The Tribes of Burma/Bibliographical notes/Kachins

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THE KACHINS.[edit]

References :

ANDERSON = "Narrative of Two Expeditions to Western China." J. Anderson, London, 1876.

STRETTELL= "The Ficus Elastica in Burma Proper," G. W. Strettell, Rangoon, 1876.

GRAY = "Diary of a Journey to the Bor Khamti Country." J. Errol Gray, Simla, 1893.

HERTZ (W. A.) = "Report on a visit to the Hukawng Valley." W. A. Hertz, Rangoon, 1907.

WEHRLI = "Beitrag zur Ethnologic der Chingpaw (Kachin)von Ober Burma." (Vol. XVI, Int. Archiv fur Ethn.). Hans Wehrli, Leiden, 1904.

DALTON = "Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal." E. T. Dalton, Calcutta, 1872.

Serial
No.
Head. Brief description. Authority. Page.
1 2 3 4 5
1 Present habitat. Extreme north of Upper Burma and Shan States. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol, I, Parti.
Wehrli ...
331
 
3
2 Origin and movement. Country north of head waters of Irrawaddy. Southward movement. Comparative Grammar of the Languages of Further India. C. S. Forbes, London, 1881.
Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
Burma Census Report, 1891, Vol. I, App.
Burma Census Report, 1901, Part I, App.
71
 
371, 374
7
xiii
lvii
3 Political and social divisions Five parent tribes (Marips, Lahtawngs, Lepais, Nhkums, Marans). Sub-tribes, Families. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol, I, Part I.

Burma Census Report, 1891, Vol. I, App.
Wehrli ... ...
Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
373, 375,
381
vi, viii, x
12
402, 403
23
4 Allied tribes Nagas, Singphos of Assam, etc. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
381
16
5 Language and dialects. Kachin group of Tibeto-Burman branch. Dialects

Grammars, Vocabularies, etc.
Linguistic Survey of India, Vol. III, Part II.
Linguistic Survey of India, Vol. III, Part II.
Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Grammar of the Kachin Language. Hanson, Rangoon, 1896.
Handbook of the Kachin or Chingpaw Language. H. F. Hertz, Rangoon,
Kachin Vocabulary. A. Symington, Edinburgh, 1892.
499

502

660
6 Religion ... Spirit worship; nats; conception of after life. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Gray ... ...
Wehrli ... ...
416
9
48
7 Birth ceremonies and infanticide. Propitiation of nats if labour difficult. Naming of child, etc ...


Infanticide unknown ...
Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Burma Census Report, 1891, Vol. I, App.
Wehrli ... ...
Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol I, Part I.
398

400

xiv
59
403
8 Magic and witchcraft. Mediums, tumsas, altars, divinations, omens. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
420, 426
56
9 Totems and tribal marks. Existence of totemism doubtful. Burma Census Report, 1901, Part I. 133
10 Marriage customs and ceremonies. Idea of abduction. Prohibited decrees of consanguinity. Dowry, marriage feasts. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
Anderson ... ...
404, 407
26, 60
146
11 Death and burial ceremonies. Announcement of death; body buried, not burnt (except in Hukawng valley), conical thatched cover erected over and trench dug round grave. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Gray ... ...
W. A. Hertz ...
Strettell ... ...
Dalton ... ...
408
23
17
137
12
12 Clothing ... Women—sleeveless jacket, skirt, head-dress varying ; rings round waist. Men—jacket and either waist-cloth or Shan trousers, according to locality. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Strettell ... ...
Wehrli ... ...
Mandalay to Momien. J. Anderson, London, 1876.
Dalton ... ...
397
68, 90,
188
42
407
11
13 Personal ornaments. Women—earrings (tube or square shaped), torques, rings below knee. Men—rings below knee; Kachin bags ornamented. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
397
43
14 Painting and tattooing. Women in far north occasionally tattooed from knee downwards in a succession of parallel rings. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
W. A, Hertz ...
Gray ... ...
Wehrli ... ...
Strettell ... ...
Dalton ... ...
385
10
5
44
171
11
15 War ... Raids ; stockades ; pitfalls ; use of pdngyis; methods of defence; decapitation of foes. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
Dalton ... ...
428
39
11
16 Hunting ... Portion of game killed reserved for nats. Blood sprinkled towards jungle. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
428
55
17 Agriculture ... Taungya the commonest form. Offering to nats. Huts built on taungya.
Harvest festivals ...
Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Gray ... ...
Wehrli ... ...
Strettell ... ...
426
8, 9
45
149
18 Habitations... Long, oblong, of bamboos and thatch. Several families frequently living together. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
W. A. Hertz ...
Gray ... ...
Wehrli ... ...
A. R. Colquhoun, Across Chryte, London, 1883.
436
3
1
41
348
19 Government... Kumsa Kachins governed by Duwas. Kumlao Kachins democratic. Office of Duiaa hereditary. Tribute paid to him. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
412
34
20 Laws ... No recognized legal rules. Conception of "debts," Law of inheritance. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
415
33, 37
21 Covenants, oaths, ordeals. Rice boiling and hot

water ordeals.
Oaths ... ...

Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
427
65
22 Morals ... Character described (lazy, vindictive, treacherous, but not wholly devoid of good qualities). Upper Burma Gazetteer. Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
439
23
23 Property ... Land held by the community. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I. 416
24 Slavery ... Slaves obtained by raiding. Marriage between slaves and free. Treatment of off-spring. Share of outturn, Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Gray ... ...
W. A. Hertz ...
Wehrli ... ...
Dalton ... ...
432
4
11, 28
36
10
25 Divisions of time. Hours, seasons, months, etc. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I,Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
434
67
26 Trade ... Exports and imports ... Wehrli ... ... 47
27 Mediums of exchange. Opium used as a medium of exchange, also India rubber. Gray ... ...
Wehrli ... ...
18
48
28 Writing and drawing. Rough drawing on village posts. Legend that writing was given on a hide which they eat. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
433
65
29 Music and poetry. Musical instruments. One stringed violin and pipe. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
438
69
30 Arts, e.g., pottery, weaving, dyeing. Weaving. Warp kept stretched by weaver's body. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
437
47
31 Implements .. Da, slung across shoulder, spears, bows and guns. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Gray ... ...
Wehrli ... ...
431
5
44
32 Medicine Simple knowledge of herbal remedies. In dangerous illness nats propitiated. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. 1, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
408
57
33 Food Rice, maize and nearly any form of animal food. Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. 1, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
435
44
34 Miscellaneous, folklore, etc. Origin of death
Story of flood
Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Upper Burma Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I.
Wehrli ... ...
408
417
70
35 Anthropome-tric data. Cephalic index ... 78.1
Facial index ... 121.0
Height standing... 158.7
Anthropometric data from Burma. B. Gupta, Calcutta, 1906. 30