The Oxford book of Italian verse/Notes

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search


San Francesco d'Assisi, son of Pietro di Bernadone, merchant; born at Assisi. Trained as a merchant, but preferred a life of pleasure, and was the acknowledged chief of a band of happy hedonists in his native town. Taken prisoner by the Perugians in 1202, he began to dream of military glory during captivity, and when he was free decided to take arms on behalf of Innocent III, but, falling ill at Spoleto, he was warned in a vision to become the ‘new soldier of Christ’, and returned to Assisi. He separated himself from his family, and in 1209, having given away all that he possessed, he went from city to city preaching the new gospel of poverty, repentance, and love for others. In 1210 the Rule of the new Order was approved by Innocent III, and in 1217 five thousand Brothers assembled at the first General Chapter. Probably he met St. Dominic at Porziuncola in 1218. In 1219 he went to St. John of Acre, but was recalled to Italy owing to dissensions in the Order. In 1223 the revised rule was solemnly ratified by Honorius III. A year later, on the Mount Alvernia, the body of the saint, worn by long toils and fasting, prese l'ultimo sigillo, and on the 4th of October, 1226, he died at Porziuncola whilst the larks, as the old legend tells us, sang at his window. He was canonized by Gregory IX in 1228, and two years later his remains were interred beneath the high altar of the Lower Church.

1. 4. ene = è. 5. cum = per mezzo di. 11. clarite = chiare.

Ciullo (dim. of Vincenzo) d'Alcamo. A poet of the Sicilian court. This Tenzone is not written in Sicilian dialect, but in the still unformed language which all the earliest Italian poets used with local variations.

2. i. 7. abentu = riposo. ii. 5. abere = avere. 8. cavelli m'aritonno, ‘cut off my hair as a nun.’ iv. 3. patremo = mio padre. v. 4. agostari, gold coins of the Emperor Frederick. vi. 3. perperi = monete. vii. 3. parabole (Low Latin parabola) = parole. 4. dimina = domina. viii. 6. alla distisa = a tutta corsa. 8. gueri = niente affatto. ix. 3. mostero = monastero.

Pietro delle Vigne. Born in Capua; studied law at Bologna. Protonotary of the kingdom of Sicily under Frederick II. He was accused of high treason,—probably of conspiring with Innocent IV against the Emperor,—and committed suicide. He is immortalized in Canto XIII of the Inferno.

3. Amore, in cui disio... i. 6. spanna, spreads her sails. ii. 8. ameraggio = amerò. iii. 5. aulente cera = odoroso volto. v. 8. al suo volire = a voler suo.

Federigo II. Born at Jesi, son of Henry VI and Constance of Sicily. A fierce opponent of the Papacy and an enthusiastic student and lover of the fine arts. His court was crowded with learned men of every nationality, trovatori e belli favellatori, uomini d'arti, giostratori, schermitori, d'ogni maniera gente. Founded the University of Naples in 1224. Died at Ferentino near Foggia in 1250.

4. Poi ch'a voi piace... i. 3. onne = ogni. 5. aggio = ho. ii. 7. Fui dato in voi amando, ‘was destined to love you’. 11. che = sì che. 14. sor = sopra. iii. 9. insegnamento = cognizione. 14. conto = adorno.

Enzo, Re. Born at Palermo in 1225; natural son of Frederick II; had the title of King of Sardinia through his wife Adelasia di Torres. Fought against the Church and the Guelfs. Imperial Vicar of Lombardy. Taken prisoner by the Bolognese in 1249, and spent the last thirty years of his life in prison at Bologna.

5. S'eo trovasse... i. 2. In carnata figura, in any living person. 8. gecchimento = abbassamento. 14. verría = diverrebbe. iv. 11. sagnato = ferito. 13. istagna, ‘stanches the wound.’ v. 4. non la sdegni = di non isdegnarla. 8. alligni, ‘unites herself.’

Giacopo da Lentino. Another of the Sicilian group of poets. [Cp. Purg. xxiv. 56.]

6. Maravigliosamente... ii. 4. forte, ‘difficult to understand’. iii. 8-9. The sense is: ‘still cannot see within him a visible image of his faith.’ iv. 4. invoglia = involge. vi. 7. signa = segno.

Rinaldo d'Aquino. Of the Sicilian gioup; there is very little authentic information about him. His canzone probably refers to the Crusade of 1228.

7. Lamento. i. 4. collare, hoist sails. vii. 1. celle, anchorage. viii. 5. abentare (Sicilian), rest.

Giacomino Pugliese. Another shadowy personage of the Sicilian group.

8. Morte, perchè... i. 6. Disparti = separi. vi. 3. ambondoi = amendue.

Guido delle Colonne. A Sicilian poet; he seems to have been judge of Messina circa 1242, and probably wrote a Historia Troiann. The first lines of two canzoni by him are quoted by Dante in the course of his remarks on the Sicilian group of poets. [De Vulg. Eloq. I. xii; and cp. II. 5.]

9. Oi lassa... iii. 10. chi lo m'intenza, ‘who stole him away from me.’ 11. mora di mala lanza, ‘die an evil death.’ v. 12. gallo, exultation.

Mazzeo Ricco. According to F. Torraca, a Messinese who commanded the ships which his native town sent to resist the Pisans when Corradino, Frederick's grandson, made his attempt to wrest his hereditary possessions from Charles of Anjou. He was murdered in 1282 by the townspeople.

10. Gioiosamente canto... ii. 7. la pantera. It was believed in the middle ages that the panther possessed the art of exhaling a delightful odour which entranced the senses of pursuers or victims. 12. l'Assassino, the faithful servant of the legendary Old Man of the Mountain. iii. 8. non ha = che non ha. v. 9. giulente = giulivo. 11. mino = meno.

Ciacco dell'Anguillaja. Probably a Florentine. The simplicity of style in this Tenzone contrasts stiongly with the mannered effusions of the Sicilian court.

11. Canzone a dialogo. i. 1. lezïosa = graziosa. iii. 4. marangone, a diver. iv. 5. s'tu = se tu. v. 3, 4. ‘The dead don't return, no matter how many masses you sing for them.’ vii. 8. in fio, ‘in fee.’ viii. 4. coralmente, ‘with all my heart.’

Guittone d'Arezzo.. Born at Santa Firmina near Arezzo, and held office in the Commune of that city. Enrolled in 1269 amongst the knights of Santa Maria Gloriosa (frati godenti). Gave all his possessions in 1293 to found the monastery degli Angeli in Florence. Died, probably in Florence, 1294. He wrote both verse and prose in Italian; love poetry at first, and then moral and religious canzoni. As a poet he enjoyed great renown and had many disciples; Dante alludes to his fame (Purg. xxvi. 124; xxiv. 55), but regards his followers as blind to the dolce stil nuovo of Italy (cf. De Vulg. Eloq. II. 6). Guittone's letters are interesting examples of the earliest Italian prose.

