The World Factbook (1982)/Ecuador

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The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency


(See reference map IV)


274,540 km2 (including Galapagos Islands); 11% cultivated, 8% meadows and pastures, 55% forested, 26% waste, urban, or other (excludes the Oriente and the Galapagos Islands, for which information is not available)

Land boundaries: 1,931 km


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm

Coastline: 2,237 km (includes Galapagos Islands)


Population: 8,537,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 3.1%

Nationality: noun—Ecuadorean(s); adjective—Ecuadorean

Ethnic divisions: 40% mestizo, 40% Indian, 10% white, 5% Negro, 5% Oriental, and other

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic (majority nonpracticing)

Language: Spanish, Quechua

Literacy: 57%

Labor force: 2 million, of which 56% agriculture, 13% manufacturing, 4% construction, 7% commerce, 4% public administration, 16% other services and activities

Organized labor: less than 15% of labor force


Official name: Republic of Ecuador

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August

Type: republic

Capital: Quito

Political subdivisions: 20 provinces including Galapagos Islands

Legal system: based on civil law system; progressive new constitution passed in January, 1978 referendum came into effect following the installation of a new civilian government in August 1979; legal education at four state and two private universities; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Branches: executive; Chamber of Representatives; independent judiciary

Government leader: President Osvaldo HURTADO Larrea assumed office in May 1981 following the death of President Jaime Roldós in an airplane crash

Suffrage: universal over age 18

Elections: presidential and parliamentary elections held April 1979; a presidential election is scheduled for 1984

Political parties and leaders: Popular Democracy Party, Julio Trujillo (the party of Pres. Hurtado); Concentration of Popular Forces, party leader position vacant, populist; Radical Liberal Party, Ignacio Hidalgo, center right; Conservative Party, José Terán, center right; People, Change, and Democracy, Aguiles Rigail, center left; Democratic Left, Rodrigo Borja, center left; Democratic Party, Francisco Huerta, progressive liberal

Voting strength: results of April 1979 presidential election—Jaime Roldós, Concentration of Popular Forces 62%; Sixto Durán-Ballen, center-right coalition 28%

Communists: Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro-Moscow, René Mauge—secretary-general), 500 members plus an estimated 3,000 sympathizers; Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE/ML, pro-Peking), 100 members; Revolutionary Socialist Party of Ecuador (PSRE), 200 members

Member of: ECOSOC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ITU, LAFTA and Andean Sub-Regional Group (formed in May 1969 within LAFTA), OAS, OPEC, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO


GNP: $11.0 billion (1980), $1,320 per capita; 63% private consumption, 14% public consumption, 25% gross investment,—2% foreign; average annual real growth rate 1975-80, 6.3%

Agriculture: main crops—bananas, coffee, cocoa, sugar-cane, fruits, corn, potatoes, rice; caloric intake, 2,104 calories per day per capita (1977)

Fishing: catch 475,000 metric tons (1977); exports $165.6 million (1980), imports negligible

Major industries: food processing, textiles, chemicals, fishing, petroleum

Electric power: 1,200,000 kW capacity (1981); 3.0 billion kWh produced (1981), 340 kWh per capita

Exports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1980); petroleum, bananas, coffee, cocoa, fish products

Imports: $2.2 billion (c.i.f., 1980); agricultural and industrial machinery, industrial raw materials, building supplies, chemical products, transportation and communication equipment

Major trade partners: exports (1980)—31% US, 19% LAIA, 8% EC, 13% Japan; imports (1980)—38% US, 18% EC, 14% Japan, 13% LAIA

Aid: economic—bilateral commitments of ODA and OOF (FY70-80), US, $177.3 million; other Western countries (1970-79), $243.0 million; Communist countries (1970-75), $9.4 million; military—(FY70-79) US, $40.0 million

Budget: (1980) revenues, $1,504 million; expenditures, $1,680 million

Monetary conversion rate: 35 sucres=US$1

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 1,121 km total; 966 km 1.067-meter gauge, 155 km 0.750-meter gauge; all single track

Highways: 69,280 km total; 11,925 km paved, 24,400 km gravel, 32,955 km earth roads

Inland waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil, 623 km; refined products, 1,358 km

Ports: 3 major (Guayaquil, Manta, Puerto Bolivar), 11 minor

Civil air: 46 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in

Airfields: 174 total, 174 usable; 17 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m, 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 26 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: facilities adequate only in largest cities; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station; 260,000 telephones (2.9 per 100 popl.); 250 AM, 38 FM, and 17 TV stations


Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,908,000; 1,295,000 fit for military service; 87,000 reach military age (20) annually