Translation:Manshu/Chapter 6

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Translation:Manshu by Fan Chuo, edited by Palace Museum Library, translated from Chinese by Walter Stanish and  Wikisource
Chapter 6
Manshu (蠻書), written by Fan Chuo in the 9th century, is a Chinese historical text regarding the geopolitics of southwest China, particularly Nanzhao. It is an important historical source for the period. This translation is based upon a digitized version of the recompiled 1774 movable type edition edited by the 武英 (Palace Museum Library).


Yúnnán City (雲南城; ie. modern Yunnanyi)[edit]

View of a former private inter-house passageway raised above the cobbled street in the caravan town of Yunnanyi, Yunnan, China.
Chapter 6: Part 1 — Yúnnán City (雲南城; ie. modern Yunnanyi)
Original Translation
雲南城,天寶中閣羅鳳所規置也。 Yúnnán City (雲南城; ie. modern Yunnanyi) was established by Gé​luó​fèng​ (閣羅鳳) in the Tianbao era (ie. 742-756).
嘗為信州地。 It has since come to be known as Xìn​zhōu​ (信州).
城池郭邑皆如漢制。 All of the villages about the wall are similar to those of the Han Chinese.
州中南北二十余裏,東西四十五裏。 The center of the prefecture is over 20 li (ie. ~6.5km) from north to south, and 45 li (ie. ~14.5km) from east to west.
帶邑及過山雖有三千余戶,田疇多廢,閭裏少人。 Although the villages of the region cross the mountains and have over 3000 households, many fields lay fallow, and few people may be found at the village gates.
諸葛亮分永昌東北置雲南郡,斯即其故地也。 Zhū​gě​ Liàng (諸葛亮)[1] divided the north-east of Yǒng​chāng​ (永昌; ie. modern Baoshan) in to the Yún​nán​ Region (雲南郡) — this is its former location.
西隔山有品𧸘[2]賧,亦名清字川,嘗為波州。 To the west is the sibling town of Pǐnbiandǎn​ (品𧸘賧; lit. 'Goods Market River' or 'Goods Market Toll-point'), also known as Qīng​zì​chuān​ (清字川; lit. 'Clear Character River-plain'), the former Bō​zhōu​ (波州).
大池繞山,長二十余裏,波州廢地在池東南隅。 A great pond encircles the mountain, over 20 li (ie. 6.5km) in length, with the discarded lands of Bō​zhōu​ (波州) at its southeast corner.
故渭北節度段子英,此州人也。 The famous hero of the former Wèi​běi​ Commandery (渭北節度) was from this region.
故居、墳墓皆在。 His former residence and grave still remain.
雲南東第二程有欠舍川,大都部落第三程至石鼓驛,舊化川也。 The second location east of Yúnnán (雲南; ie. modern Yunnanyi) is Qiàn​shè​chuān​ (欠舍川; lit. 'Poorly Populated River-valley'), most tribes' third location is Dàn​gǔyì​ (石鼓驛; lit. 'Grain-drum Relay Station'), the former Huà​chuān​ (舊化川; lit. 'Dynamic River-valley').
第四程至曲驛,有大覽賧、小覽賧,漢舊覽州也。 The fourth stop is Qū​yì (曲驛; lit. 'Crooked Relay Station'), which includes Dà​lǎn​dǎn​ (大覽賧; lit. 'Great View Toll Station (or River-view)') and Xiǎo​​lǎn​dǎn​ (小覽賧; lit. 'Small View Toll Station (or River-view)')), and was formerly known to Han Chinese as Lǎn​zhōu​ (覽州; lit. 'Scenic River-valley Region').

Nòngdōng City (弄棟城)[edit]

Chapter 6: Part 2 — Nòngdōng City (弄棟城)
Original Translation
弄棟城在故姚州川中,南北百余裏,東西三十余裏。 Nòngdōng City (弄棟城) is on the former Yáo​zhōu​ (姚州) river. It measures over 100 li (ie. ~32km) from north to south, and over 30 li (ie. ~10km) from east to west.
廢城在東巖山上。 An abandoned city lies on the eastern cliff.
當川中有平巖,周回五六頃,新築弄棟城在其上。 The same river-plain has Píng​yán​ (平巖), which is 5 or 6 qǐng (ie. ~33-40 hectares) in size. The newly built Nòngdōng City (弄棟城) lies above it.
管雜蠻數部落,悉無漢人。 It overlooks various barbarian tribes, and there are no Han Chinese people.
姚州百姓陷蠻者,皆被移隸遠處。 The common people of Yáo​zhōu​ (姚州) were captured by barbarians, and all were relocated a long distance away.

Tuodong City (柘東城)[edit]

Chapter 6: Part 3 — Tuodong City (柘東城)
Original Translation
柘東城,廣德二年鳳伽異所置也。 Tuodong City (柘東城) was established by Fèng​jiā​yì​ (鳳伽異) in the second year of the Guangde reign (ie. ~764).
其地漢舊昆川,故謂昆池。 The area's Han Chinese hail from Kūn​chuān​ (昆川; lit. 'Descendant River-plain'), and it was formerly known as Kūn​chí​ (昆池; lit. 'Descendant Pond').
東北有井邑城隍,城西有漢城,土俗相傳雲是莊蹻故城。 To the northeast lies (the fixed shrine to) the Chéng​ Huáng (城隍; lit. 'City God') of the (city-internal) Jǐng​yì​ (井邑; lit. 'Well Village'),[3] to the west lies Hàn​chéng​ (漢城; lit. 'the Han Chinese city'), which indigenous lore asserts was the location of the ancient city known as Zhuāng​qiāo​ (莊蹻; lit. 'Manor Bridge').
城之東十余裏有穀昌村,漢穀昌王故地也。 Some 10 li (ie. ~3.3km) to the east[4] lies Gǔ​chāng​cūn​ (穀昌村; lit. 'Flourishing-Grain Village'), the former location of the Han Chinese Flourishing-Grain King (穀昌王).
貞元十年,南詔破西戎,遷施、順、磨些諸種數萬戶以實其地。 In the 10th year of the Zhenyuan reign (ie. ~795), Nán​zhào​ (南詔) defeated the Xī​róng (西戎),[5] and ordered over 10,000 households to resettle here.[6]
又從永昌以望苴子、望外喻等千余戶分隸城傍,以靜道路。 Again from Yǒng​chāng (永昌; ie. the modern Baoshan area), Wàng​jū​zi​ (望苴子), Wàng​wài​yù​ (望外喻) and more than 1000 households moved to the city via the pacified road.