12. Ahi lasso... i. 5. granata, flourishing. 8. avaccio = subito. ii. 11. poso, peace. 12. fulli amoroso, ‘was pleasing to her.’ 15. Leone, the Marzocco, the emblem of the Commune of Florence. iii. 1. veo = veggio. 10. innantir, ‘presume.’ iv. 11. la campana, the Martinella which hung on the car of the Commune, the rallying-point in battle. 15. quella schiatta, the Uberti and their adherents. v. 1. chêr = cerca.

For ten years (1250-60) the Primo Popolo of Florence enjoyed a period of prosperity under the government of a Council of Twelve, a Podestà, and a Capitano del popolo; the Guelfs were in power, and the Ghibellines were expelled from the city in 1258. These Ghibelline exiles, under the leadership of Farinata degli Uberti, and aided by the Sienese and by Manfred, completely routed the Guelfs at Montaperti near Siena on September 4, 1260. It was after this battle that Farinata prevented the Ghibellines from utterly destroying Florence. [Inferno, X. 91.]

Rustico di Filippo. Florentine. About sixty sonnets by him are extant, many of them burlesque.

14. Una bestiuola... 4. Salinguerra, a famous Ghibelline of Ferrara.

Compiuta Donzella. Florentine; called la divina Sibilla by Maestro Torrigiano, but nothing is known of her.

16. Alla stagion. 8. marrimenti, woes. 11. signore, ‘a husband.’

Jacopone da Todi. Born at Todi. After the death of his wife at a banquet he became a hermit. He wrote religious poems and satires against Celestine V and Boniface VIII; the Stabat Mater has been attributed to him. He was imprisoned by Boniface, regained his liberty in 1303, and died in the Franciscan convent of Collazzone in 1306.

18. La Crocifissione. ii. 2. allide, ‘strike.’ xviii. 3. bollon, a huge nail. xxi. 1. corrotto, lamentation. xxii. 4. descilïato, ‘mangled.’

Guido Guinizelli. Born at Bologna. His family was the de' Principi, and he was probably expelled from the city with the parte Lambertazza in 1274. Guittone of Arezzo influenced him strongly at first, but later he evolved a manner of his own. Dante praises him frequently (De Vulg. Eloq., I. xv), but assigns the place of honour amongst the poets of the dolce stil nuovo to Cavalcanti rather than to him.

     Così ha tolto l'uno all'altro Guido
          La gloria della lingua. (Purg. xi. 97.)

19. Al cor gentil... i. 5. adesso, 'as soon as.' iii. 8. prende rivera, 'makes its abode.' 10. adamas, magnet. v. 1. intelligenza, the heavenly spirit which derives its power to move the spheres from its contemplation of God. vi. 2. Stando l'anima mia, 'when my soul shall be.'

20. Voglio del ver... 8. raffina miglio, 'comes to greater perfection.' 10. salute = saluto.

Guido Cavalcanti. Florentine. Son of Cavalcante di Schiatta (Inf. x); married the daughter of Farinata degli Uberti. A white Guelf and fierce opponent of Corso Donati. Became Dante's friend in 1283; member of the Grand Council of the Commune, 1284. Went on a pilgrimage to St. James of Compostella c. 1294, but got no further than Nimes and Toulouse, for the reason which he gives us in his poetry. In 1300 the chiefs of the Cerchi and Donati factions were exiled by a decree of the Signoria, which Dante, who was then Prior, approved; amongst them was Cavalcanti, who was sent to Sarzana in Lunigiana. They were soon recalled, but Cavalcanti had fallen a victim to malaria and died shortly after his return.

23. Era in penser... vii. 2. la Dorata, a church in Toulouse.

29. Perch'i' non spero... Written when he was dying in exile.

Cecco Angiolieri. Born in Siena. Led a merry life, quarrelled with his relatives and fought against the Aretines. Wrote an unkind sonnet to Dante, who ignored him. Boccaccio (Decam, G. ix. 4) tells the story of how he was robbed of his clothes by a friend.

31. Quando Ner Piccolin... 5. mescianza, one of Neri Piccolin's French tricks of speech.

Dino Frescobaldi. Little is known of him. For the legend of his share in the discovery of the first seven cantos of the Divina Commedia, v. Boccaccio, Vita di Dante.

Lapo Gianni. Held legal office in Florence from 1298 to 1328. A friend of Dante and of Cavalcanti.

Folgore di San Gemignano. Wrote a cycle of sonnets on the various diversions of a knight during the year and was probably a member of the brigata spenderaccia to which Dante alludes in Inf. xxix.

Dante Alighieri. Born in Florence, in the Sesto di San Piero Maggiore. Studied philosophy and rhetoric, and was influenced by, though rot actually a pupil of, Brunetto Latini. Probably attended lectures at Bologna, and possibly in Paris; there seems to be no evidence that he did so in Oxford. He fought on the Guelf side at Campaldino, where the Aretines were defeated in 1289, and at the capture of the castle of Caprona, held by the Pisans, in the same year. (Inferno, xxi. 94.) He saw Beatrice, daughter of Folco Portinari, for the first time in 1274 when he was nine years old; the story of his love is written in the Vita Nuova and in the wonderful canto of the Purgatorio which describes his meeting with her divine semblance. She was married to Simone de' Bardi in 1288 and died in 1290. Dante married, about 1295, Gemma di Manetto Donati, by whom he had two sons and two daughters. He was enrolled in the arte de' medici e speziali, and entered public life in 1295, when he was a member of the Consiglio speciale del Capitano. In 1296, and again in 1297, he was one of the Consiglio dei Cento, and in May, 1300, went as ambassador to San Gemignano. In the same year he was one of the six priors who decreed the exile of the chiefs of the Donati and Cerchi; he held various lesser offices in 1301, and probably went as ambassador to Boniface VIII, whom he had consistently opposed. With the coming of Charles de Valois to Florence in Nov. 1301 the Black Guelfs rose to power, and 600 of the Whites, with Dante amongst them, were condemned to death or exile on various pretexts. Dante was accused of corruption and extortion and of intriguing against the Pope, and was condemned to pay a fine of five thousand small florins within three days of the sentence, or to suffer the loss of all he possessed, with perpetual exile and perpetual incapacity of holding public office. Shortly afterwards he was condemned to be burnt alive if he fell into the clutches of the Commune. The white Guelfs joined the exiled Ghibellines, but Dante soon became disgusted with the dissensions of these confederates. He never returned to Florence, but passed the remainder of his life in wandering from court to court: first at Verona with Bartolommeo della Scala, then at Sarzana with Malaspina; he was in the Casentino in 1307, in Pisa, and in Lucca. In 1316 a general amnesty for exiles was proclaimed on condition that they did penance in San Giovanni, but Dante was not among the penitents. Non vedrò dappertutto lo splendore del sole e degli astri? His last refuge was Ravenna, where Guido da Polenta, the nephew of Francesca da Rimini, was ruler. He died there on his return from a mission to Venice and was buried in San Piero Maggiore.

The chronological order of his works is probably as follows: Vita Nuova, Rime Amorose; De Volgari Eloquentia, Convivio, De Monarchia. His other poems, letters, and the Divina Commedia, extend over a long period of his life.

