Translation:Manshu/Chapter 7

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Translator's note[edit]

Translation is complete but it has not yet been rechecked.

Scan of a 1913 print by Bong and Company, Paris of a photo by Gervais-Courtellemont, titled in French, roughly equating to Yunnan: Arrangement of the Irrigated Rice Fields.

Translation[edit]

Agricultural Taxation[edit]

Chapter 7: Part 1 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Agricultural Taxation
Original Translation
從曲靖州已南,滇池已西,土俗唯業水田,種麻、豆黍、稷,不過町疃。 From Qū​jìng​ Prefecture (曲靖州) southward, and Lake Diān​chí​ (滇池) westward, local custom is to establish (rice) paddy-fields, hemp, bean-millet(?),[1] and millet, and only small paths are maintained through the fields to the villages.
水田每年一熟,從八月獲稻,至十一月十二月之交,便於稻田種大麥,三月四月即熟。 There is one annual harvest of the paddy-fields, whereupon the rice is gathered in the eighth lunar month (ie. August-September), after which the fields are turned fallow through the eleventh or twelfth lunar month (ie. November-January), when it is easy to sew barley that ripens in the third or fourth lunar month (ie. March-May).
收大麥後,還種粳稻。 After the barley is harvested, the (non-glutinous) rice is replanted.
小麥即於岡陵種之,十二月下旬已抽節如三月,小麥與大麥同時收刈。 Wheat is planted near the ridgelines, which is harvested by the final third of the twelfth lunar month (ie. approximately very late December-early February) as in the third lunar month (ie. approximately April-May). Wheat and barley are harvested simultaneously.
其小麥面軟泥少味,大麥多以為麨,別無他用。 Noodles made from wheat (alone?) are soft and flavourless, and barley is plentiful like wheat-husks(?[2]), and has no other use.[3]
醞酒以稻米為麹者,酒味酸敗。 Alcohol is fermented[4] from harvested rice, and tastes sour.
每耕田用三尺犁,格長丈余,兩牛相去七八尺,一佃人前牽牛,一佃人持按犁轅,一佃人秉耒。 Fields are always tilled with a 3 chǐ​ (ie. one meter) plow, with a frame over one zhàng​ (ie. 3.3 meters) in length, by two oxen spaced 7 or 8 chǐ​ (ie. 2-3 meters) apart, with one farmer ahead to herd them, one farmer to guide the plow-shaft, and one farmer to hold the plow.
蠻治山田,殊為精好。 Barbarians rule the mountain fields, and it is they who take the pick of the crop.
悉被城鎮蠻將差蠻官遍令監守催促。 They are in every case ruled by the barbarians of the towns, who send official inspectors to communicate their will.
如監守蠻乞酒飯者,察之,杖下捶死。 If the barbarians beg for food or drink, the inspectors will beat them to death with a stick.
每一佃人,佃疆畛連延或三十裏,澆田皆用源泉,水旱無損。 Every farmer has perhaps 30 li of paths around their fields, which are irrigated with spring water, such that it is uninterrupted even in drought.
收刈已畢,官蠻據佃人家口數目,支給禾稻,其余悉輸官。 When the harvest is complete, the inspectors will distribute some rice to the farmers according to the number of people in the village, taking the rest for the government.

Silk Production[edit]

Weaving of silk. Illustration from Sericulture by Liang Kai, 1200s.
Chapter 7: Part 2 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Silk Production
Original Translation
蠻地無桑,悉養柘,蠶繞樹。 Wherever the barbarian lands are without mulberry, they will be established for the cultivation of silkworms.
村邑人家,柘林多者數頃,聳幹數丈。 The families of the towns and villages have mulberry forests of over one qǐng​ (ie. 6.67 hectares) in area, growing as high as one zhàng​ (ie. 3.3m).[5]
三月初,蠶已生,三月中,繭出。 By the beginning of the third month of the lunar year (ie. about late March-early April) the silkworms are already born, and by the middle of the third month of the lunar year (ie. about mid to late April) they have hatched.
抽絲法稍異中土。 The method of spinning differs slightly from the Sino-Turkic (ie. that used in China and the Silk Road).
精者為紡絲綾,亦織為錦及絹。 The cocoons (ie. pupa) are separated for spinning, and woven for embroidery and tougher fabrics.[6]
其紡絲入朱紫以為上服。 The threads are died vermilion before use in clothing.
錦文頗有密致奇采,蠻及家口悉不許為衣服。 The brocade-work is particularly dense and wonderfully colored, and normal barbarian houses are forbidden from wearing them.
其絹極粗,原細入色(案:「原細」二字未詳),制如衾被,庶賤男女計以披之。 The tougher fabrics are particularly course, in to which these (original [silk]) threads are woven for color (Former transliterator's note: The characters for (original [silk]) threads were unclear.), as if weaving a quilt, and are worn over the shoulder by numerous commoners.
亦有刺繡,蠻王並清平官禮衣悉服錦繡,皆上綴波羅皮(南蠻呼大蟲為「波羅密」)。 There is also beautiful embroidery worn by the barbarian kings and Ministers for Peace as formal/ritual attire, in all cases sewn on to tiger skin (the southern barbarians use the word Bō​luó​mì​[7] (波羅密) for tiger).
俗不解織綾羅,自大和三年蠻賊寇西川,虜掠巧兒及女工非少,如今悉解織綾羅也。 Historically they did not understand how to weave silk, but the arrogant barbarians invaded Xichuan (西川; ie. a period military district encompassing the far southwest Sichuan/Yunnan periphery) over a three year period, opportunistically capturing a large number of children and female workers, and they are now all able to separate and weave silk.[8]

Clothing of neighbouring areas[edit]

A silkworm feeding on a mulberry tree.
Chapter 7: Part 3 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Clothing of neighbouring areas
Original Translation
白銀生城、柘南城、尋傳、祁鮮已西,蕃蠻種並不養蠶,唯收婆羅樹子破其殼,中白如柳絮,組織為方幅,裁之籠頭,男子婦女通服之。 To the west of Bái​yín​shēng​chéng (白銀生城; ie. 'The City Producing White Silver'), Zhè​nán​chéng​ (柘南城; ie. 'The City South of the Mulberries'), Xúnzhuàn​ (尋傳; ie. 'Search Relay-station') and Qí​xiān​ (祁鮮; ie. 'Vast Aquatic-Production'), the ​proliferation of various Tibetan tribes[9] are certainly incapable of silk production, and (instead) only gather pó​luó​shù​ (婆羅樹; ie. some form of tree[10]) seeds, and break the shells, which are white inside like willow[11] catkins[12], organized in to square rolls, trimmed in to bridles, and worn by both men and women.
驃國、彌臣、諾悉諾,皆披羅緞。 In both Piào​guó​ (驃國; ie. the Pyu city-states of upper Burma[13]) and Mí​chén​ (彌臣; ie. Pathein[14]), shouldered drapes are worn.

