edington & Sons.

Piccadilly Street, after the thoroughfare of that name in London, which got its title from a tailor named Higgins, who had introduced piccadille, a French term for a kind of trimming set round the edge of a garment, by which he made a fortune.

Pitt Street, named in honour of William Pitt, the celebrated statesman.

Plantation. These lands are composed of several smaller properties conjoined, the largest of which was Craigiehall, and this was the name it was known by till 1783, when John Robertson, who had sugar and cotton plantations in the West Indies, became proprietor and changed the name to Plantation. In 1793 John Mair, a native of Paisley, became proprietor. He had been a builder, and while repairing a steeple there slipped and fell a considerable distance, only saving his life by catching hold of a projecting stone. He then gave up the building trade and commenced the manufacture of muslin, in which he was so successful that he ultimately made sufficient money to purchase this estate; and in the garden attached to the house he built a stone seat, mounted with pinnacles overhead, to represent the Paisley steeple, and he used to sit there and ponder on his fall, which he said had been the cause of his rise. He died in 1824. Plantation was next held by William Maclean, who got possession in 1828. He died in 1867, and his son Joseph, who succeeded him, laid off the lands for feuing, he removing to the adjoining cottage of Haughead, where he had Mr. Mair's seat and appendages re-erected. This property having been acquired by the Clyde Trustees, Mr. Maclean was once more on the move, and having built a spacious villa on the neighbouring estate of Dumbreck he bestowed on it the title of Craigiehall, and here he resided till his death, which occurred some years since.

Playfair Street is formed on part of the lands of Dalmarnock, and here for many years a family of that name resided in a mansion near the bridge.

Pollokshields, Wester Shields, Shieldhall, and Shieldmuir are all from a word signifying a bield or place of shelter.

Pollok Street is named for the estate on which it stands. It is the widest street in the City, and was originally designed to be continued over the railway to Saint Andrew's Road, Pollokshields.

Polmadie, although close to the City, was, from its peculiar position, comparatively little known until within the last few years, hence arose the saying, "Oot o' the worl', and into Pomadee." The name is derived from two Gaelic words signifying the stream or pool haunted by wolves; and doubtless in the olden time quadrupeds of this description were plentiful in the locale. Previous to 1249 an hospital was erected here for the maintenance ofbthe old people of both sexes.

Portland Street, opened 1802, was named in honour of the Duke of Portland, then a leading Cabinet Minister.

Preston Street (off London Eoad) was named for John Preston, who had a rope walk here during the greater part of last century.

Princes Street (from Saltmarket Street to King Street), opened 1724, has disappeared through the operations of the City Improvement Trust. It had previously existed as a thoroughfare known as Gibson's Wynd, after Walter Gibson, who was Provost in 1688. He was the eldest son of John Gibson of Overnewton, and was widely known as a bitter persecutor of the Covenanters.

Queen Street, opened 1777, is named for Queen Charlotte. It was formed on the property of Mr. M'Call, a zealous loyalist. It was previously known as the Cow Lone.

Queen Mary Street (off London Road) is contiguous to the site of Barrowfield House, where the legend, common to nearly every old mansion in the country, is that the Queen spent a night in it, hence the name.

Renfield Street and Renfrew Street. Campbell of Blythswood's estate, near Renfrew, was called Renfield, and on his residential property he bestowed the name of his much more valuable Glasgow holding; but to make amends he named two of his new streets in the city Renfield and Renfrew respectively.

Richard Street is named for the son of William Gillespie of Wellfield, whose mansion stood on the west side of North Street till within the last three years.

Robertson Street is on the Broomielaw Croft, a portion of which had been acquired by the Smithfield Company, founded in 1734, and of which Mr. Robertson of Plantation was managing partner. It was, when first opened, called Madeira Street.