40. Tre donne... This canzone would probably have formed the text of the unwritten XlVth treatise of the Convivio. (v. Mr. P. H. Wicksteed's translation of the Convivio in the Temple classics.) v. 7. i bianchi fiori, an allusion to the events in Florence just before his exile. 12. ciò che m'è grave, exile.

41. Voi che intendendo... From the Convivio, trattato secondo. i. 1. il terzo ciel, Venus, the planet of Love. ii. 2. un soave pensier, i. e. of Beatrice. iii. 8. tal donna, his new love, Philosophy. iv. 4. che tu senti, ‘whose power you feel.’

42. Donne, ch'avete... The first canzone of the Vita Nuova.

43. Donna pietosa... Vita Nuova, Canz. II. i. 3. Era dov'io, where he was lying ill. iii. 2. leggiero — ‘brief.’ 9. smagati — ‘bewildered.’ iv. 8. la stella, Venus.

44. Gli occhi dolenti. Vita Nuova, Canz. III. v. 5. nel secol nuovo, ‘the new life of the soul.’

45. Quantunque volte... Vita Nuova, Canz. IV.

46. Sonetto. i. 1. Guido = Cavalcanti; Lapo = Lapo Gianni. 9. Monna Vanna, Giovanna, detta Primavera, beloved of Cavalcanti. Lagia, beloved by Lapo. 10. sul numero del trenta—alluding to a list of the fair ladies of Florence that Dante made in his youth.

49. Negli occhi... V. N. Son. XI.

50. Io mi sentii... V. N. Son. XIV.

51. Tanto gentile... V. N. Son. XV.

52. Venite... V. N. Son. XVII.

53. Lasso!... V. N. Son. XXIII.

54. Deh peregrini... V.N. Son. XXIV.

55. Era venuta... V. N. Son. XVIII.

56. Oltre la spera... V. N. Son. XXV.

57. O Patria... i. 3. tua suora, Rome.

Cino da Pistoia. Born at Pistoia; educated at Bologna, where he met Selvaggia, daughter (probably) of Filippo Vergiolesi. Shared the exile of the parte Nera in 1301. Returned to Pistoia when the Blacks regained power and held office in the city. Legal adviser to Louis of Savoy in Rome 1310; Laureate of the University of Bologna 1314. Lectured in Siena, Florence, and Perugia, and went to Naples on the invitation of King Robert; died at Pistoia. An intimate friend of Dante. He wrote many legal works; his poems were nearly all written in his youth. [Rime di Messer Cino da Pistoia, S. Ciampi (Pistoia, 1826); Vita e opere giuridiche di C. da P., Chiappelli (Pistoia, 1881).]

61. Avvegna che... ii. 10. come avea l'angel... The reference is to Dante's Donne che avete intelletto d'amore.

62. Io fui. 8. conte, fair.

Francesco Petrarca. Born at Arezzo. His father, Ser Petracco, was exiled from Florence with the White Guelfs in 1302. Passed the first seven years of his life at Incisa in Valdarno; was at Pisa during 1310 and went to Avignon in 1311. Studied at Carpentras, Montpellier, and Bologna. Returned to Avignon in 1325 and took the lesser orders. Studied assiduously. Saw Laura for the first time in the church of St. Clara, April 1327. Her identity is still doubtful; probably she was the wife of Hugo de Sade. In the years that followed this meeting Petrarch travelled in Belgium and Switzerland. Entered the service of Cardinal Giovanni Colonna c. 1331; travelled in France, Germany, and Italy; was in Rome in 1337. In the same year he retired from Avignon to Vaucluse. In 1340 was offered the laureate's crown of the University of Paris and the Roman senate; accepted the latter, and was crowned on the Capitol, Easter Day, 1341. Visited Pisa and Parma; went to Naples in 1343 to guard the interests of the Church for Clement VI; met Cola di Rienzo at Avignon. Travelled again; discovered Cicero's letters to Atticus at Verona. Stayed for some time in Parma, where he held a benefice; whilst there heard of Laura's death, April 1348. Cardinal Giovanni Colonna died about the same time. Went to Florence, where he was Boccaccio's guest; then to Rome, Arezzo, and Padua. Lived in Milan for some time; in favour with the Visconti; went to Paris in 1360 as ambassador for Galeazzo to the French king. Between 1362 and 1368 was otten in Venice, then at Padua. Fell ill on a journey to Ferrara, and went to Arquà on the Euganean Hills; he was found dead, with his head resting on the book which he had been reading, July 19, 1374. His chief works are: In Italian, the Canzoniere, the Trionfi; in Latin, the Africa, an epic in hexameters on the second Punic War; the 12 Eclogues of the Carmen Bucolicum; 77 Epistolae Metricae; the De Contemptu Mundì or Secretum, dialogues between Petrarch and St. Augustine; the De Vita Solitaria, the De Ocio Religiosorum, the De Remediis utriusque fortunae, and various other historical, polemical, and geographical works. He wrote innumerable letters; the most famous is the Epistola ad Posteros, c. 1370.

87. Spirto gentil. Possibly addressed to Cola da Rienzo. vi. Orsi, Lupi, etc. The Orsini, Savelli, dei Tuscoli, and dei Caetani, enemies of the Colonna family.

88. Italia mia... iii. 13. Mario aperse sì 'l fianco, at Aquae Sextiae, b. c. 102, when he beat the Teutones. His men complained of the want of water, and he pointed to the enemies' camp and told them to buy it there with their blood. v. 3. che alzando 'l dito, alluding to the mercenaries who only pretended to fight. 12. un nome, the vain reputation of the enemies.

90. Trionfo della Morte. I. terz. 11. una donna, Death. 17. costor, the dead. questa spoglia, 'my body'; una = unica. 28. u’ = dove.

Fazio degli Uberti. Born probably at Pisa of a famous family. Was an adherent of the Visconti and Scaligeri. Travelled in France and Germany. Composed a Dittamondo in terza rima which was influenced by Dante.

Giovanni Boccaccio. Born in Paris; his family came from Certaldo in Valdelsa, the beautiful little city which travellers from Florence to Siena pass a short time after leaving Empoli. Came as a boy to Florence, and went to Naples, probably to study commerce. Villani tells us that the sight of Virgil's tomb at Posilipo awakened his passion for letters. He fell in love with a lady whom he called Fiammetta, and returned to Florence about 1340. In 1350 he met Petrarca, and visited him at Padua in 1351. He held various appointments at Florence and went on several embassies. A mad monk almost scared him into leaving his profane literary studies, but Petrarch dissuaded him from this error. In 1373 he began to read and comment on the Divina Commedia in San Stefano di Badia; the course was broken off by the failure of his health. Shortly afterwards he retired to Certaldo, where he died and was buried. His chief works are:—the Decameron, the Fiammetta, the Filocolo, the Filostrato (in verse), love idylls based on old legends; the Teseide, in twelve books, narrates the story of Palamon and Arcite which Chaucer used in the Canterbury Tales; the Ameto, prose and verse, a pastoral; the Ninfale Fiesolano, another; the Amorosa Visione, an allegory in rhyme, the Corbaccio, invective against a widow who disliked him; the Vita di Dante, the commentary on the Divina Commedia; and in Latin the De casibus virorum illustrium, De claris mulieribus, the Bucolicon (17 eclogues), and the De genealogiis deorum gentilium in 15 books.

