Translation:Tolkappiyam/Vowel coalescence

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Tolkappiyam in English  (4th century BCE)  by Tolkappiyar, translated from Tamil by Sengai Podhuvan and  Wikisource
Vowel coalescence
Section 1, Chapter 7
uyir-mayangiyal
Verbatim translation
use me to read Tamil

The first numbers at the end of the each translation of the verse denote the serial number of the verse of the section and the succeeding second one denotes the serial number of the verse of the chapter of source-book.

93 verses

First section, verses 204 to 296

This chapter speaks on coalescences on preceding word ending with vowels.

Translation

Words with [a]-ending[edit]

In non-case relation[edit]

  • In non-case relation, the preceding word ending in [a], coalesces with the augmentation of corresponding consonant of the succeeding word with the initials [k], [s], [th] and [p]. 204/1
  • Verbal participles, comparison morphemes, the words of elliptical form [e’na] (also a verbal participle), the demonstrative endings and the expletive word [aanga] coalesce as above with the augmentation. 205/2
  • Demonstrative phoneme [a] coalesces with the corresponding augmentation before the words with the initial consonants [nj], [n,] and [m]. 206/3
  • The phoneme-particle discussed above coalesces with [v] consonant before the words with the initial consonants [y] and [v]. 207/4
  • It coalesces as above before the words having vowel-initial. 208/5
  • Lengthening the sound measurement of the preceding demonstratives will appear in poetry. 209/6
  • The preceding word [saava] coalesces dropping its ending vowel-consonant. 210/7
  • The comparative morpheme [anna], vocative words used to call in proximity, finite verbs of the formulaic pattern [se’ymmana], optative verbs in the imperative mood, relative particles of the formulaic mood [se’ytha], verbal particles of the formulaic mood [se’yyiya], the empty phoneme calling attention [amma], the word denoting plural number etc. coalesce without change. 211/8
  • Optative verb [vaaziya] coalesces dropping its ending vowel-consonant. 212/9
  • The empty phoneme calling attention [amma] may be lengthened its ending sound. 213/10
  • The word denoting plural number [pala] may be lengthened its ending sound in metrical sequence in poetry. 214/11
  • Repeating word denoting plural number, ending [a], will change into [r’]-consonant. 215/12
  • Before hard consonant, its coalescence is nuetral that is with change or without change. 216/13

In case-relation[edit]

  • It also coalesces as above in case-relation. 217/14
  • Having the preceding word denoting a tree, it coalesces with the augmentation of corresponding hard consonant. 218/15
  • The word denoting a child, ending in [a] coalesces with the empty-morpheme [in] between preceding and succeeding words. 219/16
  • The empty-morpheme [aththu] also accepted in the above case. 220/17
  • The word [pala] coalesces as noted in the previous chapter. 221/18

Words with [aa]-ending[edit]

In non-case relation[edit]

  • Coalescence of words with [aa]-ending is as that of [a] ending noted above. 222/19
  • The verbal particles of the formulaic mood [se’yya] coalesce as [se’yyiya] discussed above. 223/20
  • In elliptical compound, in which the conjunctive particle understood coalesce with [a] and augmentation of the succeeding in between the preceding and succeeding words. 224/21
  • The words denoting [aa]=cow and [maa]=beast, the vocative calling attention, the interrogative morpheme [yaa], the negative-noun-relative particle ending in [aa], the expletive imperative particle [kee’n’miyaa] and the first person interrogative verb, - all end in natural-coalescence. 225/22

In case relation[edit]