Salt[edit]

Salt evaporation pans, Yangpu Ancient Salt Field, Hainan Island
Chapter 7: Part 4 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Salt
Original Translation
其鹽出處甚多,煎煮則少。 Their sources of salt are numerous, and panning and boiling of these is rare.
安寧城中皆石鹽井,深八十尺,城外又有四井,勸百姓自煎。 Inside the city of Ān​níng​ (安寧城) are rock-salt wells, 80 chǐ​ (ie. 24 meters) deep, and outside the walls are a further four wells, which the common people are exhorted to pan.

Xuánzōng's Attack of 749[edit]

Xuanzong's Journey to Shu (ie. Sichuan), in the manner of the mid 8th century Tang artist Li Zhaodao, an 11th-century Song Dynasty remake
Emperor Tang Xuánzōng portrait.
Chapter 7: Part 5 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Xuánzōng's Attack of 749
Original Translation
天寶八載,玄宗委特進何履光統領十道兵馬,從安南進軍伐蠻國。 In the eighth year of the Tianbao Reign (ie. ~749), it was recorded: Emperor Xuánzōng (玄宗) sent Commander Hé​lǚ​guāng​ (何履光統領) ten lines of troops and cavalry from Ān​nán (安南; ie. Chinese-controlled period northern Vietnam / modern day Hanoi) to attack the barbarian country.
十載,已收復安寧城並馬援銅柱,本定疆界在安寧,去交阯四十八日程,安寧郡也。 It is righteously[15] recorded, that troops and horses had already recaptured Ān​níng City​ (安寧城) for the purpose of recapturing the copper pillar (銅柱),[16] a border demarcation of Ān​níng​ (安寧), from which Jiāo​zhǐ​ (交阯; ie. modern Hanoi in Chinese-controlled period north Vietnam) is 48 days' travel, (passing through) the Ān​níng​ Region (安寧郡).
何履光本是邕管貴州人,舊嘗任交、容、廣三州節度。 Hé​lǚ​guāng​ (何履光) was formerly of Guì​zhōu​ (貴州; possibly far western Guangxi or southern Guizhou[17]) in the Yōng​guǎn​ (邕管) (military) region, and had former appointments in the military governance of Jiāozhōu​ (交州; ie. Chinese-controlled period north Vietnam), Róng​zhōu (容州; ie. modern Beiliu (北流) in Guangxi Province) and Guǎng​zhōu (廣州; ie. modern Guangdong Province[18]) regions.
天寶十五載,方收蠻王所坐大和城之次,屬安祿山造逆,奉玄宗詔旨將兵赴西川,遂寢其收復(案:此條乃敘次鹽井所在,其「天寶八載」以下一百十四字,於上下語意不相屬,疑亦他處之文,因安寧城而錯誤在此) In the 15th year of the Tianbao Reign (ie. ~756), just as the barbarian king's seat at Dà​hé​chéng​ (大和城; ie. modern Taihe village (太和村) in Dali) was to be captured next, the subordinate Ān​lù​shān (安祿山) rebelled, just after receiving an imperial edict from Emperor Xuánzōng (玄宗) to take troops and attack Xī​chuān​ (西川) in order to recapture it. (Former transliterator's note: This section therefore discusses a region of Yán​jǐng​ (鹽井; lit. 'Salt Wells'). From the phrase 「天寶八載」("In the eighth year of the Tianbao Reign (ie. ~749)...") onward, 114 characters do not match with the established context, and thus it is suspected that the explanation for this is that the characters identifying Ān​níng City​ (安寧城) are erroneous.[19])

Further Notes on Salt[edit]

Chapter 7: Part 6 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Further Notes on Salt
Original Translation
升麻、通海已來,諸爨蠻皆食安寧井鹽,唯有覽賧城內郎井鹽潔白味美,惟南詔一家所食取足外,輒移竈緘閉其井。 From Shēng​má​ (升麻; allegedly identified as the modern Xundian (尋甸) region[20] north of Kunming) to Tōng​hǎi​ (通海; southeast of Kunming), all of the Cuàn​ Barbarians (爨蠻) eat salt from the wells of Ān​níng​ (安寧; west of Kunming), although only the salt from Láng​jǐng​ (郎井; lit. 'The Official's Well') inside Lǎn​dǎn City​ (覽賧城; lit. 'Tax Seeing City'; allegedly identified as the modern Lufeng (祿豐) region[21]) is both perfectly white and pleasant tasting, and it alone is consumed by the entire ruling family of Nán​zhào​ (南詔) who obtain it in excessive quantity, closing the saltworks after themselves.
瀘南有美井鹽,河賧、白崖、雲南已來,供食。 Lú​nán​ (瀘南) has Beautiful-Well Salt (美井鹽), rivers, white cliffs, and immediately provides food to travelers from Yún​nán​ (雲南; here perhaps referring to Kunming rather than Yunnanyi).
昆明城有大鹽池,比陷吐蕃。 Kūn​míng​ City (昆明城) has a large salt-panning pool, which was nearly captured by the Tǔ​bō​ (吐蕃; ie. the Tibetan Tubo dynasty of the 7th-11th centuries).
蕃中不解煮法,以鹹池水沃柴上,以火焚柴成炭,即於炭上掠取鹽也。 The Tibetans do not understand the process of evaporation, and (instead) douse saltpool water on their firewood, such that the firewood becomes charcoal, thence scrape it off the remnants.
貞元十年春,南詔收昆明城,今鹽池屬南詔,蠻官煮之如漢法也。 In the spring of the 10th year of the Zhenyuan reign (ie. ~795), Nán​zhào​ (南詔) captured Kūn​míng​ City (昆明城), and now the salt-panning pool belongs to them, who prepare their salt (through evaporation) much as we Chinese do.
東蠻、磨些蠻諸蕃部落共食龍怯河水,中有鹽井兩所。 The Eastern Barbarians (東蠻), Mó​xiē​ Barbarians (磨些蠻) and Various Tibetan Tribes (諸蕃部落) all feed on the water of the Lóng​qiè​hé​ River (龍怯河; lit. 'Dragon Fear River'[22]), in the midst of which lie two salt wells.
斂尋東南有傍彌潛井、沙追井,西北有若耶井、諱溺井,劍川有細諾鄧井,麗水城有羅苴井,長傍諸山皆有鹽井,當土諸蠻自食,無榷稅。 Nearby to the southeast of Liǎn​xún​ (斂尋; lit. '(Place of) Collecting and Searching') lies the Mí​qián​ Well (彌潛井; lit. 'Completely Hidden Well') and the Shāduī​ Well (沙追井; lit. 'Sand Sculpture Well')​, and to the northwest lies Ruò​yē​ Well (若耶井; no literal meaning), Huì​nì Well (諱溺井; lit. 'Forbidden Addiction Well'). Jiàn​chuān​ (劍川; lit. 'Sword River-plain') has the Xì​nuòdèng​ Well (細諾鄧井; lit. 'Slender Promise (to) Deng Well'?), Lí​shuǐ​​ City (麗水城; lit. 'Beautiful (Unidentified Ancient Mammal) Well') has the Luójū​ Well (羅苴井; lit. 'Hemp Gauze Well')​, and the length of all nearby mountains hold salt wells which the local barbarians utilize, without taxation.
蠻法煮鹽,鹹有法令。 The barbarians process the salt by boiling, which is nearly unregulated.
顆鹽每顆約一兩二兩,有交易即以顆計之。 Each cake of salt is 1-2 liang (ie. 50-100 grams), and these cake-units are used in trade.