92. Io mi son giovinetta... Decameron, Giorno IX.

Franco Sacchetti. Born at Florence, of an old Guelf family. (Par. xvi. 104.) A merchant. Held office under the Commune during the affair of the Ciompi. Probably died of the plague in 1400. Wrote more than 200 novelle and a great quantity of verse.

Ignoti. Lamentations of unwilling nuns and of young women with vigilant parents are frequent in popular Italian poetry.

Giustiniani. Born at Venice. Procuratore of San Marco, 1443. A classical scholar; translated Plutarch. Wrote many Strambotti and Canzonette, modelled on the popular songs of Italy, and set them to music. The strambotto probably had its origin in Sicily [v. A. D'Ancona, La poesia popolare italiana, Livorno, 1906]. Wrote sacred poems late in his life.

Del Basso. Ferrarese: fl. temp. Niccolò III d'Este. Wrote Le Fatiche d'Ercole and a commentary on Boccaccio's Teseide.

Boiardo. Born at Scandiano. A favourite at the court of Ferrara during the reigns of Borso d'Este and Ercole I; was one of the courtiers appointed to receive the Emperor Frederick III; went to Rome with Borso, where the latter was granted the title of duke by Paul II, 1471. Capitano ducale of Modena, 1481–3, of Reggio 1487–94. Orlando Innamorato, Amorum liber (in three books: Reggio, 1499), Capitoli sopra el timore, Ecloghe; Timone, a comedy in five acts based on one of Lucian's dialogues, and some translations and Latin poems. [Sonetti e Canzoni di M. M. Boiardo, ed. Panizzi, Milano, 1845.]

Collenuccio. Born at Pesaro; studied law in Padua; judge at Bologna, 1472–3, procuratore generale at Pesaro for Costanzo Sforza, 1477. Went on an embassy to Sixtus IV, 1483; became involved in legal tangle and was imprisoned for sixteen months; afterwards exiled. Went into the service of Lorenzo the Magnificent; was podestà of Florence in 1490; ducal councillor of Ercole I, at Ferrara, 1491, and podestà of Mantua; went as ambassador to Maximilian of Austria and to Alexander VI; was in Rome with Cardinal Ippolito d'Este, 1497; Captain of Justice at Ferrara, 1500. Obtained the restitution of his confiscated property from Cesare Borgia, who was governor of Pesaro, but lost it again when Sforza returned in 1503. Was enticed to Pesaro in 1504, and was murdered in prison by order of Giovanni Sforza. Wrote a history of the kingdom of Naples, Lucianic dialogues in Latin and Italian, translated Terence; his Commedia dl Jacop e di Josef was acted in 1504; his Latin works include a Descriptio rerum Germanicarum and a Defensio Pliniana. The Canzone alla Morte was probably written during his first captivity.

Lorenzo de' Medici (page 184). Born at Florence. Son of Piero di Cosimo (Bicci) de' Medici and Lucrezia Tornabuoni. Studied literature with Gentile d' Urbino and Cristoforo Landino, Greek with Giovanni Argiropolo, and philosophy with Marsilio Ficino. Succeeded his father as Principe della Repubblica in 1469; the death of his brother Giuliano in the Pazzi conspiracy left him supreme in Florence. He displayed great wisdom and courage in political affairs, averting a war which seemed inevitable by going to Naples and placing himself in the power of the detestable King Ferrante, who was allied with Sixtus IV against Florence, and winning him over to peace by his eloquence (1479). He maintained a balance of power throughout Italy, and kept his excitable Florentines quiet by means of perpetual festivities and pageants. His court was thronged with the greatest artists and scholars of his time; Poliziano and Pulci shared his passion for the bel viver italiano that was so soon to vanish. He died in his villa at Careggi; Savonarola visited him during his last hours; and he was buried in the Sagrestia vecchia of San Lorenzo. In addition to his secular poems he wrote a Sacra rappresentazione di San Giovanni e Paolo, and some Laudi spirituali. [Poesie, ed. G. Carducci, Firenze, 1859, contains the interesting letter on ancient Italian poetry which he wrote (1466) to Frederick of Aragon, son of the King of Naples.]

The Canzoni a ballo and Trionfi were written to be sung on festive occasions.

Poliziano. Born at Montepulciano; fellow student with Lorenzo de' Medici. Professor of Latin and Greek Eloquence in the Florence Studio, 1480. Went as Oratore to Innocent VIII, 1485; held many benefices, though he took no orders; would probably have been made a cardinal if he had lived longer. Wrote many Latin works, translated part of the Iliad, and poems by Moschus and Callimachus into that language. Wrote lyrics in Italian, Stanze in praise of the Medici, and the Orfeo, a tragedy in five very short acts. [Rime, ed. Carducci, Firenze, 1863.]

Sannazaro. Born at Naples. Enjoyed the protection of Alfonso of Calabria, and fought in the war against Innocent VIII, 1485. Was a member of the Accademia at Naples. King Frederick gave him a villa at Mergellina, which was destroyed by the Prince of Orange in 1528, to his great disgust. He served the king faithfully, and raised money for him when he had fallen on evil days. He died in the house of Cassandra Marchese at Naples and was buried in a church which he had built. Chief works: L'Arcadia, Rime, Lettere. He wrote excellent Latin: Eclogues, Elegies, Epigrams, and a poem De Partu Virginis.

Di Tarsia. Probably Galeazzo II, fourth Baron of Belmonte, born in Cosenza; Reggente della Vicaria, 1509.

Machiavelli. Born at Florence. Secretary of the Dicci di Balía, 1498; ‘Florentine Secretary’ (i. e. of Florentine affairs with other States) 1499. Went on various missions, amongst others to Louis XII and Cesare Borgia. Served under Piero di Tommaso Soderini, who was elected Gonfaloniere for life in 1502; organized the Florentine militia. His work afforded him extraordinary opportunity for studying various types of princes and of realizing the folly of employing mercenaries. On the return of the Medici to Florence (1512) he lost office and was banished for a year; in 1513 he was involved in a conspiracy against them and was imprisoned, tortured, and then pronounced not guilty. He retired to San Casciano, and studied politics and history. He was reconciled with the Medici in 1519 and again went on various missions, but when in 1527 they were again driven out of Florence he lost his secretarial post, and died shortly afterwards in extreme poverty. He was buried in Santa Croce. Chief works: Il Principe, L'Arte della Guerra, Le Istorie Fiorentine, Discorso sopra la prima Deca di T. Livio, La Mandragola, comedy in five acts, La Clizia, another comedy, imitated from Plautus, I Decennali, in terza rima, a history of events from 1494 to 1509, a few Rime, and Capitoli. [Opere, 6 vols., Firenze, 1873-7.]