Jìnníng Prefecture (晉寧州)[edit]

Chapter 6: Part 4 — Jìnníng Prefecture (晉寧州)
Original Translation
晉寧州,漢滇河故地也。 Jìnníng Prefecture (晉寧州; lit. 'Peaceful Visit (or Flow, or Growth) River-Valley') is the location formerly known to Han Chinese as the Diān​hé​ (滇河; lit. 'River of Level Waters').[7]
在柘東城南八十裏晉平川,幅員數百裏,西爨王墓,累累相望。 Jìn​píng​chuān​ (晉平川; lit. 'Flat River-plain of Growth') is 80 li (ie. ~km) south of Tuodong City (柘東城), its size is[8] 100 li (ie. ~32.3km), and the tomb of the King of the Western Cuàn​ (西爨王) faces countless other graves.

Shíchéngchuān (石城川)[edit]

Chapter 6: Part 5 — Shíchéngchuān (石城川)
Original Translation
石城川,味縣故地也。 Shíchéngchuān (石城川; lit. 'Stone City River-plain'[9]) is the location of ancient Wèi​xiàn​ (味縣; lit. 'Fragrant[10] County').
貞觀中,為郎州,開元初改為南寧州。 In the Zhen'guan era[11] (ie. 627–649), it became Láng​zhōu​ (郎州; lit. 'River-plain Region of (Youth or (the) Minister)'), and at the beginning of the Kāiyuán (ie. 713–741) era it was renamed to Nán​níng​zhōu​ (南寧州; lit. 'Pacified Southern River-plain Region').
州城即諸葛亮戰處故城也。 The prefectural capital is at the former battle-site of Zhū​gě​ Liàng​ (諸葛亮).
城中有諸葛亮所撰文,立二碑,背上篆文曰:「此碑如倒,蠻為漢奴。」 Within the city is a written composition of Zhū​gě​ Liàng​ (諸葛亮), recorded upon two standing stelae, which state: "This stone records the fall of the barbarians and their enslavement by the Han Chinese."
近年蠻夷以木搘柱(案:《新唐書》謂諸葛亮碑在柘東城,與此不合,蓋《唐書》之誤)。 In recent years, the Barbarians have propped up the stelae with wood. (Former transliterator's note: In the History of the Later Tang Dynasty (新唐書), it states that the Zhū​gě​ Liàng​ (諸葛亮) stelae are in Tuodōng​chéng (柘東城), which conflicts with this section of the current text and covers an error in the History of the Early Tang Dynasty (舊唐書).)
臣今春見安南兵馬使郭延宗曾奉使至柘東,停住一月日,館穀勤厚,贈遺不輕(案:以上五句與上下文不相屬,疑亦錯簡在此) This Spring I witnessed military horses from Ān​nám​ (安南; ie. modern Hanoi, Vietnam) come to offer tribute in Tuodōng​ (柘東), where they remained for a little over a month[12], working diligently[13] and bestowing non-trifling volumes of tributary presents. (Former transliterator's note: The five previous sentences appear to be out of context, therefore it is suspected that this part of the text[14] was introduced out of order.)
又有夔鹿弄川,漢同勞縣故地也(案:《舊唐書·地理誌》郎州有同樂縣,「同勞」疑即「同樂」之誤) There is also Kuí​lù​lòng​chuān​ (夔鹿弄川; lit. 'Spirit[15]-deer Alley River-plain'), the area formerly known to Han Chinese as Tóng​láo​xiàn​ (同勞縣; lit. 'Working Together County'). (Former transliterator's note: In the Geography chapter of the History of the Early Tang Dynasty (舊唐書), Lángzhōu​ (郎州) has a ​Tóng​lè​ (同樂縣; lit. 'Happiness Together County'), and as such the Tóng​láo (同勞) here is suspected to be an erroneous (reproduction of an earlier intact and clear) reference to that place.)
在龍河遇川南百余裏。 It is over 100 li (ie. ~32.5km) south of Lóng​hé​yù​chuān​ (龍河遇川; lit. 'Dragon River Meeting River-plain Region').
石城南面有新豐川,漢南寧州新豐縣故地也。 To the south of Shíchéng (石城) lies Fēng​chuān​ (豐川), the location of the historical region known to Han Chinese Xīn​fēng​ Xiàn​ (新豐縣; lit. 'New Plentiful County') of Nánníng​zhōu​ (南寧州; lit. 'Peaceful Southern Prefecture').
廢城墻塹猶在,大小石城川同。 The abandoned city walls and moat remain, and their size is comparable to that of Shíchéngchuān (石城川).
升麻川西川南有曲軛川,漢南寧州同起縣也。 South of the western river-plain of Shēng​má​chuān​ (升麻川; lit. 'Hoisted Hemp River-valley') lies Qū​'è​chuān​ (曲軛川; lit. 'Crooked Yoke River-valley'), established at the same time as Nánníng​zhōu​ (南寧州).

