Threats to the peaceful observance of the bicentennial/Testimony of Kintner
Dr. Kintner. Mr. Chairman, it is also my privilege to appear before your distinguished subcommittee to discuss the various threats to the peaceful observance of the Bicentennial. For many years I have been interested in study of revolutionary warfare. I did my doctor's dissertation at Georgetown in 1948 on the subject of the Organization, Structure, and Training of the Communist Party.
At that time I read extensively in Communist literature including the collected works of Lenin, Stalin, and others. It seems to me we witnessed at the beginning of this session a classic technique, namely to use the general revolutionary symbols of our past to create psychological sympathy for a counterrevolution can be imposed upon the majority of the people. This is an old trick.
I think we have to take a look at the sources of our information. These are publications of a number of terrorist groups. Osawatomie is a publication of the Weather Underground. We have the publication here called TUG, The Urban Guerrilla, which is published by a west coast organization, the New World Liberaton Front.
Both the Weatherman Underground and the Urban Guerrilla group claim to have been responsible for many, many bombings of a terroristic nature in the United States. In addition to these open publications which you can buy in the far-left bookstores, in most major cities or occasionally obtain by subscription, we also have access to internal publications which come to us either because the members are careless or occasionally through disaffected members who finally decide that they are not "with the movement" to the extent that they once thought they were. We also get self-criticism from these groups.
With this background information, collected through the assistance of a number of people, to whom I would like to pay particular attention and tribute, we prepared a statement which I plan to put into the record. I am not going to read it all, but I hope it can be inserted in the record.
Senator Thurmond. Without objection, the entire statement will be placed in the record as though read.
Senator Thurmond. Could I ask 3^ou this question at this point? You have said that the m-eat majority of the terrorist groups in our country consider tliemselves as Marxist-Leninists. Is this your own opinion — or is this something that can be documented?
Dr. KiNTNER. Some of them consider themselves ISIarxist-Leninists- Maoists. It can be documented. I am going to read from a publi- cation from Berkeley, Calif., New Study Groups. It comments on the publication "Osawatomie," the publication of the Weather Under- ground.
They are talking about courses which will be
Senator TiTURaroND. I am going to have to leave and go OA'er and vote. We will take a short recess. In the meantijne Senator Scott, another member of this subcommittee, will probably come in and proceed. Please take a short recess for a few minutes.'
Senator Scott [presiding]. The committee will resume. Doctor, I believe you were responding to a question by the chairman. If you will, please continue.
Dr. KiNTNER. That is correct. I wanted to read further &hont the courses being offered on the contemporary revohition by the New Dawn organization which is connected with the AVeatlier LTnder- ground.
Basic communism will be studied. The basic works of Lenin, Stalin, and Mao, State and Revolution, What Is to Be Done, and then there is another publication put out by Politics in Command on the question of armed struggle by the Weather Underground organization.
Here is where they state: "Our goal is to build Communist organizations toward the stage where armed struggle becomes a mass phenomena led by a Marxist-Leninist party." I think those quotations do indicate exactly what they have in mind which is to create in the United States the type government comparable to those under which the people in the Soviet Union live or in Cuba or in the People's Republic of China.
There are some differences between China and the Soviet Union. Your subcommittee only a year ago took testimony from a distinguished British citizen, Mr. Brinn Crozier, director of the London institute for the Study of Conflict, who established that Moscow operates a number of training schools for guerrillas and terrorists from other countries — both for Communists and non-Communists.
Dissident Marxist-Leninist organizations also support or engage in terrorism. The major American Trotskyite organization, the Socialist "Workers Party for example, is part of the terrorist Fourth International, While they do not advocate terrorism in the United States right now, they do not rule it out as a future tactic.
The mass demonstrations that are being planned for July 4th could provide dramatic platforms for Marxist-Leninist terrorists. Marxist- Leninist theory condemns individual acts of terrorism if they are not linked to a mass movement. However, it justifies the acts of terrorism if they are linked to mass revolutionary movements. Because of this, it becomes incumbent upon the support apparatus for the underground terrorists to organize the mass demonstrations which will justify terrorist acts.