Tea, Trees, Herbs and Fruits[edit]

Jackfruit hanging on the tree.
Chapter 7: Part 7 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Tea, Trees, Herbs and Fruits
Original Translation
茶出銀生城界諸山,散收無采造法。 Tea comes from all of the mountains around Yín​shēng​ City (銀生城; lit. 'The City Originating Silver'), and is collected or processed with disregard for color.
蒙舍蠻以椒、姜、桂和烹而飲之。 The Méng​shè​ Barbarians (蒙舍蠻; ie. Nanzhao; based at Dali) use pepper, ginger or tumeric,[23] and cinnamon (ie. Cinnamomum cassia[24]) to boil (from a raw state?[25]) as a drink.
荔枝、檳榔、訶黎勒、椰子、桄榔等諸樹,永昌、麗水、長傍、金山並有之。 Lychee, betel-nut (Areca catechu), hē​lí​lēi​ (ie. unidentified black tree-borne fruit), coconut, sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) and other trees are present at Yǒng​chāng​ (永昌; ie. modern Baoshan), Lí​shuǐ​ (麗水; lit. 'Beautiful[26] Water'), Zhǎng​bàng​ (長傍; lit. 'Near Chief') and Jīn​shān​ (金山; lit. 'Golden Mountain').
甘橋,大厘城有之,其味酸。 Dà​lí​ City (大厘城) has 'sweet'-tangerines, but their flavour is sour.
寧賧有橋,大如覆柸 (案:「橋」疑「橘」字之訛) Níng​dǎn​ (寧賧) also has tangerines, which are so large that one regrets eating them.[27] (Former transliterator's note: The character written「橋」 (bridge) should actually be 「橘」(tangerine).)
麗水城又出波羅蜜果,大者若漢城甜瓜,引蔓如蘿蔔,十一月十二月熟。 Lí​shuǐ​ City (麗水城) also produces jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), as large as the muskmelon[28] of Seoul (漢城);[29][30] its vines extend like radish and it matures in the 11th or 12th lunar month (ie. December/January).
皮如蓮房,子處割之,色微紅,似甜瓜,香可食。 Its skin is like the casing of a lotus, its seeds are within and must be cut out, its color is slightly red — recalling muskmelon — and it is particularly tasty.
或雲此即思難也,南蠻以此果為珍好。 Perhaps speaking of this is inappropriate,[31] but the Southern Barbarians (南蠻) do have in this fruit a culinary treasure!
祿{曰鬥}江左右亦有波羅蜜果,樹高數十丈,大數圍,生子,味極酸。 The banks of the Lucky [Raging Gorge] River (祿{曰鬥}江[32]) also produce jackfruit, with stands of trees as high as 10 zhang (ie. 33 meters) whose immature fruits are extremely sour.
蒙舍、永昌亦有此果,大如甜瓜,小者似橙柚,割食不酸,即五香味。 Méng​shè​ (蒙舍; ie. Dali) and Yǒngchāng (永昌; lit. 'perpetual [goodness as embodied by sunlight]'; modern 保山/Bǎoshān) also have these fruits, the largest of which are the size of muskmelons, the smallest the size of orange-grapefruits,[33] these are not sour when cut open to eat and possess all the five flavours (ie. are very tasty).
土俗或呼為「長傍果」,或呼為「思漏果」,亦呼「思難果」。 In local dialect they are known as Cháng​bàng​[34] Fruit, Sī​lòu​[35] Fruit, or Sī​nán[36] Fruit.​
其次有雄黃,蒙舍川所出。 In addition there is realgar (ie. α-As4S4, is an arsenic sulfide mineral, also known as "ruby sulphur" or "ruby of arsenic") or orpiment (ie. a deep orange-yellow colored arsenic sulfide mineral with formula As2S3 that was used as medicine in ancient China), which is extracted from the Méng​shè​ River-plain (蒙舍川; ie. vicinity probably to the south of old Dali).
青木香,永昌出,其山多青木香山,在永昌南三日程。 Qīng​mù​[37] Incense originates in Yǒngchāng (永昌): the hills three days' journey to the south of Yǒngchāng (永昌) are known as the Qīng​mù​ Incense Hills (青木香山) and are awash with the tree.
獲歌諾木,麗水山谷出。 Huò​gē​nuò​ wood (獲歌諾木) originates from the ravine of the Lucky [Raging Gorge] River (祿{曰鬥}江).
大者如臂,小者如三指,割之色如黃蘗。 The thicker pieces are as broad as an arm, whereas the smaller ones are only only three fingers, and when cut into it is the color of Phellodendron[38] (ie. very yellow).
土人及賧蠻皆寸截之。 The natives and the Dǎn​ Barbarians (賧蠻) always cut them to one cùn​ (ie. an inch or so) in length.
丈夫婦女久患腰腳者,浸酒服之,立見效驗。 Men and women suffering from long term lower back or leg pain prepare it by infusion in alcohol, and it has immediate effect.
藤{艹彌},生永昌、河賧。 The mí​ vine (藤{艹彌}; unidentified plant) originates from Yǒngchāng (永昌) and Hé​dǎn​ (河賧; lit. 'Toll River').
緣皮處無竹根,以藤漬經數月,色光赤,彼土尚之(案:此條文義未明,疑有訛脫) Its peripheral skin can be found in (areas without?)[39] bamboo shoots, and is prepared for use by soaking (with textile?)[40] for several months. It is a bright red, and highly valued by the locals. (Former transliterator's note: The meaning of this phrase is unclear, and an error is suspected.[41])
孟灘竹,長傍出,其竹節度三尺,柔細可為索,亦以皮為麻。 It is produced in Mèng​tān​zhú​ (孟灘竹; lit. 'Bamboo (rapids/beach) of Meng') and Cháng​bàng​ (長傍). Each joint of the vine is approximately 3 chǐ​ (ie. one meter) in length, it is thin and supple and may be used for tying, and is also used to bundle hemp.
野桑木,永昌、巴西諸山谷有之,生於石上。 Wild mulberry wood (野桑木)[42] is present in all of the valleys of Yǒngchāng (永昌) and Bā​xī​ (巴西), and grows upon rocks.[43]
及時月擇可為弓材者,先截其上,然後中割之,兩向屈令至地,候木性定,斷取為弓。 In the appropriate lunar month it is selected as material for military bows: first a section is cut, then split down the middle, and the two sides bent to the earth. After the shape has set, a section is separated for the bow.
不施筋漆,而勁利過於筋弓,蠻中謂之<月真>弓者是也。 The string is of tendon and is not coated;[44] amongst the barbarians particularly strong bows are known as 'true moon' bows.