Ānníng Town (安寧鎮)[edit]

Chapter 6: Part 6 — Ānníng Town (安寧鎮)
Original Translation
安寧鎮,去柘東城西一日程,連然縣故地也。 From Ānníng Town (安寧鎮) it is one day's journey to Tuodong City (柘東城), and it is the former Lián​rán​xiàn​ (連然縣; lit. 'County of the Just Military-Company').
通海鎮,去安寧西第三程至龍封驛。 From Tōng​hǎi​zhèn​ (通海鎮; lit. 'Town Connecting to the Oceans') toward Ānníng (安寧) it takes three days' journey westward[16] in order to reach Lóng​fēng​yì​ (龍封驛; lit. 'Dragon Letter Relay-station').[17]
驛前臨瘴川,去柘東城八日程,漢俞元縣故地也。 The area just before the Lóng​fēng​yì​ (龍封驛) relay station is a miasmic swamp, from which it takes eight days' journey to reach Tuodong (柘東). It was formerly known to Han Chinese as Shù​yuán​xiàn​ (俞元縣; lit. 'Primary Point County' or perhaps[18] 'Good Foundation County').
量水川(案:《舊唐書·地理誌》黎州有梁水縣,「量水」蓋即「梁水」轉音之訛),漢舊黎州。 Liàng​shuǐ​chuān​ (量水川; lit. 'River-plain of Plentiful Water') (Former transliterator's note: In the Geography chapter of the History of the Early Tang Dynasty (舊唐書),[19] Lízhōu​ (黎州; lit. 'Black Prefecture') has a Liáng​shuǐ​xiàn​ (梁水縣; lit. 'Water Bridge County'), it is thus suspected that「量水」was here erroneously phonetically altered to「梁水」), the former Han Chinese region of Lí​zhōu​ (黎州; lit. 'Black Prefecture').
今吐蕃呼為量水川。 The Tibetans[20] refer to it[21] as Liàng​shuǐ​chuān​ (量水川; lit. 'River-plain of Plentiful Water').
通海城南十四日程至步頭,從步頭船行沿江三十五日出南蠻,夷人不解舟船,多取通海城路賈勇步入真、登州、林西原,取峰州路行。 14 days' journey south of Tōng​hǎi​ (通海城) city one arrives at Bù​tóu​ (步頭; lit. 'Walk's Beginning'), from there it is 35 days' journey by boat to emerge at the Nán​mán​ (南蠻; lit. 'Southern Barbarians') (lands), where they have no conception of and are fascinated by boats. Many people take the Tōng​hǎi​ (通海城) road to Gǔyǒng (賈勇) then journey onward to Zhēn​ (真),[22] Dēngzhōu​ (登州; ie. probably somewhere near modern Mau Dong / Mau A (in north-west Vietnam, on the Red River)).[23]), Lín​xī​yuán​ (林西原; lit. '(Water?) Source to the West of the Forest') and Fēngzhōu/Phong Châu (峯州 or 峰州; modern Việt Trì).[24][25]
量水川西南至龍河,又南與青木香山路直,南至昆侖國矣。 To the southwest of Liàng​shuǐ​chuān​ (量水川; lit. 'River-plain of Plentiful Water') lies the Lóng​hé​ River (龍河; lit. 'Dragon River'), and going still southward through verdantly forested and fragrant mountain roads, in the south one arrives at the country of Kunlun (昆侖國; lit. 'Country of the Wheel of Descendance'; ie. Southeast Asian Brahmanist lands (probably period Thailand or Cambodia)[26]).

Níngběi City (寧北城)[edit]

Chapter 6: Part 7 — Níngběi City (寧北城)
Original Translation
寧北城,在漢碟榆縣之東境也。 Níngběi City (寧北城) is on the eastern border of the Chinese Dié​yú​xiàn​ County (碟榆縣; lit. 'Elm Dish County'[27]).
本無城池,今以浪人詔矣羅君舊宅為理所。 Before there was a city, it was the former residence of Yǐ​luó​jūn​ (矣羅君) of (the Kingdom of) Làng​rén​zhào​ (浪人詔)
東地有野共川,北地有虺川,又北有虺川,又北有郎婆川,又北有桑川,即至鐵橋城北九賧川。 Yě​gòng​chuān​ (野共川) lies to the east, Huǐ​chuān​ (虺川) lies to the north, further north lies Huǐ​chuān​ (虺川[28]), still further north lies Láng​pó​chuān​ (郎婆川), still further north lies Sāng​chuān​ (桑川; lit. 'Mulberry River-plain'), after which one arrives at Nine-river Plain (九賧川) north of Tiěqiáo (Iron Bridge) City (鐵橋城).
又西北有羅眉川,又西牟郎共城,又西至傍彌潛城。 Further north-west lies Luó​méi​chuān​ (羅眉川; lit. 'Gathering Rise/Apex River-plain'), further west is Móu​láng​gòng​ City (牟郎共城), and still further west one appraoches Mí​qián​chéng​ (彌潛城; lit. 'Completely Hidden City').
西有鹽井,鹽井西有斂尋城。 To the west is Salt Well (鹽井), and west of that lies Liǎn​xún​ City (斂尋城; lit. 'Restrained Gathering City').
皆施蠻、順蠻部落今所居之地也。 All are barbarous, obeying the barbarian tribes in residence.
又西北至聿賫城,又西北至弄視川。 Further north-west one arrives at Yù​jī​ City (聿賫城), and still further northwest one arrives at Lòng​shì​chuān​ (弄視川).

