The Tragic Drama of the Greeks

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THE TRAGIC DRAMA

OF THE GREEKS



BY


A. E. HAIGH, M.A.

LATE FELLOW OF HERTFORD
CLASSICAL LECTURER AT CORPUS CHRISTI AND WADHAM COLLEGES



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS



OXFORD

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

MDCCCXCVI

 

 

HENRY FROWDE, M.A.
PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

TragicDrama-pubmark.jpg

LONDON, EDINBURGH, AND NEW YORK

 

 

CONTENTS

PAGE
Chap. I. Early History of Greek Tragedy 1
§ 1. Introductory 1
§ 2. The Worship of Dionysus 4
§ 3. Early History of the Dithyramb 13
§ 4. Arion and the Dithyramb 16
§ 5. Later History of the Dithyramb 23
§ 6. The Innovations of Thespis 26
§ 7. Character of the Thespian Drama 29
§ 8. Career of Thespis 36
§ 9. Chocrilus, Pratinas, and Phrynichus 39
 
Chap. II. Aeschylus 46
§ 1. His Life 46
§ 2. Improvements in Tragedy 60
(1) The Structure of the Aeschylean Drama 61
(2) General Tone 65
(3) The Manner of Representation 67
§ 3. Selection and Treatment of the Plots 70
§ 4. The Characters 76
§ 5. The Language 80
§ 6. Religious and Moral Ideas 86
§ 7. The Trilogy and Tetralogy 96
§ 8. The Extant Plays 99
(1) The Supplices 101
(2) The Persae 103
(3) The Septem 106
(4) The Prometheus 109
(5) The Oresteia 114
§ 9. Reputation among the Ancients 121
 
Chap. III. Sophocles 126
§ 1. His Life 126
§ 2. Improvements in Tragedy 137
§ 3. Selection and Treatment of Plots 143
§ 4. The Chorus 151
§ 5. The Characters 156
§ 6. The Language 161
§ 7. Religious and Moral Ideas 168
§ 8. The Irony of Sophocles 174
§ 9. The Extant Tragedies 179
(1) The Antigone 182
(2) The Ajax 186
(3) The Trachiniae 188
(4) The Electra 191
(5) The Oedipus Rex 192
(6) The Philoctetes 194
(7) The Oedipus Coloneus 198
§ 10. Reputation among the Ancients 200
 
Chap. IV. Euripides 204
§ 1. His Life 204
§ 2. General Characteristics 217
(1) Innovations in the spirit of Tragedy 218
(2) Modern Criticisms 226
(3) Influence of Rhetoric and Philosophy 233
§ 3. Choice and Structure of Plots 237
§ 4. Innovations in the Form of Tragedy 245
§ 5. The Chorus 251
§ 6. The Language 256
§ 7. Moral and Religious Ideas 261
§ 8. Political and Social Opinions 273
§ 9. The Extant Plays 280
(1) The Rhesus 284
(2) The Alcestis 285
(3) The Medea 289
(4) The Heracleidae 291
(5) The Hippolytus 292
(6) The Hecuba 295
(7) The Supplices 295
(8) The Andromache 297
(9) The Hercules Furens 298
(10) The Troades 300
(11) The Electra 301
(12) The Helena 303
(13) The Ion 304
(14) The Iphigeneia in Tauris 305
(15) The Orestes 309
(16) The Phoenissae 310
(17) The Bacchae 311
(18) The Iphigeneia in Aulide 314
(19) The Cyclops 316
§ 10. Reputation in Ancient Times 317
 
Chap. V. Form and Character of Greek Tragedy 322
§ 1. General Characteristics 322
§ 2. The Subjects 328
§ 3. The Characters 333
§ 4. Unity of Structure 337
§ 5. Treatment of the Plot 344
§ 6. Formal Divisions of Greek Tragedy 348
(1) The Dialogue 348
(2) The Lyrics 353
§ 7. The Language of Greek Tragedy 363
§ 8. The Versification 370
§ 9. Symmetry of Form 377
§ 10. The Satyric Drama 389
§ 11. The Titles of Greek Tragedies 395
 
Chap. VI. Later History of Greek Tragedy 403
§ 1. Introductory 403
§ 2. Minor Poets of the Fifth Century 405
(1) Ion 406
(2) Achaeus 408
(3) Agathon 409
(4) Tragedy in Families 412
(5) Other Tragic Poets 416
§ 3. Tragedy at Athens in the Fourth Century 419
(1) Rhetorical Poets 423
(2) Literary and Philosophical Poets 426
(3) Tragedy in Families 429
(4) Dionysius the Tyrant 432
§ 4. The Extension of Greek Tragedy beyond Athens 434
§ 5. Tragedy at Alexandria 439
§ 6. Character of the Post-Alexandrian Tragedy 443
(1) The Composition of New Tragedies 443
(2) The Reproduction of Old Tragedies 447
(3) The Chorus 451
§ 7. Greek Tragedy in Italy 454
§ 8. Final Extinction of Greek Tragedy 457
 
Appendix I 463
Appendix II 473
Index 483
 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

 
Early representation of Dionysus 11
Later representation of Dionysus 12
Gem depicting the death of Aeschylus 60
Bust of Aeschylus 60
Statue of Sophocles 137
Bust of Euripides 214
 

 

Oxford
PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
BY HORACE HART
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY

 


This work was published before January 1, 1925, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.