Major demonstrations and marches are planned for both Washington and Philadelphia on July 4th. Demonstrations are also being planned for Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Antonio and other cities on the 4th; and followup demonstrations are being planned in New York City at the time of the Democratic Party Convention. This is being developed in a different fashion than some of the others.
I quote a document called 76 United Revolutionary Front which indicates that their task during the Democratic Convention, July 7th to 18th, 1976, is to secure Central Park. They are to encourage the people to agitate and to organize, to join in every way possible the people's day-to-day struggle.
New York can look for a little party after Washington and Philadelphia.
The Philadelphia demonstration is being planned by the July 4th Coalition which is commanded by the Prairie Fire Organizing Committee, a support organization — an above ground organization — for the Weather Underground, and by the Puerto Rican Socialist Party, a Castroite organization which supports the terrorist activities of the Puerto Rican Armed Forces of National Liberation (FALX). Also involved in the plans for the Philadelphia demonstration are other radical groups ranging from the Community Party, Socialist Workers Party, Guardian, Workers World Party, and the Yippies, to an array of violence prone organizations like the Black Panthers and the American Indian ^Movement, and the Palestine Solidarity Committee.
Heading the July 4th Coalition is Alfredo Lopez, a leader of the Puerto Rican Socialist Party, formerly identified with the proterrorist tendency in the Socialist "Workers Part3^
Senator Scott. These demonstrations that you speak of, do you see a single issue that is developing out of them or is there a multiplicity of issues?
Dr. KixTXER. There is a multiplicity of issues. The ones in Phila- delphia will be stressing immediate independence for Puerto Rico because the Puerto Rican organization will be there and the others deal with the standard conTplaints which they raise about many aspects of our society.
Senator Scott. Are they seriously interested in these specific issues in your opinion?
Dr. Kintxer. I think there are some seriously interested in them but they use them as they do most of their activities as a proselytizing slogan, as a mode of recruitment trying to arouse emotional passion among people that they will then try to bring into their movement.
They are more tactical than substantive.
Senator Scott. Xone of us would favor police brutality and I believe the law says that police officers are only warranted to use such force as may be necessary to sustain an arrest. Now this is something that I believe the American people generally agree on.
There would be no need for a demonstration with regard to this. But are they going beyond the legitimate protest ? In regard to mat- ters of this nature ?
Dr. KiNTNER. I can answer by returning to the so-called Days of Rage, which the Weathermen put on in Chicago from October 8 to 11, 1969.
Senator Scott. Actualh', I would prefer that you go ahead in your own manner.
Dr. KiNTXER. I think this does answer exactly your question. "With slogans such as bring the war home and we are going to burn the city down, the Weathermen broke windows and attacked the Chicago Police Department and passers-by on the street.
A Weatherman leaflet said : "In Chicago we attacked the homes and businesses of the rich bastards who profit off war and oppression. W^e did 1 million dollars' worth of damage and sent 60 pigs — police offi- cers — to the hospital, including Richard Elrod, corporation counsel for Chicago." You see that they use these incidents to try to discredit the law enforcement agencies in the United States.
On October 22, 1969 the Weathermen faction met in a hotel in Oregon, 111. The prominent members were Bernardine Dohrn and Mark Rudd. Discussions concluded that confrontations could not work and they began organizing clandestine organizations, terrorist activities.
Among the most spectacular terrorist acts committed by the Weather Underground have been the bombing of the San Francisco Park Police Station on February 16, 1970, with a dynamite bomb loaded with staples. This bombing killed one police officer and injured eiwht others.
�� � The bombino; of the New York City Police headquarters on June 9, 1070; the bombing of the U.S. Capitol on February 28, 1971; the bombing of the State Department on January 29, 1975. The March 6, 1970 explosion of a townhouse in Xew York in which three members of the Weather Underground were killed while making antipersomiel bombs, caused a great deal of dissension and discussion within the movement. INIany of the Weather Underground supporters were shocked by the antipersomiel nature of the bombs.
The hardcore remained, however, and they boast that they have been responsible for more than 25 more bombings since 1970.