Tiěqiáo (Iron Bridge) City (鐵橋城)[edit]

Chapter 6: Part 8 — Tiěqiáo (Iron Bridge) City (鐵橋城)
Original Translation
鐵橋城在劍川北三日程,川中平路有驛。 Tiěqiáo (Iron Bridge) City (鐵橋城) is three days' journey to the north of Jiàn​chuān​ (劍川), and there is a (postal) relay-station in the middle of the flat road on in the midst of the river-plain.[29]
貞元十年,南詔蒙異牟尋用軍破東西兩城,斬斷鐵橋,大籠官已下投水死者以萬計。 In the 10th year of the Zhenyuan era (ie. ~795), Méng​yì​móu​ (蒙異牟[30]) of Nán​zhào​ (南詔) sought military supplies[31] to attack the cities to the east and west (of the bridge), and to close the bridge...
今西城南詔置兵守禦,東城至神川以來,半為散地。 Nán​zhào​ (南詔) has installed a military garrison on the Western City (西城), and the Eastern City (東城) has since stretched haphazardly to Shén​chuān​ (神川).
見管浪加萌、於浪、傳兗、長裈、磨些、撲子、河人、弄棟等十余種。 They manage ten types (of Barbarians) including the Làng​jiā​méng​ (浪加萌), Yū​làng​ (於浪), Chuányǎn​ (傳兗), Cháng​kūn​ (長裈), Mó​xiē​ (磨些), Pū​zi​ (撲子), Hé​rén​ (河人), Lòng​dòng​ (弄棟) and others.

Kūn​míng​ City (昆明城)[edit]

Chapter 6: Part 9 — Kūn​míng​ City (昆明城)
Original Translation
昆明城,在東瀘之西,去龍口十六日程。 The city of Kūn​míng​ (昆明城; lit. 'City of Brilliant Descent') is west of the Dōng​lú​ (東瀘; lit. 'East Lu (River)'), some 16 days' journey from Lóng​kǒu​ (龍口; lit. 'Dragon's Mouth'; ie. modern Xiaguan).
正北有諱苴川,正南至松外城,又正南至龍怯河,西南至小婆城,又西南至大婆城,西北至三探覽城,又西北至鐵橋東城。 Directly north is Huì​jū​chuān​ (諱苴川; lit. 'Hemp Taboo River-valley'), directly south is Sōng​wài​ City (松外城; lit. 'City Outside the Pines'), directly south again is the Lóng​qiè​ River (龍怯河; lit. 'Cowardly Dragon River'), southwest is Xiǎo​pó​chéng​ (小婆城; lit. 'Little Grandma City'), southwest again is Dà​pó​ City (大婆城; lit. 'Big Grandma City'), southwest again is Sān​tàn​lǎn​ City (三探覽城; lit. 'Thrice-scouted View City'), and northwest again is the Tiě​qiáo​dōng​ City (鐵橋東城; lit. 'City East of the Iron Bridge').
其鐵橋上下乃昆明、雙舍,至松外已東,邊近瀘水,並磨些種落所居之地。 Both sides of the Tiě​qiáo (鐵橋; lit. 'Iron Bridge') is Kūn​míng​ (昆明), two residential areas, after which one arrives at the east of Sōng​wài (松外), the edge of which is close to Lú​shuǐ (瀘水; lit. '(the) Lu River')[32] and the site of the Mó​xiē​ (磨些) (barbarians') Zhòng​luò​ (種落) village.

Yǒng​chāng​ City (永昌城; ie. modern Baoshan)[edit]

Chapter 6: Part 10 — Yongchang City (永昌城; ie. modern Baoshan)
Original Translation
永昌城,古哀牢地,在玷蒼山西六日程。 Yǒng​chāng​ City (永昌城), which is the ancient location of the Āi​láo​ (哀牢) (people or culture), is six days' journey to the west of Diàn​cāng​shān​ (玷蒼山; ie. the modern Cāng​shān​ range running north-south to the west of the Erhai basin / modern Dali).
西北去廣蕩城六十日程。 It is sixty days' journey northwest to Guǎng​dàng​ City (廣蕩城; lit. 'Broad Sweep City'[33]).
廣蕩城接吐蕃界。 Guǎng​dàng​ City (廣蕩城) is on the Tǔ​bō​ (吐蕃; ie. Tibetan Tubo dynasty[34]) border.
隔候雪山,西邊大洞川,亦有諸葛武侯城。 Behind are snowy mountains, and at its western side lies Dà​dòng​chuān​ (大洞川; lit. 'Great Cave River-plain') and the Zhū​gě​ Post-Military City (諸葛武侯城; lit. 'Zhū​gě​ Post-Military City'[35]).
城中有神廟,土俗鹹共敬畏,禱祝不闕。 A temple lies at the heart of the city that the indigenous peasants[36] revere, praying conscientiously.
蠻夷騎馬,遙望廟即下馬趨走。 When the local barbarians ride horses, they dismount immediately upon seeing a temple in the distance, then approach by a rapid walk.
西南管柘南城,土俗相傳,呼為要鎮。 Tuonán City (柘南城) in the Southwestern Commandery[37] (西南管) was once known as Yāo​zhèn​ (要鎮; lit. 'Coerced Village'[38]) by indigenous received custom.
正南過唐封川,至茫天連。 Directly southward one passes Táng​fēng​chuān​ (唐封川; lit.[39] 'Well Sealed River-plain') and arrives at (the region of) Máng​tiān​lián​ (茫天連; lit. 'Vast, joined skies').[40]
自瀾滄江已西,越賧撲子,其種並是望苴子。 West of the Lán​cāng​jiāng (瀾滄江; lit. 'Vast Swelling River'; ie. Mekong River) are more River Pū​zi (賧撲子) tribes, also known as Wàng​jū​zi​ (望苴子[41]).[42]
俗尚勇力,土又多馬。 It is their custom to value courage and strength, and the region has many horses.
開元已前閉絕,與六詔不通。 They vanished before the Kaiyuan era (ie. prior to 713) but were different to the Six Zhào​ (六詔).
盛羅皮始罷柘俞城,閣羅鳳已後,漸就柔服。 Shèng​luó​pí​ (盛羅皮) ... Gé​luó​fèng​ (閣羅鳳) ...
通計南詔兵數三萬,而永西居其一。 (Knowing that?) Nán​zhào​ (南詔) had 30,000 soldiers, and was always the major power in the west.
又雜種有金齒、漆齒、銀齒、繡腳、穿鼻、裸形、磨些、望外喻等,皆三譯四譯,言語乃與河賧相通。 They had many types (of soldiers in the army), including Jīn​chǐ​ (金齒; lit. 'Gold-tooth'), Qī​chǐ​ (漆齒; lit. 'Painted or lacquered tooth'), Yín​chǐ​ (銀齒; lit. 'Silver tooth'), Xiù​jiǎo​ (繡腳; lit. 'Embroidered leg'), Chuān​bí​ (穿鼻; lit. 'Pierced nose'), Luǒ​xíng​ (裸形; lit. 'Naked'), Mó​xiē​ (磨些), Wàng​wài​yù​ (望外喻; lit. 'Beyond the moon'[43]) and others, each communicating via 3 or 4 interpreters, and thus mutually comprehensible to the Hé​dǎn​ (河賧; lit. 'River Barbarians').