Rottenrow Street. This thoroughfare comes next to the Drygate in point of age, and it must have been a place of importance in the olden time, for at its eastern end, at the intersection of High Street and Drygate Street, stood the Cross of the town; in proof of which it is recorded in the protocols of the city that on 11th October 1575 James Rankin is "fund in the wrang and amerciament of the Court for the taking down at his ain hand of ane great croce in Rattonraw pertaining to the town, and therefore he is becoming in the Provost and Bailies will and dwme given thereupon." Mr. Renwick, Depute Town Clerk, who has edited the protocols up to date, seems to doubt that this was the Town Cross, from the fact that it was not supported by historical evidence. (In regard to the historical argument, see Bridgeton.) Had this been a holy cross to the memory of a saint or bishop, the indictment would have mentioned it, and the dignitaries of the Church would most likely have taken the punishment in hand, or at least have had a say in it, but the Church is silent, and the Cross is clearly stated to belong to the town, and, standing in the position it did, points almost indubitably to it being the Town Cross. As to the origin or meaning of the name Rottenrow, papers innumerable on this subject have been written, and the most commonly accepted finding is that it arises from Routine Row, a mixture of French and English; but this is too far-fetched. The word at present is mis-spelled, and it was the first part of the name (rotten) that upset theorists. Rottenrow Street is a misnomer; it was not at first called Rottenrow Street, but the Ratton Raw, as it still is denominated by the older generation of plain-speaking Scotch people, Row by this class being invariably pronounced Raw; and the original meaning of the word Ratton or Rattoun having been forgot, it easily became altered to Rotten, and it was this which bred so many "rotten" theories respecting tlie name. In a book of Scottish Pasquils of date 1568-1715, it occurs in the Bannatyne MS., and was published by James Maidment, advocate, Edinburgh, in 1868 for the first time. A ballad in this volume, entitled "Woman's Truth," contains the word "rattoun," as applied to and meaning a woman. In Balzac's "Harlot's Progress" (J. M. Dent & Co.'s 1896 edition), at page 14, the word "rat" is used in alluding to a young woman. It may have been a slang term somewhat similar to the word "maul," which is in common use in designating their sweethearts by the lower order of youths in this city at the present day. Slang as a rule only lives for a season, but there are exceptions, a]id in this case it is quite evident that in these far-back days "rat," "ratton," "rattoun," be they slang or not, were terms signifying and applied to young women. This, I think, clearly establishes the fact that the Ilattoun Row was the woman's row or ladies' mile of that period, and there are good reasons to support this theory, from the fact that in its pristine days the Row occupied the best natural position in the township. Being situated on the ridge of a hill, with a southern exposure, which guaranteed a dry site for dwellings, and with the gardens of the Deanery spread out on the slope below, it certainly was the most attractive street in the town, and as such would naturally become the favourite parade of the ladies, hence the name. In fact, the thoroughfare retained its favourable character up till within the last seventy or eighty years, when the residenters were in the habit of letting their houses as summer quarters, advertisements anent which can be seen in old files of the Glasgow Herald. The University commenced its career in a small building in this street in 1454, and this also might be adduced as another proof in favour of the locality.

Ruchill, originally Roughill, was in the seventeenth century the property of the Peadies, who were at that time a leading family in Glasgow, but has since then been held successively by the Dreghorn, Dennistoun, and Dundas families. From the last it was acquired by purchase early in last century by the late James Davidson; but he, having built a residence at Wemyss Bay, resided mostly there, and Ruchill House was long tenanted by the late J. H. Young, a well-known manufacturer in the city. In 1893 the Corporation purchased for a public park, from the trustees of Mr. Davidson, 53 acres of the demesne at the price of £29,176 5s., on part of which they have since built an extensive hospital.

Rumford Street is named in honour of Count Rumford. His name was Benjamin Thomson, and he got the title eonferied upon him by the Elector Palatine. He was a philosopher of the Franklin School.

Saint Andrew Square, opened 1787. It for a time was the most fashionable part of the town. The roof of the portico of Saint Andrew's Church, which stands in the centre, contains the first example in Scotland of what is known in architecture as the flat arch, and it was looked upon as a marvel at the time.

Saint Andrew Street, opened 1771.