  • Coalescence of nouns ending in [aa] are performed as before. 226/23
  • Words ending [aa] proceeding a short-phoneme and one-letter word ending in [aa] coalesce with additional [a] and augmentation of the succeeding consonant. 227/24
  • The word [iraa]=night coalesces as above, but without [a]-additional. 228/25
  • The word [n,laa]=moon coalesces as above along with empty-morpheme [aththu]. 229/26
  • The words denoting tree names [yaa], [pidaa] and [thal’aa] coalesce as above along with empty-morpheme [aththu] and with augmentation of nasal consonant corresponding to the initial hard consonant in the succeeding word. 230/27
  • There is no mistake even the last two words coalesce with augmentation of hard consonant of the initial phoneme of the succeeding word. 231/28
  • Tree name [maa]=mango coalesces with [a] and nasal augmentation as above and beast names [aa]=cow and [maa]=beast with empty phoneme [n]. 232/29
  • Among the latter two, the word [aa]=cow coalesces with empty phoneme [n][a], even if the succeeding comes with other than hard consonants. 233/30
  • The preceding word [aa]=cow and the succeeding word [pii]=dung coalesce with the augmentation of hard consonant in the succeeding word. 234/31
  • The words ending with [aa], coming after a short phoneme, elide its last and coalesces with additional [u] and the assimilation semi-vowel [v]. 235/32

Words with [i]-ending[edit]

In case relation[edit]

  • Words with [i]-ending coalesces with the augmentation of the initial consonant of the succeeding word. 236/33
  • The words [ini]=hereafter, [an’i]=then and verb-relative-particles coalesce with the augmentation of the initial consonant of the succeeding word. 237/34
  • The verb-relative-particle [inr’i]=without coalesces in poems, with a modification of ending vowel [i] into [u]. 238/35
  • The demonstrative letter-word coalesces as said before with the augmentation of the initial consonant of the succeeding word. 239/36
  • The preceding word [thuun’i]=(a measurement of capacity, equal to 16 liters) coalesces with the succeeding word [pathakku]= (a measurement of capacity, equal to 8 liters) with the augmentation of the initial consonant of the succeeding word. 240/37
  • The preceding word [n,aazi]=one liter and the succeeding word [uri]=half liter coalesce with the augmentation of the initial consonant of the succeeding word in-between. 241/38
  • The word [pani]=dew coalesces with empty-morpheme either [aththu] or [in]. 242/39
  • The word [val’i]=air coalesces as above. 243/40
  • Tree-name [uthi] coalesces with the augmentation of nasal correspond to hard initial phoneme of the succeeding word. 244/41
  • Tree-name [pul’i]=tamarind coalesces with empty-morpheme [am]. 245/42
  • The word [pul’i]=sour coalesces with the augmentation of nasal correspond to hard initial phoneme of the succeeding word. 246/43
  • There is no fault even it may coalesce with the augmentation of hard consonant of initial phoneme of the succeeding word, in meaningful cases. 247/44
  • Words denoting the names of days in a month coalesce with empty-morpheme [aan]. 248/45
  • Words denoting the names of months coalesce with empty-morpheme [ikku]. 249/46

Words with [i]-ending[edit]

In case relation[edit]

  • Words with [i]-ending coalesces with the augmentation of the initial consonant of the succeeding word. 236/33
  • The words [ini]=hereafter, [an’i]=then and verb-relative-particles coalesce with the augmentation of the initial consonant of the succeeding word. 237/34
  • The verb-relative-particle [inr’i]=without coalesces in poems, with a modification of ending vowel [i] into [u]. 238/35
  • The demonstrative letter-word coalesces as said before with the augmentation of the initial consonant of the succeeding word. 239/36
  • The preceding word [thuun’i]=(a measurement of capacity, equal to 16 liters) coalesces with the succeeding word [pathakku]= (a measurement of capacity, equal to 8 liters) with the augmentation of the initial consonant of the succeeding word. 240/37
  • The preceding word [n,aazi]=one liter and the succeeding word [uri]=half liter coalesce with the augmentation of the initial consonant of the succeeding word in-between. 241/38
  • The word [pani]=dew coalesces with empty-morpheme either [aththu] or [in]. 242/39
  • The word [val’i]=air coalesces as above. 243/40
  • Tree-name [uthi] coalesces with the augmentation of nasal correspond to hard initial phoneme of the succeeding word. 244/41
  • Tree-name [pul’i]=tamarind coalesces with empty-morpheme [am]. 245/42
  • The word [pul’i]=sour coalesces with the augmentation of nasal correspond to hard initial phoneme of the succeeding word. 246/43
  • There is no fault even it may coalesce with the augmentation of hard consonant of initial phoneme of the succeeding word, in meaningful cases. 247/44
  • Words denoting the names of days in a month coalesce with empty-morpheme [aan]. 248/45
  • Words denoting the names of months coalesce with empty-morpheme [ikku]. 249/46