Other material[edit]

Chapter 6: Part 11 — ...
Original Translation
銀生城在撲賧之南,去龍尾城十日程,東南有通鐙川,又直南通河普川,又正南通羌浪川,卻是邊海無人之境也。 Yín​shēng​ City (銀生城; lit. 'Source of Silver City') is south of Pū​dǎn​ (撲賧).[44] It is 12 days' journey to Lóng​wěi​chéng​ (龍尾城; lit. 'Dragon Tail City'; ie. modern Xiaguan). Southeast lies Dèng​chuān​ (鐙川), directly south of which one may reach Hé​pǔ​chuān​ (河普川), further directly[45] south of which is Qiāng​làng​chuān​ (羌浪川), whose border regions are nevertheless wholly uninhabited.
東至送江川,南至邛鵝川,又南至林記川,又東南至大銀孔,又南有婆羅門、波斯、阇婆、勃泥昆侖數種。 East is Sòngjiāng​chuān​ (送江川; lit. 'Delivery-River Plain'), south is Qióng'​é​chuān​ (邛鵝川; lit. 'Goose Mound River Plain'), still further south is Lín​jì​chuān​ (林記川; lit. 'Memorial Forest River-Plain'), still further southeast is Dà​yín​kǒng​ (大銀孔; lit. 'Great Silver Hole'[46]), still further south is Pó​luó​mén​ (婆羅門; lit. 'Brahman' implying 'Indian or Hindu lands'), Bō​sī​ (波斯; ie. Persia), Shé​pó​ (阇婆[47]), Bó​ní​ (勃泥[48]), Kūn​lún​ (昆侖[49]) and other places.
外通交易之處,多諸珍寶,以黃金麝香為貴貨。 With regard to foreign trade, all manner of treasures are traded for gold and musk.
撲子、長鬃等數十種蠻。 There are ten types of barbarians including the Pū​zi​ (撲子) and the Cháng​zōng​ (長鬃; lit. 'Long mane').
又開南城在龍尾城南十一日程,管柳追和都督城,又威遠城、奉逸城、利潤城,內有鹽井一百來所。 Kāinán City (開南城) is 11 days' journey south of Lóng​wěi​ City (龍尾城; ie. modern Xiaguan), a local provincial regional administrative center. There are also Wēi​yuǎn​ City (威遠城[50]), Fèng​yì​ City (奉逸城) and Lì​rùn​ City (利潤城), which in aggregate have up to 100 salt wells.
茫乃道並黑齒等類十部落,皆屬焉。 The Máng​nǎi​ Road (茫乃道[51]) joins the Black Tooth (黑齒) to some ten or so tribes, all of whom are subordinate.
陸路去永昌十日程,水路下彌臣國三十日程。 It is 11 days' overland journey to Yǒng​chāng​ (永昌; ie. modern Baoshan), and 30 days' journey by water (ie. (river and?) ocean) to Mí​chén​guó​ (彌臣國; lit. 'The Country of Michen'; ie. possibly Arakan; Sanskrit lit. 'Hill Country'[52]).
南至南海,去昆侖三日程。 It adjoins the Southern Ocean (南海; ie. South China Sea / Gulf of Thailand / Java Sea region) to the south, and it is three days' journey to Kūnlún (昆侖; ie. Eastern Indonesia circa the Moluccas[53]).
中間又管模迦羅、幹泥、禮強子等族類五部落。 In between lie Guǎnmójiāluó (管模迦羅[54]), Gànní (幹泥[55]), Lǐqiángzǐ (禮強子[56]) and another five kinds of tribes.
越禮城在永昌北,管長傍、藤彎。 Yuè​lǐ City​ (越禮城; lit. 'city of etiquette breaking') is located to the north of Yǒng​chāng​ (永昌; ie. modern Baoshan), and is administratively responsible for Zhǎng​bàng​ (長傍; lit. 'Near growth') and Téng​wān​ (藤彎; lit. 'vine (or rattan) bend (or windy road?)').
長傍城,三面高山,臨祿{曰鬥}江。 Zhǎng​bàng​ City (長傍城) is surrounded by high mountains on three sides and faces the Raging River ({曰鬥}江[57]).
藤灣城南至磨些樂城,西南有羅君尋城。 South of Téng​wān City​ (藤彎城) one arrives at Mó​xiē​yuè​ City​ (磨些樂城), southwest of which is Luó​jūn​xún​ City (羅君尋城; lit. 'City of Gathered Gentleman').
又西至柯城,渡水郎陽川,直南過山至押西城。 Further west lies Kē​chéng​ (柯城; lit. 'City of Branches'[58]), from which one may cross the river to Láng​yáng​chuān​ (郎陽川; lit. 'Sunny (East-facing) River-plain (Lands) of the Official'), directly south of which and across the mountains lies Yā​xī​chéng​ (押西城; lit. 'City Protecting the West').
又南至首外川,又西至茫部落,又西至鹽井,又西至拔熬河。 Further south again lies Shǒu​wài​chuān​ (首外川), west of which are the Máng​bù​luò​ (茫部落; lit. 'Mang[59] Tribe'), west of whom lies Yán​jǐng​ (鹽井; lit. 'Salt Well'), west of which is the Bá​āo​hé​ River (拔熬河; lit. 'Boiling River'[60]).
麗水城、尋傳大川城,在水東。 Lí​shuǐ​ City (麗水城; lit. 'City of (the River of?) Beautiful Waters') and Xún​zhuàn​dà​chuān​ City (尋傳大川城; lit. 'Search Relay-station Great River-plain City') are located east of the river.
從上郎坪北裏眉羅苴鹽井,又至安西城,直北至小婆羅門國。 From Shàng​láng​píng​ (上郎坪) northward is Méi​luó​jū​ (眉羅苴; lit. 'Hillcrest Hemp Gathering')[61] Yán​jǐng​ (鹽井; lit. 'Salt Well'), one then arrives at Ān​xī City​ (安西城; lit. 'City of the Peaceful West'), north of which lies the Little Brahman Country (小婆羅門國; ie. western Myanmar/southern Assam region[62]).
東有寶山城,又西渡麗水至金寶城。 The the east lies Bǎo​shān​ City (寶山城). Crossing the Lí​shuǐ​ (麗水; lit. '(River of) Beautiful Waters') and moving further westward one arrives at Jīn​bǎo​ City (金寶城; lit. 'Golden Treasure City').
眉羅苴西南有金生城。 Southwest of Méi​luó​jū​ (眉羅苴; lit. 'Hillcrest Hemp Gathering') lies Jīn​shēng​ City (金生城; lit. 'Gold-birth City').
從金寶城北牟郎城渡麗水,至金寶城。 From Jīn​bǎo​ City (金寶城; lit. 'Golden Treasure City') northward one arrives at Móu​láng​chéng​ (牟郎城) after crossing the Lí​shuǐ​ (麗水; lit. '(River of) Beautiful Waters'), which flows toward Jīn​bǎo​ City (金寶城).
從金寶城西至道吉川,東北至門波城,西北至廣蕩城,接吐蕃界。 Westward of Jīn​bǎo​ City (金寶城; lit. 'Golden Treasure City') one arrives at Dào​jí​chuān​ (道吉川; lit. 'Daoji[63] River Plain'), northeast of which is Mén​bō​ City (門波城), northwest of which is Guǎng​dàng​ City (廣蕩城), which borders Tubo Tibet (吐蕃).
北對雪山,所管部落與鎮西城同。 The north faces snowy mountains, ... Zhèn​xī​ City (鎮西城; lit. 'Town-west City').
鎮西城南至蒼望城,臨麗水,東北至彌城,西北至麗水渡。 South of Zhèn​xī​ City (鎮西城; lit. 'Town-west City') one arrives at Cāng​wàng​ City (蒼望城; lit. 'Dark-Bluegreen Moon City'[64]), overlooking the Lí​shuǐ​ (麗水; lit. '(River of) Beautiful Waters'), northeast of which one arrives at Mí​ City (彌城; lit. 'Full City'), further northwest of which one arrives at The Crossing of the Lí​shuǐ​ (麗水渡; lit. '(River of) Beautiful Waters Crossing').
