The Writings of St. Francis of Assisi/Testament of the Holy Father St. Francis
Testament of the Holy Father St. Francis.
The opuscule which St. Francis called his Testament is a precious document of the highest authority. Renan forsooth denied its authenticity, but rashly, for, as M. Sabatier rightly remarks, this is not to be questioned. The Testament corresponds throughout with the other writings of St. Francis, and moreover reveals his character and spirit in every line. But we are not reduced to internal proofs for its genuinity. All the historians, including Thomas of Celano, and St. Bonaventure, mention it, while Gregory IX cites it textually in his bull Quo elongati of September 28, 1230. We know from this bull that the Saint's Testament was published a few days only before his death. Everything seems to point to its having been written at the hermitage of the Celle near Cortona, during St. Francis' last visit there (summer of 1226), though some think it was dictated to Angelo Tancredi, one of the Three Companions, in the little hut nearest the Portiuncula which served as an infirmary and in which St. Francis died.
According to M. Sabatier, St. Francis wrote more than one testament. Indeed, the French critic goes so far as to say that at the end of each of his crises the Saint made his will anew, and in support of this assertion cites Chapter 87 of his own edition of the Speculum Perfectionis, in which we read that during an illness (seemingly in April, 1226), St. Francis caused Brother Benedict of Prato to write down a blessing and some words of advice "in token of memory and benediction and testament." But surely from this narration we may not deduce the general proposition that St. Francis wrote "several testaments." The early Legends are silent except as to the one Testament here given, and all the passages which different writers quote "from the Testament" may be found in this one,—if we except two passages in M. Sabatier's edition of the Speculum Perfectionis. But it is not difficult to see that in both these places the Speculum is in error. In the ninth chapter it repeats incorrectly what Brother Leo elsewhere relates, and in the fifty-fifth chapter the compiler of the Speculum is still more astray, as a comparison of this chapter with chapter twenty-seventh of Father Lemmens' edition of the Speculum clearly indicates. Both editions of the Speculum tell in almost the same words of St. Francis' love for the Church of the Portiuncula. M. Sabatier's edition says: "At his death he caused it to be written in the Testament that all the brothers should do likewise;" whereas Father Lemmens' edition reads as follows: "Toward his death he bequeathed this Church to the brothers as a testament."
The Testament is to be found among St. Francis' works in twelve of the codices above described, wit, those at Assisi, Berlin, Florence (Ognissanti MSS.), St. Floriano, Liegnitz, Paris (Nat. lib. and Mazarin MSS. 989), Prague and Rome (St. Antony's and both Vatican MSS.), as well as in a fifteenth century MS. at the Hague (Municip. lib. cod. K. 54, fol. 3 v). The text here translated is that of the Assisi codex collated with those of Ognissanti, Florence, and St. Antony's, Rome, and with the versions of the Testament contained in the Monumenta (fol. 274 v) and Firmamenta, (fol. 16 v). Here begins the:
TESTAMENT OF THE HOLY FATHER ST. FRANCIS.
The Lord gave to me, Brother Francis, thus to begin to do penance; for when I was in sin it seemed to me very bitter to see lepers, and the Lord Himself led me amongst them and I showed mercy to them. And when I left them, that which had seemed to me bitter was changed for me into sweetness of body and soul. And afterwards I remained a little and I left the world. And the Lord gave me so much faith in churches that I would simply pray and say thus: "We adore Thee Lord Jesus Christ here and in all Thy churches which are in the whole world, and we bless Thee because by Thy holy cross Thou hast redeemed the world."
After that the Lord gave me, and gives me, so much faith in priests who live according to the form of the holy Roman Church, on account of their order, that if they should persecute me, I would have recourse to them. And if I had as much wisdom as Solomon had, and if I should find poor priests of this world, I would not preach against their will in the parishes in which they live. And I desire to fear, love, and honor them and all others as my masters; and I do not wish to consider sin in them, for in them I see the Son of God and they are my masters. And I do this because in this world, I see nothing corporally of the most high Son of God Himself except His most holy Body and Blood, which they receive and they alone administer to others. And I will that these most holy mysteries be honored and revered above all things and that they be placed in precious places. Wheresoever I find His most holy Names and written words in unseemly places, I wish to collect them, and I ask that they may be collected and put in a becoming place. And we ought to honor and venerate all theologians and those who minister to us the most holy Divine Words as those who minister to us spirit and life.
And when the Lord gave me some brothers, no one showed me what I ought to do, but the Most High Himself revealed to me that I should live according to the form of the holy Gospel. And I caused it to be written in few words and simply, and the Lord Pope confirmed it for me. And those who came to take this life upon themselves gave to the poor all that they might have and they were content with one tunic, patched within and without, by those who wished, with a cord and breeches, and we wished for no more.
We clerics said the Office like other clerics; the laics said the Paternoster, and we remained in the churches willingly enough. And we were simple and subject to all. And I worked with my hands and I wish to work and I wish firmly that all the other brothers should work at some labor which is compatible with honesty. Let those who know not [how to work] learn, not through desire to receive the price of labor but for the sake of example and to repel idleness. And when the price of labor is not given to us, let us have recourse to the table of the Lord, begging alms from door to door.
The Lord revealed to me this salutation, that we should say: "The Lord give thee peace." Let the brothers take care not to receive on any account churches, poor dwelling-places, and all other things that are constructed for them, unless they are as is becoming the holy poverty which we have promised in the Rule, always dwelling there as strangers and pilgrims.