Bembo. Born at Venice; studied Greek at Messina under Lascaris, 1492. Lived at Ferrara 1498-1500, where he became a friend of Ariosto; fell in love with Lucrezia Borgia. Went to Rome in 1505, and to Urbino (v. Castiglione, Cortegiano). Returned to Rome 1512, and was made papal secretary; fell in love again and lived with La Morosina, by whom he had three children; she died in 1535. Held many benefices from Leo X, and went on missions. Lived at Padua, 1521-4; returned to Rome; in 1530 was at Venice, and was ordered by the Council of Ten to continue the Venetian History which Andrea Navagero left unfinished at his death. Was nearly poisoned by a nephew, and was made a cardinal by Paul III. Bishop of Gubbio 1543, of Bergamo 1544, but lived in Rome. Died there, and was buried in the choir of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, close to the monument of Leo X. Chief works: Gli Asolani, Le Prose della volgar lingua, dialogues; Rime (1530), Lettere, and in Latin the Return Venetarum Historia, Libri XII.

150. Sonetto II, per la venuta di Carlo VIII... Lodovico Sforza (il Moro) was menaced by Alfonso II, King of Naples, and invoked the aid of Charles, who crossed the Alps at the end of 1494. II Moro was theoretically regent for his young nephew Gian Galeazzo Maria, who had been married to Isabella, Alfonso's daughter. In reality he was a complete despot, and Isabella had appealed to her father for aid against him. Gian Galeazzo died (murdered?) 1495.

Ariosto. Born at Reggio, where his father was capitano della cittadella. Went to Ferrara when a boy and became a favourite at the court. His life is described in the satires; he studied the classics under Gregory of Spoleto, tutor to the son of the unfortunate Gian Galeazzo Sforza; in 1502 he was captain of Canossa; in 1503 he entered the service of Cardinal Ippolito d'Este, who sent him on various missions,—to Venice, and to Julius II, who seems to have lost his temper with the ambassador. He hated travelling, and yearned for a quiet life, and lost favour with the cardinal because he refused to go with him to Buda-Pesth; afterwards he entered the service of Duke Alfonso, who made him judge of Garfagnana; he disliked the office, but fulfilled its duties faithfully. He returned at last to Ferrara in 1525. In 1532 he presented the Orlando Furioso to the Emperor Charles V in Mantua. He died at Fenara in 1533 and was buried in San Benedetto. Chief woiks:—Orlando Furioso, Elegie, Satire, four comedies: La Cassaria and I Suppositi; Raphael painted the scenery for the latter when it was acted before Leo X; Il Negromante and La Lenaall modelled on Latin drama. [La Cassaria, Venezia, 1587; Gli Suppositi, Venezia, 1587; Orlando Furioso: Rime e Satire, Firenze, 1821. Lettere, A. Cappelli, Bologna, 1866; Commedie, ed. Tortoli, Firenze, 1856; Opere minori, Polidori, Firenze, 1857.]

153. Filiberta di Savoia, aunt of François Ier; Giuliano, third son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, brother of Leo X, died 1516, buried in the Sagrestia Nuova of San Lorenzo.

Buonarroti. Born at Caprese in the Casentino. Pupil of Domenico Ghirlandaio. Went to Rome to work for Julius II in 1503. Governor-general of the Florence fortifications, 1529. David, 1501-3; Medici Chapel, 1521-7; Sixtine Chapel finished, 1541. Architect of St. Peter's, 1547. Died in Rome; buried in Santa Croce, Florence. Wrote sonnets, madrigals, and stanze, many of them addressed to Vittoria Colonna and Tommaso de' Cavalieri, and many letters. [Rime e Lettere with Life by Condivi, Firenze, 1908.]

163. Caro m'è 'l sonno... Written in reply to an epigram of Giovambattista Strozzi on the figure of Night in the Sagrestia Nuova of San Lorenzo. Strozzi's epigram was as follows:—

La Notte che tu vedi in sì dolci atti
Dormir fu da un Angelo scolpita
In questo sasso, e perchè dorme ha vita:
Destala, se nol credi, e parleratti.

Castiglione. Born at Casatico near Mantua. Studied at Milan. Friend of Francesco Gonzaga, and went with him to Naples when he supported the cause of Louis XII; then with Guidobaldo di Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, whose court he describes in the Cortegiano. Came to London in 1506 to receive the Garter for Guidobaldo from Henry VII. Represented Urbino at the Sacred College when Leo X was Pope; went to Mantua, and in 1516 married Ippolita dei Conti Torelli. She died in 1520, and in the same year he went to Rome as ambassador from the Gonzagas, and was sent by Clement VII on a mission to the Emperor Charles V. In 1527 the Spaniards sacked Rome, and Clement suspected Castiglione of complicity with them, but eventually acknowledged his innocence. He died at Toledo. ‘Io vos digo’ said Charles V, ‘que es muerto uno de los mejores cahallcros del mundo.’ He is buried in the Madonna delle Grazie near Mantua. [Il Cortegiano, ed. V. Cian, Firenze, Sansoni, 1894.]

Veronica Gambara. Born at Pratalboino near Brescia. Married Giberto X, Signore di Correggio (died 1518). Was in Brescia when Gaston de Foix besieged it; lived in Bologna and Correggio. Repulsed an attack made on the latter place by Galeotto Pico della Mirandola. [Rime e Lettere, Firenze, Barbera, 1879.]

Molza. Born at Modena; lived in Rome. Wrote good Latin. [Opere, 3 vols., Serassi, Bergamo, 1773.]

Vittoria Colonna. Born at Marino. In 1509 married the Marchese di Pescara, who fought with distinction at Pavia, but was hardly the paragon that her poetry describes. He died in 1525. She lived in Rome, Orvieto, and Viterbo, and had many famous friends, of whom Michelangelo was the greatest.

Bernardo Tasso. Born at Venice, studied at Padua. Travelled in France, Spain, and Tunis. His property was confiscated after the ruin of the Prince of Salerno, one of his patrons. Went to Rome, to the court of Urbino, and to Venice, where he helped to found the Accademia. Podestà of Ostiglia for Guglielmo Gonzaga. Father of Torquato Tasso. Wrote a dull imitation of Orlando Furioso called the Amadigi.

173. Poi chi la parte... This sonnet had an immense reputation in Italy.

Alamanni. Born at Florence; conspired against Cardinal Giulio de' Medici (afterwards Clement VII) and was exiled; lived in Provence. Returned to Florence in 1527 (the Medici being away on one of their enforced absences); went to Genoa on Florentine affairs, and when his city fell into the hands of the Pope and the Emperor he was again in Provence. Was employed on various missions by François Ier, and was major-domo to Catherine de Médicis. Died at Amboise. Wrote much verse; imitated the Georgics, and translated Sophocles' Antigone. [Versi e prose, 2 vols., P. Raffaelli, Firenze, Le Monnier, 1859; Un Exilé florentin à la Cour de France au XVIe Siècle, H. Hauvette, Paris, Hachette, 1903.]