For the Weather Underground leaders, the most important result of terrorist actions in the initial stages of the operation was media coverage. They wanted to show people both in the United States and around the world that there was a network of revolutionaries willing to take personal responsibility, to carry out terrorist acts "within the belly of the master" and in solidarity with revolutionary movements throughout the world.
They believed that a sustained campaign of bombings and other terrorist acts would give them legitimacy as the leader of the revolu- tionary movement in the United States. Terrorist acts, referred to as armed propaganda, could obtain large-scale free media coverage that mere rhetoric could not obtain. The use of terrorist activities Avas also seen as linking the Weather Underground with the Third World revolutionary movement at home and abroad.
At the same time Weather Underground leaders believed that it was necessary to build an aboveground party m.ore openly revolutionaiy than the CommAuiist Party, U.S.A., which would advance propaganda justifications for the violent actions of the terrorist underground.
The aboveground movement, to be called the Prairie Fire Organiz- ing Committee — would also have the responsibility of organizing mass struggles that could be linked with the terrorist actions of the Vreatlier Undergroimd.
The Weatlier Underground is not a legal orn-anization for the simple reason that all of its leaders are on the FBI's most wanted list. But by 1974 the support network felt strong enough to organize a public aboveground apparatus. The first action of this group was tlie publica- tion of Prairie Fire, a political statement of the Weather Underground running 152 pages. The distributing apparatus, which was first called the Prairie Fire Distribution Committee, soon changed its name to Prairie Fire Organizing Committee which subsequently orjranizcd the Hard Tim.os Conference held at Chicago in Fe]-)iTiary 1976.
Over 2,000 activists took part in the Hard Times Conference. One of the most important actions taken by the Conference was the ap- proval of a proposal by the Puerto Kican Socialist Party for a mili- tnnt mass demonstration in Philadelphia on .Tuly 4. I offer for the record a copy of a letter from the July 4th Coalition establishing a founding role played by the Hard Times Conference.
The central committee of the Weather Undergroimd organization has announced that "we dedicate ourselves to solidarity with the July 4 mobilization in Philadelphia which will raise the banner of independenr*e for Puerto Rico and unite this struggle with that of the workers and oppressed people of the United States. This is an urgent priority." The same issaie it is to be noted, gives public support to the
�� � Puerto Eican Socialist Party, the American Indian Movement and the Palestine Terrorists.
In line with its concept that it must function as a cadre organiza- t ion, the Prairie Fire Oro;anizing Committee has placed its cadres in key positions in a large number of militant and violence prone organ- izations, many of which are planning to participate in the July 4th Coalition in Philadelphia, which as I have pointed out is under the joint command of the Prairie Fire Organizing Committee and the Puerto Eican Socialist Party.
The Puerto Eican Solidarity Committee is the propaganda arm of the Puerto Eican Socialist Party and defends terrorist and other vi- olent activities on behalf of the Puerto Eicaii independence. Alfredo Lopez, who heads the Puerto Eico Solidarity Committee, is also a leader of the Puei-to Eican Socialist Party and is the coordinator for the July 4th Coalition.
The Native American Solidarity Committee operates through a post office box in St. Paul, Minn. It propagandizes in favoi- of violent activities by Amei'ican Indians. The organization grew out of the apparatus organized by the National Lawyere Guild in support of the American Indian Movement's armed occupation of Wounded Knee, S. Dak.
The Palestine Solidarity Committee, which was established in No- vember 1975, is run by PFOC activists George Cavaletto and Sheila Evan. They operate this organization through a post office box in ^Manhattanville, N.Y. Cavaletto was a member of the Weatherman faction of SDS. He was identified by the Flint, Mich., Police Depart- ment as having been in attendance at the Weathermen War Council in Flint in December 10(^0.
Evan and Cavaletto both spent a year in Jordan and Lebanon writ- ing propaganda articles for the Palestine Liberation Organization. Tlie first meeting of the Palestine Solidarity Committee took place at Columbia University in New York City on January 20, 1976.
Among the groups participating in the meeting and providing security guards for the meeting were the Prairie Fire Organizing Committee, the Communist Party USA, and the Socialist Workers Party. I mention these to show the interconnection between these groups.