麗水渡而南至祁鮮山,山西有神龍河柵。 South of The Crossing of the Lí​shuǐ​ (麗水渡; lit. '(River of) Beautiful Waters Crossing') lies the Qí​xiǎn​ Mountains (祁鮮山; lit. 'Vast Bright Mountains'), west of which is the Dragon Deity River Barrier (神龍河柵[65]).
祁鮮已西,即裸形蠻也。 West of the Qí​xiǎn​ (Mountains) (祁鮮(山); lit. 'Vast Bright (Mountains)') are the Luǒ​xíng​ Barbarians (裸形蠻; lit. 'Naked Barbarians').
管摩零都督城在山上,自尋傳、祁鮮已往,悉有瘴毒,地平如砥,冬草木不枯,日從草際沒。 Guǎn​mó​líng​ Military Garrison City (管摩零都督城) is in the mountains, from Xún​zhuàn​ (尋傳; lit. 'Search Relay-station') one enters the Qí​xiǎn​ (Mountains) (祁鮮(山)) which are full of malaria, the flat earth is slippery as a whetstone, the plants do not die back in any season, and the sun is drowned-out by foliage.
諸城鎮官懼瘴癘,或越在他處,不親視事。 All of the town and city governors fear tropical disease, for if it invades their quarters, no family is spared.[66]
南詔特於摩零山上築城,置腹心,理尋傳、長傍、摩零、金、彌城等五道事雲。 Nán​zhào​ (南詔) has a unique fortification in the Mó​líng​ Mountains (摩零山) ...
凡管金齒、漆齒、繡腳、繡面、雕題、僧耆等十余部落。 It controls some ten tribes including the Golden Tooth (金齒), Painted Tooth (漆齒), Tattoo-Foot (繡腳), Tattoo-Face (繡面), Diāo​tí​ (雕題; lit. 'Carver'), Sēng​qí​ (僧耆; lit. 'Monkly Elder') and others.
  1. Zhū​gě​ Liàng (諸葛亮; 181-234), military leader and prime minister of Shu Han (蜀漢) during the Three Kingdoms period. Also the main hero of the fictional Romance of Three Kingdoms (三國演義) where he is portrayed as a sage and military genius/mastermind.
  2. <貝僉>
  3. This may be a reference to the area immediately adjacent to the northeast corner of modern Kunming's old central swamp, known as Cuihu (翠湖; lit. 'Jade-green Lake'), since this is known to have been a major historical fresh water source for the city and to be in a naturally low-lying and water-collecting basin beside Wuhua Mountain (无花山), which now gives its name to a major part of the city.
  4. Perhaps in the general area of the west-facing hills around the modern location of Tanhua Temple Park, just east of the Second Eastern Ring Road of Kunming?
  5. This is the second reference in the text to this alleged historic ethnic group, which is perhaps better associated with regions further north (Sichuan, etc.). It again occurs within a general historic context and may conceivably have been written from additional or earlier sources, now lost. Given the lack of clarification in the current text, it is difficult to know precisely which group it may refer to.
  6. This part not entirely clear.
  7. This probably refers to the historical state of the primary outflow river of Dianchi Lake' (滇池), Tángláng Chuān (螳螂川; lit. 'Tanglang Creek'), located in the southwest of the lake near modern Jìnníng (晋宁).
  8. Or possibly, is a few multiples of...
  9. Or possibly Shíchéngchuān (石城川; lit. '(Large portion of) Grain City River-plain'), though this seems far less likely.
  10. Or less likely, 'Tasty' (good chefs?).
  11. The reign of Emperor Tàizōng (太宗).
  12. Seemingly a reasonable interpretation of 一月日; alternatively this could be specifying a day in the first lunar month (ie. February/March period), which would in fact perfectly accord with the aforementioned spring season.
  13. This seems the spirit, however the first two characters of the phrase 館穀勤厚 are hard for me to interpret clearly in context and are mostly glossed over in this translation.
  14. The note literally says 'this piece of written bamboo' (簡).
  15. Modern dictionaries suggest that 夔 may refer to two different types of deities/spirits, either a one-legged mountain daemon or the Chinese mythical figure who invented music and dancing. Quote from English Wikipedia: "Classic texts use this name for the legendary musician Kui who invented music and dancing; for the one-legged mountain demon or rain-god Kui variously said to resemble a Chinese dragon, a drum, or a monkey with a human face; and for the Kuiniu wild yak or buffalo."
  16. If this is referring to the same place as modern Tonghai (通海), then this sounds about right, having cycled and walked much of the terrain personally. The probable route would be from Tonghai (通海) at the south of across to the far south of Dianchi Lake (滇池), either via Yuxi (玉溪) then north, or first north a little along the west of the eastern (Fuxian Lake (抚仙湖) and adjacent) lake complex then more directly across the mountains via a pass near Shizhaishan (石寨山), then north-west along the modern Tanglangchuan River (螳螂川) to Anning (安宁). However, if this is the case, then there remain two issues. (1) It is unclear why Lóng​fēng​yì​ (龍封驛) is mentioned, or where its location is (perhaps if, as suggested, Lóng​fēng​yì​ (龍封驛) was just after a miasmic swamp then that swamp was in the area of modern Kunyang (昆阳) and Lóng​fēng​yì​ (龍封驛) lay on the Tanglangchuan River (螳螂川) after turning northwest from Dianchi Lake (滇池)?). This is believable. (2) Why does it say eight days' journey? This would be too much, unless it perhaps refers to a less direct, less miasmic and more leisurely route to Tuodong (柘東; ie. modern Kunming), perhaps via the eastern edge of Fuxian Lake (抚仙湖) and then perhaps even via Yangzonghai (阳宗海)?
  17. Perhaps if, as suggested, Lóng​fēng​yì​ (龍封驛) was just after a miasmic swamp then that swamp was in the area of modern Kunyang (昆阳) and Lóng​fēng​yì​ (龍封驛) lay on the Tanglangchuan River (螳螂川) after turning northwest from Dianchi Lake (滇池)?
  18. The first character in particular has a rash of potential meanings. One can imagine that the point was of military and political significance as a gateway to the fertile lake-plateaux of central Yunnan.