Gold Panning[edit]

A gold nugget.
Chapter 7: Part 8 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Gold Panning
Original Translation
生金,出金山及長傍諸山、藤充北金寶山。 The Shēng​jīn Mountains​ (生金山), Chū​jīn Mountains​ (出金山) and Cháng​bàng​ (長傍) possess gold and are located to the north of Téng​chōng​ (藤充[45]).
土人取法,春冬間先於山上掘坑,深丈余,闊數十步。 The local method of extraction is to dig holes in the mountains between winter and spring, over one zhang (ie. 3.3 meters) in depth, and ten paces in breadth.
夏月水潦降時,添其泥土入坑,即於添土之所沙石中披揀。 In the summer months' rainy season, mud floods the holes, and it is from this silt that gold is sought.
有得片塊,大者重一斤,或至二斤,小者三兩五兩,價貴於麩金數倍。 Sometimes nuggets are found — the larger ones weighing one jin (ie. 500 grams) or up to two jin (ie. one kilogram); the smaller ones weighing 3-5 liǎng​ (ie. about 150-250 grams). Their value is many times that of panned gold.
然以蠻法嚴峻,納官十分之七八,其余許歸私。 The barbarian law is draconian, confiscating some 70-80% of the recovered gold as tax; the rest is permitted as personal property.
如不輸官,許遞相告。 If the tax is not paid, then informants receive the gold.[46]
麩金出麗水,盛沙淘汰取之。 Gold dust is found (in the waters of the/at[47]) Lí​shuǐ​​ (麗水), and is separated from sand by panning.
沙賧法,男女犯罪,多送麗水淘金。 Under the sand punishment law, criminals of both sexes are sent in droves to Lí​shuǐ​​ (麗水) to pan for gold.
長傍川界三面山並出金,部落百姓悉納金,無別稅役、征徭。 Mountains on three sides of the Cháng​bàng​ River-valley (長傍川) also produce gold, and all of the local tribespeople pay it in tax, which is in no way different to forced labour, and is compulsory.

Silver[edit]

A Chinese silver ingot.
Chapter 7: Part 9 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Silver
Original Translation
銀,會同川銀山出。 Silver is extracted from Silver Mountain (銀山) in the Huì​tóng​ River-valley (會同川).

Tin[edit]

Chapter 7: Part 10 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Tin
錫,瑟瑟山中出,禁戢甚嚴。 Tin is found in Sè​sè​ Mountain (瑟瑟山; lit. 'Rustling Mountain'[48]) and extraction is strictly forbidden.

Amber[edit]

Unpolished amber stones.
Chapter 7: Part 11 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Amber
琥珀,永昌城界西去十八日程琥珀山掘之,去松林甚遠。 Amber is dug from Amber Mountain (琥珀山), which lies deep in pine forests 18 days' journey west of the border of Yǒng​chāng​ (永昌城; ie. modern Baoshan) (ie. somewhere in the Kachin territories of Burma).
片塊大重二十余斤。 A piece can weight 20 or more jīn​ (ie. more than ten kilograms).
貞元十年,南詔蒙異牟尋進獻一塊,大者重二十六斤,當日以為罕有也。 In the 10th year of the Zhenyuan reign (ie. ~795), Méng​yì​móu​ (蒙異牟) of Nán​zhào​ (南詔) offered a piece in tribute that was 26 jīn​ (ie. 13 kilograms) which was, at the time, thought to be a rarity.

Horses[edit]

Horses in mountainous topography.
Chapter 7: Part 12 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Horses
馬,出越賧川東面一帶,崗西向,地勢漸平,乍起伏如畦畛者,有泉地美草,宜馬。 Horses are produced in a region on the eastern side of Yuè​dǎn​ River-valley (越賧川), facing west, gradually flattening from initial rapid undulations like the edge of a field, possessing a natural spring and beautiful grasses, thus most suitable for horses.
初生如羊羔,一年後,紐莎為攏頭縻系之。 They are like lambs when born, but are captured[49] after one year.
三年內飼以米清粥汁,四五年稍大,六七年方成就。 For three years they are fed rice gruel, and for the fourth and fifth year in increasing quantity, and in the sixth or seventh year they are broken in.
尾高,尤善馳驟,日行數百裏。 They have high tails, an exceptional spritely gallop, and can cover several hundred li (ie. upwards of 100km[50]) in a day.
本種多驄,故代稱越賧驄,近年以白為良。 The breed often produces buckskin (ie. brown) coats, and in ancient times were known as 'Yuè​dǎn​ Buckskin Horses', though recently they have had some white ones.[51]
膝充及申賧亦出馬,次賧、滇池尤佳。 Xī​chōng​ (膝充) and Shēn​dǎn​ (申賧) also produce horses, though they are second to[52] the outstanding horses of Lake Diān​chí​ (滇池; ie. the region of modern Kunming).
東爨烏蠻中亦有馬,比於越賧皆少。 The Eastern Cuàn​ Black Barbarians (東爨烏蠻) also have horses, though fewer than the Yuè​dǎn​ (越賧).
一切野放,不置槽櫪。 They are all kept on plains, not locked in stables.
唯陽苴咩及大厘、登川各有槽櫪,餵馬數百匹。 Only ​Yángxiefai (陽苴咩), Dàlí​ (大厘) and the Dēng​chuān​ River-valley (登川) have stables, which feed several hundred horses.

Rhinoceros[edit]

Rhinoceros-shaped bronze belt hook inlaid with gold and silver from the Warring States Period, Ba State. Unearthed at Zhaohua, northern Sichuan Province, 1954. Collections of the National Museum of China, Beijing. Because of the two horns, this is a depiction of the Sumatran rhinoceros, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis.
Chapter 7: Part 13 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Rhinoceros
犀,出越賧、高麗。 Rhinoceroses[53] occur at Yuèdǎn​ (越賧) and Gāo​lí​ (高麗).
其人以陷穽取之。 They are captured using pit traps.
每殺之時,天雨震雷暴作。 Every time one is killed, there is a thunderstorm.
尋傳川界、殼弄川界亦出犀皮。 Rhinoceros skins are also produced at the borders of Xún​chuán​ River-valley (尋傳川) and Qiào​nòng​ River-valley (殼弄川; lit. possibly 'Carapace Processing River-valley').
蠻排甲並馬,統備(案:《新唐書》作「統倫」)馬騎甲仗,多用犀革,亦雜用牛皮。 All of the barbarian troops' military horses are equipped (Former transliterator's note: In the New Book of Tang it uses the characters 統倫 (coherently mustered) (ie. instead of 統備 (all equipped)) with saddles, armor and weaponry made from rhinoceros hide, though various buffalo hides are also used.
負排羅苴已下,未得系金佉苴者,悉用犀革為佉苴,皆朱漆之。 After the reserve rank,[54] there is not a systematic assignment of metal[55] shields, and the others use rhinoceros hide for their shields, all of which are lacquered in a vermillion/purple finish.