It is interesting to observe the generally increased interest in the Palestinian terrorists by the American Terrorist Movement and sup- port croups. In March i975, the Associated Press reported a threat by the Palestine Liberation Organization to carry out terrorist acts in the LTnited States.
The AP quoterl Zouheir Mohsen, leader of the Military Section of the PLO, as saying: in an interview in Damascus, "We will strike at any Israeli strategic target wherever we can reach it, in Israel or in Japan or in the United States."
Another organization with which the Weather Undererround and the Prairie Fire Organizing Committee have M'orked very closely is the National Lawyers Guild, which in the old days was identified as the legal front for the Communist Party USA.
Senator Scott. Let me interrupt briefly once more. We would hope to liear from all the witnesses. All of your testimony of course is in-
�� � eluded in the record. If you could take about 10 more minutes and then let's go to the next witness so we won't run out of time.
Dr. KiNTNER. I would be happ^' to do so. There is also a rival July 4 group meeting- in Philadelphia called the Revolutionary Com- munist Party which has the slogan "Get the Rich Off Our Back." That is a INIaoist-Communist group.
Now I mentioned the Puerto Rican Socialist Party which is plan- ning a significant role in Philadelphia. Their group has in the past threatened sabotage and bombings of all kinds and claimed responsi- bility for the bomb which exploded in New York City's Fraunces Tavern in the early part of 1975 in which four innocent diners were killed.
There was also a meeting of the Puerto Rican Socialist Party in Havana where the Socialist Party maintains an office. They met in September 1975 with representatives from Communist parties else- Avhere and support was given to the Puerto Rican Socialist Party's demands for immediate independence. The leaders of the Puerto Rican Socialist Party view themselves as revolutionary Davids destined to destroy the imperialist U.S. Goliath.
Also the Puerto Rican Armed Forces for the National Liberation is involved.
They have been involved in some 30 bombings since 1974, 30 in the United States and many more bombs in Puerto Rico. They have also appreciated the support given to them by the Cuban Government. For example, they noted publicly, "we respectfully acknowledge the moral support given our organization by the Cuban people and Gov- ernment in a speech by Premier Fidel Castro in Augiist 1975."
There is also some linkage between the Puerto Rican Solidarity Committee and the Cuban Diplomatic ISIission of the UN, which is in the prepared testimony. I would also like to call attention to the utilization of the Venceremos Brigade to take people to Cuba to help in its sugar harvest. But there they receive indoctrination in carrying on war against "Yankee imperialists."
I would like then to mention the planning of the demonstration of the Peoples Bicentennial Commission in Washington which I assume we will hear more about. The PBC is talking about trying to bring 250,000 demonstrators to Washington that day. I hope that the PBC's demonstration in Washington will be peaceful as they claim it will. But they cannot control all the activities of their supporters and there is a possibility that some development of an unpleasant nature will take place here.
Now on the face of these prospects what can be done about them? Activities to suppress the terrorist requires intelligence, physical pi'o- tection of facilities, and deterrence provided by possible punishment. The Bicentennial and especially the July 4 events present serious problems from the standpoint of these requirements and particularly because of what has happened to many of our law enforcement intel- ligence organizations in many of our major cities.
In New York State, law enforcement intelligence files have been locked up since last September and most of the 24 members of the city's intelligence units have been assigned to other duties. In the State of Texas, as a result of a lawsuit, over 1 million files have been destroyed. In New York City, almost 98 percent of the 1 million card
�� � entries have been destroyed. A requirement lias been established that no ejitry may be made about any person simply on the basis of mem- berehip in an oroanization even if it is violence prone. The individual must have a criminal conviction or an indictment.
This requirement is somethin.ii- which violates all rules of common logic reo-ardino- intelligence gathering which deprives our law enforce- ment of any preventive capability. Xo wonder that the Yugoslav Ambassador earlier this month denounced U.S. security precautions after his Embassy had been bombed, for the third time.
I am all in favor of granting the widest possible expression of opinion about any issues. But this does not mean that Ave must in the nam.e of the first amendment prohibit the gathering of intelligence about conspiratorial activities.