I strictly enjoin by obedience on all the brothers that, wherever they may be, they should not dare, either themselves or by means of some interposed person, to ask any letter in the Roman curia either for a church or for any other place, nor under pretext of preaching, nor on account of their bodily persecution; but, wherever they are not received let them flee to another land to do penance, with the blessing of God. And I wish to obey the, minister general of this brotherhood strictly and the guardian whom it may please him to give me. And I wish to be so captive in his hands that I cannot go or act beyond his obedience and his will because he is my master. And although I am simple and infirm, I desire withal always to have a cleric who will perform the office with me as it is contained in the Rule.
And let all the other brothers be bound to obey their guardian and to perform the office according to the Rule. And those who may be found not performing the office according to the Rule and wishing to change it in some way, or who are not Catholics, let all the brothers wherever they may be, if they find one of these, be bound by obedience to present him to the custos who is nearest to the place where they have found him. And the custos shall be strictly bound, by obedience, to guard him strongly day and night as a prisoner so that he cannot be snatched from his hands until he shall personally place him in the hands of his minister. And the minister shall be firmly bound by obedience to send him by such brothers as shall watch him day and night like a prisoner until they shall present him to the Lord of Ostia, who is master protector, and corrector of this brotherhood.
And let not the brothers say: This is another Rule; for this is a remembrance, a warning, and an exhortation and my Testament which I, little Brother Francis, make for you, my blessed brothers, in order that we may observe in a more Catholic way the Rule which we have promised to the Lord. And let the minister general and all the other ministers and custodes be bound by obedience not to add to these words or to take from them. And let them always have this writing with them beside the Rule. And in all the Chapters they hold, when they read the Rule let them read these words also. And I strictly enjoin on all my brothers, clerics and laics, by obedience, not to put glosses on the Rule or on these words saying: Thus they ought to be understood; but as the Lord has given me to speak and to write the Rule and these words simply and purely, so shall you understand them simply and purely and with holy operation observe them until the end.
And whoever shall observe these things may he be filled in heaven with the blessing of the Most High Father and may he be filled on earth with blessing of His Beloved Son together with the Holy Ghost, the Paraclete, and all the Powers of heaven and all the saints. And I, Brother Francis, your little one and servant, in so far as I am able, I confirm to you within and without, this most holy blessing. Amen.
- Sabatier: Vie de S. François; Étude des Sources.
- See also Goetz, l. c., t. XXII, pp. 372 seq.
- See 1 Cel. 17; 2 Cel. 3, 99.
- See Bonav., Leg. Maj., III, 2.
- It is also expressly cited in the Leg. III Soc. 11 and 29.
- "Circa ultimum vitae suae," etc. See Bullarium Franc., t. I, p. 68.
- "À la fin de chacune de ces crises, il faisait de nouveau son testament." Speculum Perf., (ed. Sabatier), p. xxxiii, note 2. See also Speculum (ed. Lemmens), No. 30.
- See S. Francisci Intentio regulae, nn. 14 and 15, in the Documenta Antiqua Franciscana, P. I, p. 97.
- See Documenta Antiqua Francescana, P. II, p. 60.
- See page 3.
- The text of the Testament given by M. Sabatier in his edition of the Speculum Perf. is that of this Assisi MS.
- It may also be found in the Speculum Minorum (Tract. III, 8 r) and in the Annales of Wadding (ad an. 1226, 35).
- See 1 Cel. 17, where this passage of the Testament is quoted. See also Bonav. Leg. Maj., II, 6; and Leg. III Soc. 11. Some texts instead of "feci misericordiam cum illis" give "feci moram cum illis": "I made a sojourn with them." See Miscell. Franc., III (1888), p. 70. It is interesting to note here how St Francis on the eve of his death, casting a backward glance over the ways by which he had been led, dwells on this incident which had marked a new era in his life.
- Cod. As. reads "talem fidem," "such faith."
- Cod. As. and O. omit "here." (See 1 Cel. 45; and Bonav. Leg. Maj. 43, where this prayer may be found.) Cod. An. Firm. and Wadd. insert "here."
- Order, i.e., sacerdotal character.
- Priests of the world, i.e., secular priests.
- See 2 Cel. 3, 99, where this passage of the Testament is quoted; see also Bonav. Epis. de tribus quaestionibus in which it is also referred to. (Opera Omnia, t. VIII, p. 335.)
- See Leg. III Soc. 29, for reference to this passage.
- Cod. O. reads: eramus "we were content."
- Cod. As. omits qui volebant, "by those who wished."
- Firm. and Wadd. add: "poor and neglected churches."
- See Bonav. Leg. Maj., III, 2.
- Cod. As. omits "other things," and O. omits "all other things."
- See Documenta antiqua Franciscana, P. I, page 98, n. 15, where this passage is cited among the Verba quae scripsit Frater Leo.
- Cod. O. omits "by obedience."
- Cod. An. omits this clause.
- Cod. O. omits "either for a church."
- Cardinal Ugolino, afterward Gregory IX, was then Bishop of Ostia, and Protector of the Order.
- Cod. As. and Mon. for "purely" read "without gloss;" Firm. and Wadd. add "without gloss."
- Cod. An. and O. read "this" for, "these things."
- Cod. O. adds "to him who caused these words to be written, be all honor, all praise and glory forever and ever."
- See 1 Cel. 38, for the blessing given by St. Francis on his deathbed to Elias and the Order.