Saint Enoch Square was opened in 1782, the first church and the present steeple having been erected two years prior. The church having become unsuitable, it was taken down in 1827 and the present one erected. The name comes from Saint Thanew, whose cell was on the site of the Tron Church in Trongate Street; and, despite statements to the contrary, there is no proof of any building for religious purposes having occupied the square previous to that of 1780. But anterior to the annihilation of all landmarks in the locality by the operations of the G. & S.-W. Railway Co., there was on the east side of Saint Enoch Lane, about midway between Argyle Street and Howard Street, a very old building of three storeys, with crow-stepped gables and small square windows, which apparently had never been glazed; but all of them on the street and first flat had at some time been fitted with iron bars. The walls were thick, and the floor, which had been flagged, was about three feet below street level. This building, when erected, had apparently faced the east, as there was a built-up arched doorway that had been garnished with pilasters in the back wall, which fronted a small yard that intervened between it and a tenement in Saint Enoch Wynd. It had all the appearance of having been a conventual or monastic institute, and from this fact, and its contiguity to the square, may have arisen the statement as to the existence of a previous church; and the only reason that can be ascribed for this ancient mass of stone and lime having been overlooked by local archaeologists is from the fact that it was the back of the building which fronted the lane, the front, which presented its only striking architectural features, being shut out from public view.

Saint Mungo Street (off Gallowgate Street) is nearly opposite the Dovehill, where in ancient times stood the chapel and yard of Little Saint Mungo, which was endowed by David Cunningham, Arch-Deacon of Argyle in 1500.

Saint Ninian Street is formed upon Saint Ninian's Croft.

Saint Rollox is a corruption of Saint Roche. The chapel of Saint Roche, the Confessor, stood on the common moor, on the north side of the city, near the place now known as Saint Rollox. In the Burgh Records, under date of 22nd May 1647, the Dean of Guild is ordained to visit Saint Rollok's Kirkyard, and to set up the "merche stanes."

Saint Vincent Street, to commemorate the victory of Sir John Jervis, on February 15th, 1797, off Cape Saint Vincent.

Saltmarket Street, opened in 1100. It was then known as Walcargate, deriving this name from being the residing place of a colony of cloth waulkers or fullers. About 1650 the name was changed, when it became the market for salt.

Saracen Street was formed on part of the lands of Possil, which had been acquired by Walter Macfarlane & Co., of the Saracen Foundry, for their works, which had originally been in Saracen Lane, which formed the eastern boundary of the old Saracen Inn, which fronted Gallowgate Street. The building is still in existence, and it was in it that Dr. Johnson, on his return from his Highland tour, rejoiced to find himself sitting once more in front of a coal fire.

Sauchiehall Street derives its name from being formed on a haugh or meadow where saugh trees grew. It is a corruption of the Scotch word "sauchiehaugh," and is quite apart from its meaning. The provost or flesher's haugh in Glasgow Green might as well be called the provost's hall, which would be absurd, as hall, in the common acceptance of the term, means a dwelling. This anghcising of Scotch words by ignorant and conceited persons is very common, and leads to frequent error. The eastern end of this street, from Buchanan Street to West Nile Street, was previously called Cathcart Street.

Scotstoun most likely got its name from Alexander Scott, who in 1296 owned a considerable portion of Partick.

Shettleston. In the Origines Parochiales, published by the Bannatyne Club in 1850, Shettleston is given as Schedinestun, and it is said to have been so called from a daughter of Saint Patrick's brother, or perhaps derived its title from some Saxon colonist; and the place is enumerated among the Bishop's possessions in 1170. It is really wonderful the fertility of brain possessed by some pundits. Shedinestun, when looked at broadly, is only another way of spelling Sheddinston or Sheddinstoun, the town at the Sheddins. The latter, from the Latin schidius, meaning cleft or split, is an old Scotch term signifying where the road split or divided. As is the case at Shettleston, there are several clachans or hamlets in the country styled "The Sheddans," and this entirely owing to their position at the divergence of the roads. Shettleston is therefore plainly a corruption of Sheddinston, and it undoubtedly derived its title from its position at the parting of the ways; so the daughter of the patron saint of Ireland's brother will require to get something else to keep her memory green than this little spot at the east end of our city.

Shuttle Street was formed on the lands of Shuttlefield. It had previously been known as Greyfriar's Wynd, the friars having had a monastery here under a charter granted to them by King James the Third in 1479. One of the side walls of the old building stood till within the last three years, and a fragment can yet be seen behind St. Paul's Parish Mission Hall by going up the close or entry number 14.