The line must be drawn somewhere and it seems to me clear that the first purpose of the law in any free society must be the protection of the community against violent minorities that seek to terrorize, intimi- date, and destroy the capacity of the Government to govern.
A free society cannot behave like a totalitarian society and remain free, even in dealing with the problem as grave as the growing- epidemic of terrorism. It will take great ingenuity to produce a strategy that places more effective restraints on terrorists in our country.
I do not pretend to have all the answers but I would like to make a few preliminary suggestions. The first requirement of an effective antiterrorist program is an effective intelligence operation. Intelli- gence includes not only precise information but also analytical capa- bility which yields critical information about the patterns of the ter- rorists and about the changing patterns of interlocks between the terrorist groups nationally and internationally.
The possession of facts alone does not solve the problem. Without the facts, the authorities are condennied to act in a blind and arbitrary fashion. My first suggestion therefore is that the American people and their representatives must do some very serious rethinking about law enforcement intelligence.
Adequate intelligence is requirement No. 1. Our society is bound to remain extremely vulnerable as long as the present paralyzing restric- tions on intelligence gathering capabilities persist.
Furthermore, since terrorism frequently crosses natural frontiers, the intelligence capabilities of both the CIA and the FBI will have to be reinforced. I agree that there is a need for guidelines. But the existence of guidelines does not require the kind of near total wipeout that now exists.
Second, there must be timely arrest and punishment of the terrorist. Unfortunately, the international nature of modern terrorism has en- feebled this essential deterrent. Too many governments abroad give sanction and support to terrorists. This includes not only those such as Libya which train and supply tei-rorists, but governments wliich give in to terrorists demands again and again.
My third proposal is that because of the international natuiv of the problem, we must seek to persuade free nations to embark upon a conibined international war against the transnational terrorists, bringing to bear both classic intelligence and modern computer tech- nology. Among other things this would involve the pooling of intelli-
�� � gence. This I must point out gets into a very sticky area because it is a matter of reasonably common knowledge that some of our staunch- est allies have serious misgivings about sharing classified information with American intelligence agencies, out of the fear that this intelli- gence will somehow find its way into the print through some member or some staff member of some congressional committee.
Fourth, there should be public exposure of both the groups involved and the danger they represent. There is no substitute for public alert- ness in making it difficult for terrorists to function.
I would also like to raise the question whether the first amendment was intended to allow terrorist manuals, some of which I have here, which give you detailed plans for building your own bomb in j^our own backyard.
Fifth, and finally, the time has come for the media to examine anew their responsibilities to the public. While it is the dutv of the reporter to report the facts where acts of terrorism are involved, the selection of these facts to emphasize sensational brutality serves the terrorists and not the newspaper reader or the TV viewer.
The guarantee of page 1 or prime time covera.^re remains essential to the terrorists' success and constitutes an invitation to the terrorists to repeat their actions and to others to emulate their actions.
The thought has occurred to me that the American media might respond affirmatively if the President called them together for a special conference on the role of the media in limiting civil violence, and asked for their voluntary cooperation.
I would like to close this presentation by reiteratinsr that the ter- rorist can succeed only if his target is paralyzed with fright or fright- ened into self-destructive blunders.
In conclu^'ion. from what we have been able to aiialvze, it seems likely that the Prairie Fire Organizinar Committee and the Puerto Rican Socialists and their partners hope to distract us from our pursuit of the balance between liberty and law, symbolized by the Bi<"^ntennia1 and Ju.lv 4.
July 4 will take placo on a Sunday 16 days from now. Let us hope that this memorial Sabbath will not be marred by the mavhem en- gendered bv terror, but will instead be an opportunity for the Amer- ican people to rededicate themselves to the values that have made and kcTit us as a Nation.
Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
Senator Scott. Dr. Ivintner, we appreciate your fine statement and your abbreviation of a portion of it. In your summary at the end, you conclude that a Nation has a right to protect itself, to take such action as may be necessarv ?
Pr. Ktntts'ei^. Absolutely.
Senator Scott. All right. If we could hear from Inspector Fencl.