Tigers[edit]

An endangered Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti), photographed in captivity in the Tierpark, Berlin, Germany.
Chapter 7: Part 14 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Tigers
大蟲,南詔所披皮,赤黑文深,炳然可愛。 Tiger[56] skin is used by drapes by (the) Nán​zhào​ (南詔) (court), which is patterned in red and black, and is particularly agreeable.
雲大蟲在高山窮谷者則佳,如在平川,文淺不任用。 Cloud[57] tigers thrive[58] in the desolate valleys[59] of the high mountains, whereas when found in flatlands, their markings are lighter and unclear.

Musk[edit]

Dwarf / Chinese forest musk deer] (Moschus berezovskii).
Chapter 7: Part 15 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Musk
麝香,出永昌及南詔諸山,土人皆以交易貨幣。 Musk deer (ie. Moschus)[60] range from Yǒng​chāng​ (永昌; ie. modern Baoshan) to Nán​zhào​ (南詔; ie. modern Dali/Erhai basin), and sold for cash by the local barbarians.

Buffalo[edit]

Domesticated water buffalo on a bronze belt buckle of the Dian culture, circa Kunming, third century BCE. Swamp buffalo were domesticated in China about 4000 years ago.
Chapter 7: Part 16 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Buffalo
沙牛,雲南及西爨故地並只生沙牛,俱綠地多瘴,草深肥,牛更蕃生犢子。 Buffalo are produced between Yún​nán​ (雲南; ie. probably referring to Yunnanyi) and the Western Cuàn​ (Barbarian) (西爨) regions, such areas are always infested with malaria and rich with fertile grasses, and produce many calves.
天寶中,一家便有數十頭。 In the Tianbao Reign (ie. 742–756CE), each family would have ten buffalo.
通海已南多野水牛,或一千二千為群。 South of Tōng​hǎi​ (通海) there are many wild buffalo, which live in herds of 1000-2000 animals.
彌諾江巴西出犛牛,開南巴南養處,大於水牛。 Bā​xī​ (巴西; no literal meaning[61]) on the River (彌諾江; lit. 'Fully (Flowing/Promised flow)[62] River') produces black buffalo, which live in the Kāi​nán​ (開南; lit. the region to the south of Kai[63]) and Bā​nán​ (巴南; lit. the region to the south of Ba[64]) regions, and are larger than regular buffalo.[65]
一家數頭養之,代牛耕也。 The young are raised by the family[66] unit, and used for plowing.

Deer[edit]

Barking Deer (Muntiacus).
Chapter 7: Part 17 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Deer
鹿,傍西洱沙諸山皆有鹿。 Deer[67] occur in all of the mountains near the western shore of Erhai Lake (洱海).
龍尾城東北息龍山,南詔養鹿處,要則取之。 Northeast of Lóng​wěi​ City (龍尾城; lit. 'Dragon Tail City'; ie. modern Xiaguan) are the end of the Lóng​shān​ Mountains (龍山; lit. 'Dragon Mountains'), where Nán​zhào​ (南詔) raise and harvest deer.
覽賧有織和川及鹿川。 Lǎn​dǎn​ (覽賧) has Zhī​huò​ River-valley (織和川; lit. 'Weaving Together[68] River-valley'[69])
龍足鹿白晝三十五十,群行嚙草。 The Dragon-foot Deer (龍足鹿), between 30-50 in the daytime (ie. late morning period[70]) emerge as a herd to eat grasses.

Fish and Water Animals[edit]

Gharial fresh water crocodile.
Chapter 7: Part 18 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Fish and Water Animals
鯽魚,蒙舍池鯽魚大者重五斤,西洱河及昆池之南接滇池。 Regarding carp:[71] the Pool at Méng​shè​ (蒙舍池) holds large carp weighing some 5 jin (ie. 2.5 kilograms), and they are also present in the Xī'​ěr​hé​ River (西洱河), and the south of the Kūn​chí​ Pond (昆池; possibly the far north-western section of Lake Dianchi) at the points of its intersection with Lake Diān​chí​ (滇池).
冬月,魚、雁、鴨、豐雉、水紥鳥遍於野中水際。 In the winter lunar-month (ie. about December-January), fish, geese, ducks, great pheasants and reed-birds flock to the water's edge.
大雞,永昌、雲南出,重十余斤,嘴距勁利,能取鹯、鱷、<鳥戈>、鵲、鳧、鴿、鴝、鵒之類。 Dà​jī​ (大雞), Yǒng​chāng​ (永昌) and Yún​nán​ (雲南) produce fish of over 10 jin (ie. 5 kilograms) with powerful mouths that can take a small bird, as well as crocodiles,[72][73] kingfishers, magpies, mallard ducks, pigeons or doves, crows, mynahs, etc.

Elephants[edit]

Asian elephant in the wild.
Chapter 7: Part 19 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Elephants
象,開南、巴南多有之,或捉得,人家多養之,以代耕田也。 Elephants are found in both the regions of Kāi​nán​ (開南; lit. 'South of Kai'; unidentified[74]) and Bā​nán​ (巴南; unidentified[75]), and are sometimes captured and raised by households for the tilling of fields.

Culinary Resources[edit]

Endangered Indochinese leopard in captivity; apparently eaten in ancient Yunnan.
Chapter 7: Part 20 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Culinary Resources
豬、羊、貓、犬、騾、驢、豹、兔、鵝、鴨,諸山及人家悉有之。 Pigs, goats, cats, dogs, mules, donkeys, leopards,[76] rabbits, geese and ducks are all present in wild and captive forms.
但食之與中土稍異。 However, local culinary habits differ from those native to China.
蠻不待烹熟,皆半生而吃之。 The barbarians do not wait for boiling, instead always eating food half raw.[77]
大羊多從西羌、鐵橋接吐蕃界三千二千口將來博易。 There are many great goats[78] from the Western Qiang (西羌; ie. upland/Tibetan Yunnan/Sichuan region[79]), and the borderlands of the Iron Bridge (鐵橋) and the Tibetan Tubo Dynasty (吐蕃) have 2-3000 head that should be easy to obtain in future.

Weaponry[edit]