Silvergrove Street. The lands of Silver Grove were acquired by Mr. Ure, the writer's maternal ancestor, towards the end of the eighteenth century. They had previously been occupied as a farm, and the steading, with out-houses, which formed a square near the south end of what is now Silvergrove Street, was converted into small houses by Mr. Ure, entry to which was got by a slap or lane at the south-west corner of Duncan Street, which adjoins, and this isolated little hamlet was for many years known as The Grove. On the portion of the lands fronting Canning Street, then known as Barrowfield Road, the proprietor built a villa for himself, likewise two cottages, one for his brother and the other was said to be for his daughter; but she married an Edinburgh solicitor named Donaldson and went off the scene. The ground was gradually feued off and built upon, but the villa and cottages, one of the latter having quaint diamond-shaped window panes, remained in a dilapidated condition till within the last fifty years. When Silvergrove Street came to be formed they were swept away. The name arises from a row of silver firs which bordered the Camlachie Burn, which formed the south-east boundary of the property.

Stirling Road was made as an approach to the Canal by William Stirling &, Son, who were extensive merchants and manufacturers in the city.

Stirling Street (City), opened 1797, and named for the senior partner of William Stirling & Son.

Stobcross Street was formed on the avenue leading to Stobcross House. The name arose from a wooden cross which stood near the spot where the bye-road to the Clyde, now Finnieston Street, branched off from the main highway leading from the Bishop's Castle to Partick.

Stockwell Street derives the name from a well which stood on the east side, about half way down the street, and was wrought with the old-fashioned wood stock, which vanished with the introduction of the iron lever. This street was utilised as a buchts or feeing maiket till the opening of the market in Graham Square.

Strathbungo is a Celtic word having some connection with a stream running swiftly in a confined channel. In Johnston's "Place Names of Scotland" it is given as Srath Mou Gah, Valley of Saint Mungo, or the dear one. This is evidently manufactured, as "mon gah " is pure Norse.

Struthers Street was named for Robert Struthers, brewer who was the first Provost of Calton.

Sword Street is named for James Sword, through whose lands of Annfield it was formed.

Tennant Street, after Charles Tennant, the elder, of Saint Rollox Chemical Works.

Thomson Street (off Dake Street), after Bailie John Thomson of Annfield Pottery.

Tradeston consists of that portion of land allocated to the Trades House out of the purchase made from Sir Robert Douglas by the Magistrates and Council in 1647. It is bounded on the east by Bridge Street and Eglinton Street, on the north by the River Clyde, on the west by West Street, and on the south by the Paisley and Johnstone Canal. It was laid off for feuing by John Gardner, optician, who was the associate and friend of James Watt. The names of almost every street in the section have been changed since the plan was made. Centre Street alone excepted, the first house in which was built by Thomas Craigie in 1790.

Trongate Street was at first known as Saint Thanew's Gate, but the name was changed on the introduction of the Tron weighing establishment. The old title being cariied westward, and getting metamorphosed, was imposed upon Saint Enoch Square.

Tureen Street. A Mr. Bagnal had a pottery here, who made a speciality in the manufacture of tureens; hence the name. He was a Frenchman and a Roman Catholic. During a fanatical outburst in February 1780, the Protestants wrecked his place, and smashed his crockery. He had also a shop in King Street (City) which met the same fate. For this considerate treatment he was fortunately indemnified by the authorities.

Turner's Court, on the south side of Argyle Street, nearly opposite Queen Street, was named for John Turner, spirit merchant, Argyle Street. He died about 1797. This place during the present year (1901), has in the course of re-building been entirely swept away.

Union Street was called Union Place till Gordon Street was opened in 1802. Sir Andrew Orr, who was Provost in 1854, had a considerable monetary interest in this street, and he tried to boom it, but it would not work, being too far west at that time for high-class shops. The first Unitarian Chapel in the city was in this street, on the site now occupied by the office of the Weekly Mail, the entrance to the church being by a stair in front. The sect were not popular at the time, and it was commonly remarked that among the things not generally known in the city one of them was that the highway to destruction was up an outside stair in Union Street. But the sect, notwithstanding this Christian antipathy and bigotry, have flourished exceedingly since then.