  19. It is perhaps interesting and potentially significant to note that a transliterator somewhere along the line used a different formatting methodology for the name of the text here; ie. — 《舊唐書·地理誌》 instead of just《唐書》or 《唐書·地理誌》... though the difference is probably only modern, it gives us a little insight in to the quality of the process (ie. imperfect consistency).
  20. Perhaps referring to any ethnic group with a Tibeto-Burman language family, rather than Tibetans per-se.
  21. This statement is fertile ground for historical phonological and semantic analysis.
  22. Apparently a place name though considered unlikely/spurious and not mentioned in Chapter 1.
  23. According to analysis described within a footnote in Chapter 1.
  24. Again, according to analysis in the footnotes of Chapter 1.
  25. It is interesting to note that here the foreign routes associated with the Red River (红河) are described both differently and in reverse to Chapter 1, with different place names being mentioned and different details omitted. It is therefore arguably quite likely that this portion and the Chapter 1 portion were written at different times, against different sources or copied from different former texts. It also confirms that Tonghai was a rather important hub for long distance journeys, as both its name and topographic situation would suggest.
  26. In The Blacks of Premodern China (p33) (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009) Don J. Wyatt reviews in English various attempts to identify this region, essentially concluding that it has no specific geolocation whatsoever but could be thought to encompass any one of many Southeast Asian, South Asian and even East African regions. Here it likely refers to Thailand or Cambodia. It is perhaps useful to note that the literal translation is strongly suggestive of karma and rebirth and therefore Buddhist (or perhaps Hindu) influence.
  27. Possibly implying a lack of easy production or trade access to stoneware?
  28. There must be a mistake of duplication in the source text here. Probably one place name is lost. Different versions of the source should be reviewed to recover the content.
  29. Note that this places it approximately at the location of Zhongdian (now known as Xianggelila / Shangri-la).
  30. Perhaps the final character of the name is in fact part of the verb to seek but I considered it less likely than being part of the (two character) name.
  31. Probably food, men and horses.
  32. Note that the spatial relations in this sentence are not completely clear and may be revised in a subsequent reading.
  33. Perhaps referencing somewhere in Tibet, even Lhasa?
  34. 7th-11th century
  35. Possibly referring to some post-warfare haunt of Zhuge Liang, though I am not familiar enough with his story to know... though it is strongly doubtful he came this far out of Yunnan and in to Tibetan lands. Another option is that 諸葛武 is a name, though this also makes little sense.
  36. My interpretation of 鹹共.
  37. Some kind of contemporary unit of governance, anyway. There is probably an accepted translation for the period, however I am completely uninterested in government and lack formal education in the academic traditions of Chinese translation thus unaware of such lexicons.
  38. Note that the semantics here are probably not Chinese, ie. we should discard the literal meaning. It is far more likely, coming from a Tibeto-Burman language, to be a rough phonetic import of the time. More fertile research ground here for historical phonologists/linguists!
  39. Perhaps!
  40. Probably referring to modern Myanmar: not only does this generally fit with the vague gesturings of the text, but in addition it makes perfect sense that travelers from Yunnan would consider significant the difference in tropical skies with respect to clouds and the reduced presence of mountains.
  41. Note that as with the city Yangxiefai, the period pronunciation here may be closer to Wangxiezi.
  42. Not super clear on two parts of this sentence, first part being 越賧, second part being 其種並是, however this currently seems the most appropriate interpretation, which is supported by the earlier list of ethnicities in this chapter which included Pū​zi (撲子).
  43. Could possibly refer to the area beyond the mountain in the central upper Salween (Nujiang) River, which has a very moon-like hole in it.
  44. Could be a place name, could be a river name, could be a tribal name.
  45. It may be significant to note that this sub-phrase uses 正 whereas the last one used 直 ... it is unclear to me how or whether the expected interpretation should differ, so I leave this note to draw attention to the difference for future readers.
  46. Strongly implying an established underground silver mining operation.
  47. Unidentified. Could be Sri Lanka or a South Asian empire of the time.
  48. Unidentified. Could be Nepal if (a) it existed then; and (b) the characters were crossed in transliteration. Could also be any number of other polities.
  49. Unidentified. Mythical South Asian location, probably.
  50. There is allegedly a modern Weiyuan county in Neijiang (內江), Sichuan.
  51. Apparently this toponym is a phonetic transliteration from a non-Chinese language as the semantics of the component characters appear relatively nonsensical.
  52. One Chinese analysis of the possible identity of this ancient toponym is as follows.