Bronze sword with a head-hunting theme from the Dian culture of ancient Yunnan (circa 100BCE) unearthed at Jiancheng and displayed at Yunnan Provincial Museum, Guandu, Kunming, 2016. Note that this culture predates the period under discussion by about 1000 years, but shows the more ancient style of weapon from which those discussed in this section probably descended.
Chapter 7: Part 21 — Products of regions under Yunnan governance (云南管内物产; yúnnán guǎnnèi wùchǎn): Weaponry
鐸鞘,狀如刀戟殘刃。 The duó qiào[80] is a bladed polearm.
積年埋在高土中,亦有孔穴傍透。 (They are forged via a method of) being buried in highland earth for a long time, and they are nearly completely hollow inside.
朱笴,出麗水,裝以金穹鐵簜,所指無不洞也。 The zhū​ gě (朱笴; lit. 'pearl polearm'[81]) is a product of Lí​shuǐ​ (麗水), and is decorated with a golden fuller and an iron guard,[82] and they are always hollow.
南詔尤所寶重。 Nanzhao attaches particular importance to these.
以名字呼者有六:一曰祿婆摩求,二曰虧雲孚,三曰鐸戢,四曰鐸摩郱,五曰同鐸(案:惟有五名,疑缺其一) They have six names: 1. luwk ba muɑ (lùpó​mó​qiú​) 2. khjwe hjun pʰɨo (kuī​yún​fú​) 3. dak t͡ʃiɪp̚ (duó​jí​) 4. dak muɑ bi? (duó​mó​​píng) 5. duwng dak (tóng​duó​) (Former transliterator's note: As there are only five names listed, we suspect that one has been lost.).[83]
昔時越析詔於贈有天降鐸鞘;後部落破敗,盛羅皮得之,今南詔蠻王出軍,手中雙執者是也。 Previously, Yuè​xī​zhào​ (越析詔) was bestowed the Tiān​jiàng​ duó​qiào​ (天降鐸鞘; lit. 'Duó​qiào​ that Fell from Heaven') weapon, and then crushed the other tribes. Shèng​luó​pí​ (盛羅皮) then obtained it, and today The King of Nán​zhào​ (南詔蠻王) holds it as a double-handed sword on military campaigns.
貞元十年,使清平宮尹輔酋入朝,獻其一。 In the 10th year of the Zhenyuan reign (ie. ~795), one was offered to the court.
郁刀,次於鐸鞘。 The Yù​dāo​ (lit. 'elegant knife') weapon is second only to the duó qiào.
造法:用毒藥、蟲、魚之類,又淬以白馬血,經十數年乃用。 Its method of manufacture involves poison, insects, fish and so on, then tempering in the blood of a white horse, in a 10+ year process.
中人肌即死,俗秘其法,粗問得其由。 It causes human flesh to die, through a secret native technique which should be sought.
南詔劍,使人用劍,不問貴賤,劍不離身。 The Nán​zhào​ (南詔) sword is used by their envoys, regardless of rank, and the sword never leaves their side.
造劍法:鍛生鐵,取迸汁,如是者數次,烹煉之。 Its method of construction: pig-iron is melted, the liquid obtained, and from this the weapon is smelted.
劍成即以犀裝頭,飾以金碧。 When complete, the tip is sharpened and it is decorated with gold and jade.
浪人詔能鑄劍,尤精利,諸部落悉不如,謂之浪劍。 Làng​rén​zhào​ (浪人詔) is able to cast swords that are particularly sharp, unequalled in all the tribes — these are known as 'Lang swords' (浪劍).
南詔所佩劍,已傳六七代也。 The swords of Nán​zhào​ (南詔) have already been handed down for six or seven generations.
槍、箭多用斑竹,出蒙舍、白崖、詔南山谷,心實,圓緊,柔細,極力屈之不折,諸所出皆不及之。 Spears and arrows are all made of mottled bamboo, and are produced at Méng​shè​ (蒙舍), Bái​yá​ (白崖; lit. 'the white cliffs'), the valleys of the Zhào​nán​ (詔南; ie. probably south-of-Erhai) region. Their shaft is true and they are thin and flexible. If one exerts significant effort to bend them, they still will not break, and their quality remains consistent across all places of manufacture.
  1. Unclear which plant this refers to, personally I would have interpreted 豆黍 as beans and millet, however the previous transliterator interprets these two characters as a single plant and I cede to their expertise. (There is no entry on Chinese Wikipedia, Baidu Baike, Chinese Wiktionary or English Wiktionary.)
  2. Wheat husks or chaff are my best guess at interpreting the character 麨 which has no definition in modern Chinese dictionaries (eg. English Wiktionary) but seems to imply 麦 (wheat) + 少 (little) = some portion of the wheat plant that is not the seed. This could be implying that the grains of local barley were more numerous than northern strains, perhaps implying a different cultivar and/or long term cultivation in this topographically shuttered region to promote a positive agricultural phenotype, resulting in an early genetic isolate.
  3. Possibly implying that the two grains are mixed together in the production of noodles to avoid the soft and flavourless quality, but this remains uncertain.
  4. See English Wiktionary entry for 麹.
  5. Modern sources suggest that modern cultivated 'tree mulberries', at least in India, may only reach heights of 1.5-1.8 meters (5-6 feet). This suggests that Yunnan's mulberries were indeed of an impressive scale or genotype.
  6. 絹 or juàn​.
  7. According to the Nuosu Yi-Chinese-English Glossary the word "ꆿꃀ lat mop [la⁵⁵mo²¹]" with the stated meaning "1) n 狼 wolf 2) n 老虎 tiger" may be potentially phonologically related. Although I do not understand the typical semantic structure of Yi, it seems the missing initial phoneme, bo, could potentially represent clothing: "ꀙꀬ bip but [pi²¹pu⁵⁵] n 布(文学语)cloth [literary] / ꁁꋋ pa cyx [pha³³ʦhɿ³⁴] n 布条;布片 piece of cloth; rag". If true, this would provide direct evidence of the use of Yi by the ruling classes of Nanzhao, a perspective which I understand is currently gaining increasing academic support but still debated. If this reconstruction holds water, then our author has mistaken the term for tiger skin clothing to simply mean tiger; not particularly surprising given that much of his information seems to be second or third hand. Other potentially distantly related current phonemes are bop di/bbup ddi according a 'tiger' search on the Yi-Chinese Chinese-Yi Dictionary.
  8. The dismissive style of this paragraph was probably designed to appeal to the author-bureaucrat's superiors.
  9. ie. Southern period Kham Tibet.
  10. Modern translations suggest this refers to Shorea robusta or less likely Saraca indica, or Saraca asoca; though none of these species appear to have either the appropriate altitude range or to possess seeds of the appropriate nature.
  11. 'Weeping willow' style plant of the Salicaceae family, or the Salix genus.
  12. "A catkin or ament is a slim, cylindrical flower cluster (a spike), with inconspicuous or no petals, usually wind-pollinated (anemophilous) but sometimes insect-pollinated (as in Salix). They contain many, usually unisexual flowers, arranged closely along a central stem which is often drooping. They are found in many plant families, including Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Moraceae, and Salicaceae." - Wikipedia
  13. Term apparently used in Chinese from roughly 7th-9th centuries.
  14. Believed to derive from the Mon name, ဖာသီ (pha sɛm).
  15. Seems the best in-context interpretation of this archaic figurative adverb, which can apparently mean anything from topmost/utmost to completely.
  16. An earlier established Chinese imperial territorial marker discussed in greater detail at the beginning of this text.
  17. This is a thorny toponym in context; on the one hand in modern use it clearly refers to Guizhou province, on the other hand this was not properly or only recently established at the time and conflicts with toponyms for the same region used earlier in this text; ie. Qiánzhōu (黔州) — as well as the presumably military toponym of clear Guangxi / Yōng​ River association immediately adjacent and classified more highly (in an administrative sense).
  18. Possibly then including the eastern portion of modern Guangxi Province.