Berni. Born at Lamporecchio. Lived in Florence, and then in Rome, where his patron was Cardinal Bibbiena. Remodelled Boiardo's Orlando Innamorato and wrote numerous Capitoli in the style which he invented (‘Bernesque’). Was in the service of various cardinals,—Ippolito d' Este, Giberti,—and was probably poisoned by one of the same tribe, Cibo, who was enraged at his refusal to offer a poisoned chalice to Cardinal Salviati. [Poesie e Lettere, ed. Gargiolli, Firenze, 1865.]

Guidiccioni. Born at Lucca; studied at Bologna, Padua, and Ferrara. Canon of Lucca cathedral; in service of Cardinal Farnese (afterwards Paul III) in Rome; was at the coronation of Charles V in Bologna, 1530. Governor of Rome, Bishop of Fossombrone, Papal Nuncio to Spain, Governor of the Romagna. An unusually honest ecclesiastic. Died at Macerata. [Opere, Firenze, Barbèra, 1857.]

Il Lasca. Born at Florence; a druggist. Helped to found the Accademia degli Umidi in 1540; Lasca was the nickname he assumed there; also founded the A. della Crusca. Wrote Rime, Petrarchan and burlesque; Le Cene, a collection of novelle, comedies, and farces. [Rime burlesche, ed. Verzone, Firenze, 1882.]

185. Con meraviglia... Varchi's comedy was La Suocera. 9-12. Gello = Giovanni Battista Gelli; his comedy, L'Errore, was a plagiarism of Machiavelli's Clizia, itself an imitation of Plautus.

Della Casa. Born at Florence, studied at Bologna. Lived in Rome, where he was a member of the Accademia Vignaiuoli, and at Florence, where he belonged to the A. Fiorentina. Archbishop of Benivento; Papal Nuncio to Venice. Died in Rome. Wrote Rime, Bernesque Capitoli, a life of Bembo, and the famous treatise on courtliness called Il Galateo. [Opere, Venezia, 1728.]

Di Costanzo. Born at Naples. A friend of Sannazaro.

Caro. Born at Civitanova (s. of Ancona). Came to Florence; secretary to Giovanni Gaddi; became prior of Monte Granaro; first secretary to Pier Luigi Farnese in Rome. Travelled on missions, collected coins, and held various benefices. Wrote the Venite all'ombra in praise of the Valois in 1553. Died in Rome. Buried in San Lorenzo in Damaso. Translated Virgil (in hendecasyllabics). [Rime, Venezia, 1569.]

Rota. Born at Naples. [Rime, Napoli, 1726.]

Tansillo. Born at Venosa. Page to Don Pietro di Toledo. Captain of Justice at Gaeta. Died at Teano. Wrote an eclogue, and a poem, II Vendemmiatore, which shocked Pope Paul IV. [L'Egloga e i Poemetti di Luigi Tansillo, ed Flamini, Napoli, 1893.]

Stampa. Born at Padua. Lived at Venice; loved Collaltino dei Conti di Collalto, who apparently did not reciprocate her passion for him. [Rime, Firenze 1877.]

Magno. Born at Venice. Travelled. Secretary of the Senate and one of the Council of Ten.

Guarini. Born at Ferrara. Studied at Padua; professor of rhetoric at Ferrara; member of the Accademia deglt Eterei of Padua; went to the court of Alfonso II d'Este, 1567. Went on political missions; was present at the production of Tasso's Aminta at Ferrara in 1573. Afterwards in the services of Carlo Emanuele of Savoy, the Duke of Urbino, and the Grand Duke of Tuscany. Went to Rome in 1605 to offer the homage of Ferrara to Paul V. Was head of the society of the Umoristi. Died at Venice. He wrote the famous Pastor Fido; it was acted for the first time at Crema in 1596.

Torquato Tasso. Born at Sorrento. Studied under the Jesuits at Naples. After his father had lost most of his possessions, the family went to Rome, and then to the court of Guidobaldo II at Urbino. Studied law at Padua; was for two years at the University of Bologna, but had to leave because he recited a pasquinade (probably written by someone else) on the manners of the professors and students. He published the Rinaldo in 1562, and in 1565 was attached to the court of Ferrara in the service of Cardinal Luigi D'Este. Worked at the Gerusalemme Liberata for six years, and fell in love with the Duke's sister Leonora. Wrote the Aminta in 1572; in 1575 an obscure mental disease began to develop in him; he disappeared from the court on various occasions, wandering aimlessly over Italy, and had to be put under restraint in the asylum of St. Anna, Ferrara; the Duke seems to have treated him as kindly as possible. He died in the convent of Sant'Onofrio in Rome when Clement VIII was about to crown him laureate on the Capitol. [Gerusalemme Liberata, 3 vols., ed. Solerti, Firenze, 1895-6; Opere mlnori, ed. A. Solerti, Bologna, 1891-5.]

205. O del grand'Appennino. Begun at Urbino August 1578, but left unfinished.

208. Negli anni acerbi, to Leonora d'Este.

Chiabrera. Born at Savona, educated at the Jesuits' College in Rome. Was involved in a quarrel and had to return to Savona, where he held various public appointments. Travelled in Italy and found many patrons, amongst them Carlo Emanuele of Savoy, the Gonzagas, and Urban VIII. Died at Savona. Wrote lyrics, pastoral dramas, and fables; and various dialogues and discourses in prose. [Poesie Liriche, Firenze, 1865.]

Tassoni. Born at Modena. Studied at Bologna and Ferrara; a member of the Accademia della Crusca. Was in the service of Cardinal Ascanio Colonna in Rome, and went with him to Spain. Returned to Rome; became a member of the Umoristi. In favour with Carlo Emanuele of Savoy; his First Secretary at Turin, and with Francesco I as gentiluomo delle belle lettere. Died at Modena, Wrote the famous and dreary Secchia rapita, a huge poem describing the quarrel of Modena and Bologna about a bucket; Varietà di Pensieri; Considerazioni sopra le rime di Petrarca; Avvertimenti di Crescenzio Pepe, La Tenda rossa; two Filippiche contro gli Spagnoli, and other political works. [Rime, ed. T. Casini, Bologna, 1880.]

Marino. Born at Naples. A gay fellow; imprisoned for disorderly behaviour in 1598. Went to Rome; his patron was Cardinal Aldobrandini. Afterwards with Carlo Emanuele, who made him cavaliere dei SS. Maurizio e Lazzaro. Shot at, but unhurt, by a jealous courtier, 1609. Went to France, 1615; was in favour with Louis XIII and persona grata at the Hôtel de Rambouillet. Went back to Italy in 1623, and was accorded a triumph at Naples. Died there. Wrote L'Adone, a poem of 45,000 lines. Imitated Ovid and Tibullus; wrote idylls, burlesques, and occasional verse. [La Lira, Venezia, 1602-14.]

Testi. Born at Ferrara, educated at the Universities of Bologna and Ferrara. Lived in Rome, Naples, and Modena. His patrons were Carlo Emanuele of Savoy and Francis I, Duke of Modena. He went on various missions for the latter. Governor of the Garfagnana, 1640. Imprisoned (1646) by the Duke because he had entered the service of Mazarin. Died in prison. Wrote lyrics, a tragedy, L'Isola d'Alcina, and heroic poems. [Poesie Liriche, Modena, 1627-48.]