    The Country of Mí​chén​
    As per the 10th scroll of the Manshu, "The little Brahmanic country of ... from which it is 74 days' journey north to Yongchang (ie. modern Baoshan)".
    As per the 33rd scroll of the Tánghuìyào, "...".
    Located in the southwestern part of modern Myanmar (Burma).
    The toponym occurs in...
    - the Manshu (蠻書) (ie. this book) in chapters 2, 6 and 7;
    - (again, later in) the Tánghuìyào (唐會要) in scroll 100;
    - the Yùlǎn (御覽) in scrolls 789 and 971;
    - the Huányǔjì (寰宇記) (apparently referring to the Universal Geography of the Taiping Era (976-983) or Tàipínghuányǔjì (太平寰宇记)) in scroll 177 (which does not presently seem to exist in online copies such as that at Wikisource or that at;
    - the Cèfǔ (冊府) (apparently referring to 冊府元龜) in scrolls 965 and 972;
    - the Huáyítú (華夷圖) (apparently referring to Complete Map of the Four Seas, China, and the Barbarians);
    - the Xīntángshū (新唐書) in the final portion of scroll 222;
    - in Tōngkǎo (通考) in scroll 330;
    - in the Dúshǐjì (讀史紀) in scroll 119;
    - and finally in the Xùtōngzhì (續通志) in scroll 640.
  53. There is a discussion on p153+ of Between East and West: The Moluccas and the Traffic in Spices up to the Arrival of Europeans (2003) and here on Baidu Baike. As evidence appears reasonable, I also added this cited identification to Wikipedia.
  54. Certainly a transliteration from a foreign language.
  55. Certainly a transliteration from a foreign language.
  56. Certainly a transliteration from a foreign language.
  57. There appears to be no established reading of the character {曰鬥}, comprised of a 'speech' notion (曰/yuē​) and a 'fight' notion (鬥/dòu). Therefore I have translated it in a general semantic sense.​
  58. Dictionaries suggest this may have a more general meaning, later meanings include axe-handles, such that rather than branches, branches/sticks/elongated wooden objects would perhaps be a more accurate assumption.
  59. Meaning vast, indistinct or mixed, though this is likely to be a phonetic import and as such the character choice potentially not so semantically loaded.
  60. Suggesting a smaller river whose rough flow features many rapids. Larger, well established rivers tend to have less turbulence.
  61. The identification of this place name is based upon a recurrence of the toponym two sentences below.
  62. See for example Baidu Baike entry.
  63. No apparent semantic, this is very likely to be a phonetic import from a local non-Sinitic language.
  64. If indeed there is a semantic intention here, which is definitely in question as it is probably just a foreign language transliteration.
  65. Possibly implying some form of military garrison/political demarcation.
  66. This last portion ("no family is spared") is incorrect and translated as a gloss as I cannot understand the precise semantics.