  19. This does not make much sense. In chapter one the same distance of 48 days' journey is quoted from Ān​níng City​ (安寧城) to Jiāo​zhǐ​ (交阯; ie. modern Hanoi). Why would the distance be repeated correctly if the location was spurious? Secondly, Yunnan did have many salt wells in the past, and it is not out of the question that a few were in the vicinity of Ān​níng City​ (安寧城). If the former transliterator was indeed correct, then this would point to an error in the original by the author, rather than a copyists' error. However, the contributing day-stages of the journey are described festidiously... so I would tend to favour the author against the transliterator.
  20. Marco Polo Was in China: New Evidence from Currencies, Salts and Revenues. Hans Ulrich Vogel.
  21. ibid
  22. Probably yet another name for the upper Yangtze or one or more of its major southerly tributaries between Kunming and Dali.
  23. There is no entry regarding this in some modern dictionaries. In English Wiktionary, the Japanese definition (which could easily preserve a more ancient meaning) is tumeric, whereas the phoneme is synonymous with ginger which is widely distributed in Yunnan.
  24. See English Wikipedia.
  25. Possibly emphasized by the use of pēng (烹)​.
  26. More obtusely one could perhaps argue that the use of this character even in central China was perhaps a reference to an unidentified or deer-like mammal based upon a similarity with 鹿 and the numerous deer types then prevalent in the country, particularly this area.
  27. My interpretation of the simile, which I found rather difficult, and may be incorrect. In any case, they are large.
  28. According to English Wikipedia, there are numerous cultivars of this species so identifying it with any precision is likely to be impossible.
  29. In Korea.
  30. Most jackfruit grown in semi-tropical locations are bigger than many melons, so this is not surprising, but was apparently very surprising to our author. Given that there are suggestions he journeyed to both Sichuan and Annam, one may assume that either jackfruit is not endemic to Annam (it is surely popular these days) or he wrote this section whilst in Sichuan, prior to arriving in Annam.
  31. In my interpretation, the author is afraid that accusations will be raised that he spent his time eating the local delicacies instead of performing his bureaucratic duties!
  32. See note #115, chapter 2. We can now, given context, assume this river is located in a relatively tropical location.
  33. The phrase used 橙柚 does not clearly refer to oranges or grapefruits, so I have hyphenated it to preserve the antiquated reference. In any event, the smallest were no smaller than oranges.
  34. A toponym referenced earlier in this chapter, implying that they were not endemic to Dali but brought there from that location.
  35. Literally 'thought leaking', possibly implying they were used to relax or place at ease foreign visitors for the purpose of conversation, much as rice liquor is used in the region today.
  36. Literally 'Difficult thought', possibly implying that the taste was so good that it was hard to focus on other things, or that their consumption was considered an aid to mental prowess.
  37. Unidentified fragrant tropical wood.
  38. The bark of the tree is one of the fifty fundamental herbs of traditional Chinese medicine, used in pills or powdered form for kidney, urinary bladder, or large intestine issues after processing with salt, alcohol or charcoal. Traditionally the bark is harvested in March to May. The active ingredient, berberine, was supposedly used in China as a folk medicine by Shennong around 3000BCE according to The Classic of Herbal Medicine (神農本草經), a lost book of herbal knowledge believed to be compiled from oral traditions around 200-250CE. There are two species: Phellodendron amurense is from north-eastern China and was probably the more common point of reference for Chinese like our author. That said, Phellodendron chinense grows in the Yunnan region and may have been known from Sichuan. Therefore, it is unclear precisely to which species he is referring.
  39. Unclear.
  40. Unclear.
  41. The overall meaning seems to be that the vine is collected and soaked to make it supple prior to use.
  42. Chinese Wikipedia suggests it is later attested in the region to have been used by the Hani for the production of musical instruments. This site suggests that it is attested to have been used in the Western Zhou Dynasty to produce military bows in central China. In addition, they are known to be slow growing. This means that their wood was probably relatively highly prized.
  43. Again implying slow-growing.
  44. The actual verb used implies 'unpainted', further implying that period Chinese bows had their strings coated in some form of liquid for some purpose (presumably to tighten/strengthen them).
  45. Assumed to be a place name; possibly alternate written form of 騰沖.
  46. A little unclear but this seems to be the meaning.
  47. As the toponym is a city but also likely a river, the precision required by an English translation is impossible to determine from the original.
  48. Probably referring to wind.
  49. Some very weird characters in here, but this seems to be the clear meaning.
  50. Based on a Tang Dynasty li estimate of 323 meters.
  51. Slight liberties taken at the final clause.
  52. Actually this could be some other relation, I am uncertain of the precise meaning, which could be horses-supplied-in-taxation related.
  53. By modern distribution, this can be assumed to be referring to Rhinoceros unicornis (Indian Rhinoceros), Rhinoceros sondaicus (Javan Rhinoceros), Dicerorhinus sumatrensis (Sumatran Rhinoceros) or some mix of these. Wikipedia's page on Rhinoceroses in ancient China states that a subspecies of the Sumatran rhinoceros, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis lasiotis (Northern Sumatran rhinoceros) was the most numerous species in ancient China but all three species did occur. Yunnan would probably have had all of them, since it is immediately adjacent to surviving modern populations.
  54. My interpretation of 負排 which would seem to imply the second line in the military formation.
  55. The actual word used is 金 (gold), implying metallic.
  56. Probably referring to the Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti), or significantly less likely the South China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis).
  57. Implying a higher altitude habitat.
  58. My interpretation of 則佳.
  59. My interpretation of 窮谷.
  60. Probably referring to Dwarf / Chinese forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii), Black / dusky musk deer (Moschus fuscus) or Alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster).
  61. Other than perhaps to the west of something, possibly a river or other notable topographic feature.
  62. Implying a possible seasonal variation in flow.
  63. Possibly referring to modern Kaiyuan?
  64. Implying a particular location; unidentified.
  65. It is quite likely that this particular phrase references a different species of buffalo and could be readily identified by a modern biologist. As the major species seems to be identified in modern times as the 'swamp buffalo', this was probably an alternate species.
  66. Implying either the animal's family or a single human famiy.
  67. Possibly referring to a species of Muntjac deer (Muntiacinae; with antlers), possibly pictured on Dian era bronzes (example), Hog deer (Hyelaphus porcinus; with antlers), Sambar deer (Rusa unicolor; with antlers) or Musk deer (Moschus; without antlers).
  68. Multiple materials, or closely, implying s fine weave?