230. Ruscelletto orgoglioso. The personage satirized in this canzone is the Cardinal Antonio Barberini.

Redi. Born at Arezzo; doctor and philosopher. Taught rhetoric in the Colonna Palace, Rome; physician to Ferdinand II and Cosimo III of Tuscany. A member of the Cimento and Della Crusca. Died at Pisa. Wrote scientific works. [Opere, 3 vols., Venezia, 1712.]

Maggi. Born at Milan; secretary of the Senate and professor of Greek. [Opere, Milano, 1700.]

Lemene. Born at Lodi.

Filicaia. Born at Florence; studied at University of Pisa. An Arcadian; his patron was Cristina of Sweden. Senator under Cosimo III; Governor of Volterra and Pisa. [Poesie Toscane, Firenze, 1707.]

237. E fino a quanto... John III Sobieski and Innocent XI initiated the crusade against the Turks. Vienna was freed in 1683.

Menzini. Born at Florence. A priest. Went to Rome. Cristina of Sweden his patron. Wrote some good satires. [Opere, 4 vols., Firenze, 1731.]

Guidi. Born at Pavia. Went to Rome and became a protégé of Cristina. An Arcadian. Wrote tragedies. [Rime, Parma, 1681.]

Pastorini. Born at Genoa. A Jesuit and a student of Dante. [Poesie, Palermo, 1756.]

Zappi. Born at Imola. One of the founders of the Arcadia. [Rime, Venezia, 1723.]

Manfredi. Born at Bologna. Great scientist. A member of many learned Academies. Died at Bologna.

Ghedini. Born at Bologna. Another scientist.

Rolli. Born in Rome. Came to London and taught Royal Family Italian. Translated Paradise Lost. Wrote many verses for music.

Frugoni. Born at Genoa. A monk, but was absolved from his vows by Clement XII. An Arcadian; lived at Parma and held various appointments in its court. Wrote a vast quantity of verse. [Opere, 15 vols., Lucca, 1780; vide Carducci, Poeti erotici del Secolo XVIII, Firenze, 1878.]

Metastasio. Born in Rome. His real name was Trapassi; the abate Gravina, who adopted him, altered it. Studied philosophy in Calabria and law in Rome. Arcadian, 1718. Had many patrons; went to the court of Vienna as poeta Cesareo to replace Apostolo Zeno. His Didone Abbandonata was performed triumphantly at Rome in 1723; La Romanina, the famous singer who had taken him under her protection, persuaded him to write it. She died in 1734, when he had forgotten her in his devotion to the Countess of Althan, whom he is said to have married secretly. His fame was immense, but he produced little after Attilio Regolo (1750), the climax of his triumphs. Died at Vienna. Chief works: Giustino, Galatea, Endimione, Orti Esperidicantate composed for various occasions; Didone, Siroe, Catone, Zenobia, Artaserse, Olimpiade, Adriano, Demetrio, Temistocle, Issipile, Antigono, Demofoonte, Achille in Scyro, La Clemenza di Tito, Attilio Regolo, L'Eroe Cinese—lyrical dramas for music. [Opere, Firenze, 1819-30; see also Stendhal, Vies de Haydn, de Mozart et de Métastase, Paris, 1883; Vernon Lee, Studies of the Eighteenth Century in Italy, London, 1880.]

Cassiani. Born at Modena. Professor of Eloquence in the University.

Manara. Born at Borgo Taro near Parma. Held office in the court; First Minister 1781. Translated Virgil. [Vita ed opere, ed. Avoledo, Piacenza, 1899.]

Parini. Born at Burisio; priest; member of Accademia de' Trasformati in Milan, and Arcadian, 1777. Preceptor in various great houses; Professor of Literature at Milan; lectured in the Brera. When the Cisalpine Republic was formed by Napoleon he held various public offices, manifesting an independence of spirit and a lofty ideal of honour. Died at Milan. Chief works: Il Giorno, a satire on the frivolous life of the young Italian of his time, showing influence of Thomson and Pope; Odi, Canzonette; a drama, Ascanio in Alba, which the young Mozart set to music; prose dialogues and critical essays. [Opere, 6 vols., Milano, 1804.]

Mazza. Born at Parma, Professor of Greek in the University. A student of English, translated Pope, Dryden, Gray, and Thomson. [Opere, 5 vols., Parma, 1819.]

Vittorelli. Born at Bassano. Held a public appointment at Venice. Byron liked his poetry. [Rime, Venezia, 1851.]

Alfieri. Born at Asti. Studied (very little) at the Academy of Turin. Entered the army, travelled over most of Europe. Returned to Tuscany to learn Italian; was at Siena, and at Florence where he met the Countess of Albany, wife of Charles Edward Stuart. Was in Rome with her, 1781-3. Made over all his property to his sister in order to free himself from allegiance to Piedmont. Went to Paris, Flanders, and Germany. Returned to Florence in 1792 and died there. Buried in Santa Croce. Chief works: tragedies—Polinice, Antigone, Virginia, Agamennone, Oreste, Ottavia, Timoleone, Merope, Agide, Sofonisba, Bruto Primo, Mirra, Bruto Secondo, Filippo, Rosamunda, Maria Stuarda, Congiura de' Pazzi, Don Garzia, Saul; comedies—La Finestrina, Il Divorzio, L'Uno, I Pochi, I Troppi, L'Antidoto. His Vita is extremely interesting. Il Misogallo is a collection of furious polemics against the French. [Opere, 22 vols., Pisa, 1815.]

272. Canto di David. Saul: att. iii, sc. 4.

Pindemonte. Born at Verona. Studied at Modena; went to Paris, London, Berlin, and Vienna. A patriot. Wrote tragedies, and a romantic novel in rime (Antonio Foscarini e Teresa Contarini). Translated Greek, Latin, and English. Died at Verona. [Poesie originali, ed. Torri, Firenze, 1858.]

Monti. Born near Fusignano. Studied at Faenza and Ferrara. Went to Rome in 1778; secretary to Braschi, Pius VI's nephew. An Arcadian. Wrote the Bassvilliana, an attack on France, 1793; was suspected by the Sacred College on account of his liberal opinions. Became a friend of Marmont, Napoleon's aide-de-camp, and went to Florence with him, resigning his appointment in Rome. His Bassvilliana was solemnly burnt in the Piazza del Duomo at Milan. He became Secretary for Foreign Affairs at Milan in spite of his unpopularity, and then Secretary of the Directorate. It was at this time that he composed a poem in execration of Louis XVI, whom he had formerly praised. After the fall of the Cisalpine Republic he went to Genoa and thence to Paris, where he became the flatterer of Napoleon. In 1802 he was elected professor of Poetry at Pavia, and, in 1804, poeta del governo italiano and assessore consulente of fine arts. After the Congress of Vienna in 1814 he had leave to remain at Milan, and wrote poems on the Austrian governor of the Lombardo-Veneto. Died at Milan. Chief works:—Shakespearian tragedies: Aristodemo (1787); Galeotto Manfredi (1788); Caio Graccho (1802); poems: the Bassvilliana; the Mascheroniana, celebrating Napoleon and cursing England; La Bellezza dell'Universo, influenced by Milton; I Pensieri d'Amore, Il Bardo della Selva Nera, Il Beneficio, etc. [Poesie liriche, Carducci, Firenze, 1858; Canti e Poemi, ed. Carducci, Firenze, 1862; Tragedie, etc., ed. Carducci, Firenze, 1865.]