Ure Place, which forms three sides of a square at the north-east corner of Montrose Street, was named for John Ure, who was a merchant in Gallowgate Street early in last century. His business premises were on the south side of the street, immediately east of the Gallowgate Bridge.

Virginia Street, opened 1753, got its name from Provost Andrew Buchanan of Drumpellar. He built the Virginia Mansion, which stood at the north end, the site of which is now occupied by the Union Bank.

Waddell Street, named for Mr. Waddel of Stonefield, through whose estate it was formed.

Walkinshaw Street, named for John Walkinshaw of Barrowfield. He was an ardent Jacobite, having been out both in the Fifteen and Forty-Five, and was ultimately taken prisoner, but escaped by the aid of his wife, who was the sister of Sir Hugh Paterson of Bannockburn.

Warroch Street is named for the junior partner of Murdoch, Warroch & Co., who had a brewery here in 1765. In 1766 Mr. Murdoch, the senior partner, was Provost of the town, and during his tenure of office he was presented, when in London, to King George the Third, who remarked that he was the handsomest Scotsman he had ever seen.

Washington Street was named by Miss Mary Reid, the proprietrix of the ground on which it was formed, in honour of the founder of American Independence, in accordance with her political principles.

Weaver Street formed part of the lands belonging to the Incorporation of Weavers. It was laid out for feuing in 1792.

West Street (South Side) formed the western boundary of Tradeston. During the greater part of last century a railway occupied the centre of this street throughout its entire length. It was owned by William Dixon, of Govan Colliery, who utilised it in the transport of coal direct from the pit to the harbour for shipment.

West Street (Calton) formed the western boundary of the lands which lay between Mile-end and Broomward.

Western Road (Great). The formation of this thoroughfare was begun in 1839.

Whitehall Street was formed through the lands of Whitehall. The old mansion, still standing, smoke-begrimed and weird-like, is used as a store, and in appearance belies its name. In its palmy days the lawn reached down to the river.

Whitehill Street was formed through the lands of Whitehill. Whitevale Street was named in compliment after Whitehill House. It was for many years a semi-private street, with a gate at the end of it.

William Street (Anderston) is named after a son of William Gillespie of Wellfield, through which lands this street was formed.

Wilson Street (off Candleriggs Street), opened 1790, derives its name from a charity school, which stood on the north side It was founded by George Wilson in 1778.

Windmill Croft. Sir George Elphinston, whose lands extended westwards from Gorbals to Kinning House Burn, erected here, near the foot of West Street, a windmill for the use of his tenants. It stood till 1749.

Wishart Street, named in honour of Robert Wishart, a patriotic Bishop, who was the firm friend of Wallace and Bruce, and he did not scruple at times to throw aside his vestments and, buckling on his armour, take the field with his countrymen against the Saxon invader. He had previously been Archdeacon of Lothian, and was one of the Regency on the death of Alexander the Third. He was elected to the See in Glasgow in 1271, and died 26th November 1316, and was buried in the Cathedral between the altars of Saint Peter and Saint Andrew.

Woddrop Street is formed on the lands of Dalmarnock, and named for the Superiors who were among the original portioners of Glasgow. James Woddrop of Dalmainock and James Woddrop, younger, are witnesses to the later will of John Blackburne, minister of the Baronie of Glasgow, who died May 1623. The lands of Dalbeth and Westthorne were also held by the Woddrops in 1710.

Wood Lane (off Broomielaw Street) led to a timber yard, south of Madeira Court. It is now engrossed in the Central Railway Station.

York Street was named for the Duke of York, who was for a time Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, with frequent disastrous results.

Yorkhill. In the beginning of the eighteenth century the westmost section of the lands of Overnewton, including the park of Yorkhill, became the property of Robert Fulton Alexander, merchant in Glasgow, and he, about 1805, built the present mansion and gave the general name of Yorkhill to it and the lands he had acquired.

This work was published before January 1, 1927, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.