  69. Note this is possibly Zhuhe rather than Zhuhuo — though the meaning is probably unchanged.
  70. This interpretation is based upon a sundial (Greek gnomon) assumption, where "daily time could be measured in different ways like dividing the day in 12 'double hours' or 100 quarters (Ke)", thereby implying slightly before midday.
  71. Possibly referring to Cirrhinus molitorella (mud carp or dace).
  72. Try as I might I could not read the sentence in such a way that the bird-taking was attributable to the crocodile, thus we have the bird-eating 5-kilo fish, a semantic oddity.
  73. Probably referring to one or more now-extinct endemic populations of freshwater Gharial, or the Siamese crocodile. Unlikely to refer to the Mugger crocodile or Saltwater crocodile, the latter perhaps once 'almost' made it to Yunnan up the Mekong according to Stephen G. Haw's Marco Polo's China: A Venetian in the Realm of Khubilai Khan, with no references cited.
  74. Probably a tropical region of central of southern Yunnan; as this region name corresponds also to reported water buffalo distribution.
  75. Probably a tropical region of central of southern Yunnan; as this region name corresponds also to reported water buffalo distribution.
  76. Referring to either the Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca; now extinct in China) or the Indochinese leopard (Panthera pardus delacouri).
  77. As a long term resident of Yunnan, and previously a long time vegetarian, I can see the attraction of fresh food in Yunnan versus other regions of China. There was less urban density related disease, a broader range of available ingredients, and a warmer climate that partly disposed of the dual purpose of a hearth for heating the home (a concern Chinese would have had in more northern climes).
  78. Almost certainly referring to a larger species of mountain goat; certainly larger than period domesticated Chinese goats.
  79. The term here could refer to a people or region, but seems to be referring to a region.
  80. Probably an Yi word related to the modern Nuosu Yi word a domu (knife) — "ꅅꃅ ddox mu (do³⁴mu³³) n. 刀 knife (any kind) cf-sns ꊮꀨ". The change in suffix to 鞘 might be phono-sematically related to Chinese 條 (Middle Chinese: dew) meaning 'a long and thin object; a stick', but this is conjecture.
  81. Suspected to be a phonosemantic derivation of the 戈 weapon.
  82. As far as I can tell, nobody or at least no accessible dictionary (modern or ancient) seems to assert confidently the meaning of the character 簜 which implies a meaning derived from bamboo or plant, as well as motion. In any event, this disqualifies the rest of the blade, thereby resulting in the current translation, as the notion of motion does not befit a pommel as it does a guard. Finally, having removed soft metals and those already stated, we can deduce that the blade was most probably bronze, and that therefore tin and copper were probably mined in the vicinity of Lishui.
  83. The following is my own inexperienced conjecture on potential etymologies. In general, these terms are likely transliterations from period Tibeto-Burman or (less-likely) Zhuang-Tai tongues. I wonder if the 'missing' sixth name is that already established, ie. zhū​ gě (朱笴; lit. 'pearl polearm')?
    1. luwk ba muɑ / lùpó​mó​qiú​ (祿婆摩求): Unclear — Possibly an Yi/Tibeto-Burman semantic compound describing a tool with a bamboo shaft. If true, equivalent in modern Nuosu Yi could be "x x ꂷ x".
      • 祿 (Middle Chinese: luwk)
      • 婆​ (Middle Chinese: ba)
      • ​mó (Middle Chinese: muɑ, muɑH)
        • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *mo (~ -ew, -aw) (sky — Burmese: mǝwh (sky, rain) — Kachin: lǝmu2 — Chang Naga: müɣ — Rawang: mu — Trung: mǝ3)
        • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *mă(H) (not — Chinese: 無 (Middle Chinese mju) *ma (not have/not) — Tibetan: ma (not) — Burmese: maʔ (verbal negative) — Kachin: maʔ3 (exhausted, ended) / šǝmat2 (be lost) / ma (nothing) / mje (lost/gone) — Lushai: ma/māk (give up/divorce) — Lepcha: ma (for mat used in negative; part.neg.))
        • Nuosu Yi ꂷ (item or bamboo)
        • Nuosu Yi ꃅ (do or make/horse/tame or teach)
      • qiú​ (Middle Chinese: gjuw)
        • Possible qualifier for previous Nuosu Yi ꂷ (bamboo) object, eg. "ꂷꄿ ma dda (ma³³da³³) n. 竹竿 bamboo pole or rod".
    2. khjwe hjun pʰɨo / kuī​yún​fú​ (虧雲孚): Unclear. Possibly Tibeto-Burman/Yi, with meaning "Scraper/slasher/reaper tool", modern Nuosu Yi reconstruction: "ꐑ x x"
      • kuī​ (Middle Chinese: khjwe)
        • Nuosu Yi ꐑ — Possibly an ancient 'sweeping cut' semantic from which the modern meanings derive: "qur (ʨhu̱³³1) v. 铲(草)remove grass and weeds from soil to prepare for planting2) / v. 剃(头)shave (the head or face)"
        • Chinese — Middle Chinese: kwæt — to scrape
        • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *kĕt (Chinese 製 — Middle Chinese: ćèjto cut out or fashion)
        • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *Krij (Tibetan: griknife)
        • Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *kat / *ka:t (cut — Thai: khat (to split) — Khmer: kat (cut) — Khasi: dkhat (to break off, snap))
      • yún (Middle Chinese: hjun)
      • fú​(Middle Chinese: /pʰɨo/)
    3. dak t͡ʃiɪp̚ / duó​jí​ (鐸戢) — Almost certainly an Yi word. Begins with the same phonetic transliteration as other, high-evidence knife-related semantic compounds, and trailing qualifier matches language structure.
      • duó​ (Middle Chinese: dak)
        • Nuosu Yi ꅅꃅ ddox (do³⁴) — probably a word root meaning knife or knife-like blade. (In a modern Nuosu Yi Dictionary, "domu" means knife — ꅅꃅ ddox mu (do³⁴mu³³) n. 刀 knife (any kind) cf-sns ꊮꀨ)
        • Chinese — Middle Chinese: taw  — knife
        • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *tō̆nH ( ~ -ɫH) (Chinese: 斷 (cut off) 剸 (cut) 膞 (cut meat) — Middle Chinese dwấn — Kachin: don1 (to cut))
      • jí​ (Middle Chinese: t͡ʃiɪp̚)
        • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *giǝ̆r (Chinese: 斤 — Middle Chinese kɨn — Lushai: kher (to pick out with a pointed instrument; chop or hack) — Lepcha: kar-ǯó (a sort of curved knife, a reaping hook))
    4. dak muɑ bi? / duó​mó​​píng (鐸摩郱) — Almost certainly an Yi word. In a modern Nuosu Yi Dictionary, "domu" means knife — "ꅅꃅ ddox mu (do³⁴mu³³) n. 刀 knife (any kind) cf-sns ꊮꀨ" — and in alternate/specialised words, single phoneme qualifiers are known to follow.
      • duó (Middle Chinese: dak)
        • Almost certainly part of a dual-phoneme semantic for knife. — Otherwise, as above.
      • ​mó (Middle Chinese: muɑ, muɑH)
        • Almost certainly part of a dual-phoneme semantic for knife. — Otherwise, as above.
      • ​​píng (No available middle Chinese reconstruction, presumably similar to bi?)
    5. duwng dak/ tóng​duó​ (同鐸) — Almost certainly an Yi word. Probable meaning "bronze of cutting". Probably semantically related to Chinese 銅刀 (bronze knife). No available Yi dictionaries (I checked two) had a word for bronze. Neither did reconstructed proto-Sino-Tibetan database (probably due to age). Given that the technology for casting was probably learned from neighbouring cultures, and that qualifiers are known to follow in Yi dialects, it follows that this is a likely semantic structure. That said, amorphous online sources suggest the Tibetan word for bronze is distinct, possibly mkhar/akhar.
      • tóng​ (Middle Chinese: duwng)
      • duó (Middle Chinese: dak)