Foscolo. Born at Zante. Educated at Spalato; went to Venice about 1793; after the fall of the Republic joined a cavalry regiment at Bologna. Returned to Venice, and went to Milan when the treaty of Campoformio ceded Venetian territory to Austria. Wrote in the Monitore italiano; went to Bologna and Florence; fought against the Austrians and Russians; was imprisoned at Modena; fought at Trebbia and Novi; was at Genoa during the siege. Joined the Italian legion of the French army, 1804; returned to Milan, 1806, and was made professor of Italian Eloquence at Pavia, but the Chair was abolished almost immediately after his appointment. Had to leave Milan because his tragedy Aiace, produced at La Scala in 1811, contained satirical references to Napoleon. Returned in 1813, served the Austrians for a short time, then (1815) fled to Switzerland, and came to London in 1816. He met most of the interesting people in England, but lived in poverty. Died at Turnham Green and was buried at Chiswick. His remains were transferred to Santa Croce in 1871. Wrote, in addition to his lyric poetry, two tragedies; critical essays; Ultime lettere di Jacopo Ortis, a melancholy work, partly biographical; translated Sterne's Sentimental Journey. [Opere, Firenze, Le Monnier, 1835; Poesie, ed. crit. di G. Chiarini, Livorno, 1882.]

Rossetti. Born at Vasto. Secretary of Instruction and Fine Arts at Naples under Murat. Fled to England when Ferdmand Bourbon returned, and lectured at King's College, London. Father of Dante Gabriel Rossetti; wrote critical works on Dante and much verse. Became blind in 1845. Died in London.

303. La Costituzione di Napoli... In 1820 Ferdinand I swore to it on the Gospels, but a year later the Bourbon tyranny was re-established after a hideous succession of massacres. [Poesia di Gabriele Rossetti, ed. Carducci, Firenze, 1861.]

Berchet. Born at Milan. Took refuge from Austrian tyranny in London, then in Belgium and France. Returned to Italy in 1847; after the Cinque Giornate was Director of Public Instruction at Milan; after the defeat of the Italians was in Tuscany and Piedmont. Died at Turin. A gallant patriot.

304. Viandante... xix. 4. Silvio is Silvio Pellico.

Manzoni. Born at Milan. Educated there and at Lugano. Went to Paris for two years in 1805. Spent nearly all his life in his native city,—a very tranquil life, even in 1848, though his intense patriotism is unquestionable. The publication of I Promessi Sposi brought him European celebrity. Chief works: Odi, Inni; two tragedies, the Adelchi and the Conte di Carmagnola; I Promessi Sposi; critical letters, and essays. [Opere, Milano, 1870.]

306. Marzo, 1821. The date of the Carbonari rising in Piedmont.

Grossi. Born at Bellano (Como). Studied law at Pavia, then went to Milan. A friend of Manzoni. Wrote in Milanese dialect at first. A romantic: wrote tales of chivalry in verse. [Opere Poetiche, Milano, 1877.]

Leopardi. Born at Recanati (south of Ancona); educated at home, owing to the prejudices of a too conservative father. An invalid throughout his life, he impaired a weak constitution by assiduous overwork. He escaped from his depressing native place in 1822 and went to Rome, where he met Niebuhr and Bunsen, who appreciated his genius, but he was obliged to return to Recanati. He went to Florence on several occasions, and in 1833 he was able to leave his home finally. Died at Naples in 1837. The greatest modern poet of Italy, and an accomplished scholar and philologist. Chief works: Canti; Paralipomeni, a heroi-comic history of contemporary events in the manner of the Homeric Βατραχομνομάχία; a parody of the Ars Poetlca; in prose: Operette Morali; Pensieri; Studi filologici; Epistolario, extending from 1812 until his death. [Opere, ed. Ranieri, Firenze, 1846; Poesie, ed. Mestica, Firenze, 1886.]

Carrer. Born at Venice; secretary of the Institute and professor of Literature at the Scuola Tecnica. Wrote poetry and edited Italian classics. [Opere Scelte, 2 vols., Firenze, 1855.]

Tommaseo. Born at Sebenica (Dalmatia). Studied law at Padua. Lived at Florence; had to leave in 1837 because of political allusions in his writings. Led a wandering life until 1861, v/hen he returned to Florence, blind. Wrote a great quantity of moral, political, and critical works. [Poesie, Firenze, 1872.]

Dall'Ongaro. A patriotic writer who revived the old forms of popular song.

Giusti. Born near Pescia. Studied at Pisa. Held office in the Tuscan legislative assembly. Died at Florence. A political satirist; wrote in Tuscan dialect. [Poesie, ed. Carducci, Firenze, 1859.]

327. La Terra dei Morti—Lamartine's phrase for Italy. v. 5. compieta, the last hour. Lorenzo, Bartolini the sculptor.

Aleardi. Born at Verona; went to Paris in 1848 to ask the French to aid Venice. Professor of Aesthetic and History in the Istituto di Belle Arti at Florence. Senator. Died at Florence. [Canti, Firenze, 1864.]

Prati. Born at Dasindo (near Trent). Studied at Padua. Lived at Milan and Turin; imprisoned and banished by the Austrians, 1848; lived in Piedmont; Councillor of Public Instruction in Rome; Senator, 1876. Wrote a great deal of patriotic verse, and Edmenegarda (1841), a sentimental love-tragedy in five cantos which brought him great fame. [Opere varie, Milano, 1875.]

Mercantini. Born at Ripatransone (north of Ascoli). Exiled after 1848. Professor of History at Bologna, and of Italian Literature at Palermo. [Canti, ed. Mestica, Milano, 1885.]

Mameli. Born at Genoa. Died in action at Rome, 1849. His songs were immensely popular about 1848.

Carducci. Born at Val di Castello in Tuscany. Professor of Literature, Bologna, 1860. Senator of Italy. Died at Bologna. Iuvenilia, 1858, Levia Gravia, 1867, Decennalia, 1870, Nuove Poesie, 1873; Garibaldi, 1882; Odi Barbare, 1877-89; Rime e Ritmi, 1800; and many critical studies of Italian literature. [Opere, Zanichelli, Bologna, 1903.]

336. Alla Vittoria: the bronze "Victory" of Brescia was discovered in 1826.

337. Le Due Torri: of Bologna. ii. Irnerius lectured on the Roman Pandects, discovered at Amalfi in the eleventh century. vi. Charles V was crowned at Bologna in 1530.

338. Per la Morte di Napoleone Eugenio. Died fighting for England in Zululand [Isandula, 12th July, 1879]. ix. Letizia: Letizia Romolino, mother of Napoleon I.

339. Miramar. The Emperor Maximilian of Mexico was shot by the republicans at Queretaro, June 9, 1867.