Words with [ii]-ending[edit]

Non-case-relation[edit]

  • Words with [ii]-ending coalesce as the words with [aa]-ending. 250/47
  • Words [n,ii]=you(singular), the term ending in [ii] that socially restricted [pii]=dung and the term that denotes the upper- place [mii] coalesce without adding consonant-augmentation. 251/48
  • There are coalesced-words with fore-augmentation of hard consonant after the word [mii], discussed above. 252/49

Case-relation[edit]

  • Words with [ii]-ending coalesce with doubling the initial-consonant of the succeeding word. 253/50
  • The word [n,ii]=you(singular) coalesce as defined in previous chapter. 254/51

Words with [u]-ending[edit]

  • Words with [u]-ending coalesce as words with [a]-ending. 255/52

Non-case relation[edit]

  • Proseeding demonstrative word-letter=[u] coalesces as said there with the succeeding word having hard initial consonant. 256/53
  • It coalesces as said there with the succeeding word having non-hard initial consonant. 257/54
  • The proceeding demonstrative word=[athu] ending in [u] maintains its natural form. 258/55
  • In poems, the proceeding word [athu] ellipses its last [u] changing into [a] and doubling the same before [anr’u]. =[athaainr/u] 259/56

Case relation[edit]

  • It coalesces as it does in [a]-ending. 260/57
  • Word [e’ru]=manure and [se’ru]=war coalesce with empty morpheme [am] and in cases without the initial letter of the empty morpheme. 261/58
  • The word that ends in [zu] coalesces lengthening its last vowel along with the augmentation of the same. 262/59
  • The tree name [odu] coalesces as tree name [uthi] spoken before. 263/60
  • Demonstrative word ending in [u] coalesces as defined in previous chapter. 264/61

Words with [uu]-ending[edit]

  • Words with [uu]-ending coalesce as [aa]-ending in non-case relation. 265/62
  • The same norms apply to the words of verb-relative particles and imperative mood ending in [uu]. 266/63
  • The norms to those of case relation apply to these of the same relation. 267/64
  • The word with [uu]-ending after a short-phoneme and the word in the form of single-letter ending in [uu] coalesce with augmentation. 268/65
  • The word [puu]=flower coalesces also with the augmentation of succeeding hard consonant. 269/66
  • The word [uu]=meat coalesces as [aa]=cow adding with empty morpheme [aan] eliding its [aa]-initial. 270/67
  • In cases the above empty-morpheme [akku] is also applicable. 271/68
  • The words [aaduuu]=man and [magaduuu]=woman coalesce with the empty morpheme [in]. 272/69

Words with [ee’]-endings[edit]

  • There is no word ending in short vowels [e’] and [o]. They end as arsis after apostrophe-calling words. 273/70
  • The arsis particle [e’] denoting certainty and that of [o] denoting distinctiveness coalesce without augmentation of the succeeding hard consonants. 274/71
  • Word with [ee’]-ending coalesces as word with [uu]-ending. 275/72
  • The particle [ee’] that ends in words denoting negative elliptical sense, sense of interrogation and sense of enumeration do not coalesce with augmentation even before hard consonants. 276/73
  • It happens so in case sense. 277/74
  • The word [ee’]=arrow coalesces with augmentation of the succeeding hard consonant along arsis-[e’]. 278/75
  • Tree name [see’] coalesces as the tree name [odu]. 279/76
  • The word [see’] that denotes a bull coalesces with the empty morpheme [in]. 280/77

Words with [ai]-endings[edit]

  • Word ending with [ai] coalesces with additional initial hard consonant of the succeeding word in combination of case sense. 281/78
  • Word ending with [ai] having initial of demonstrative word-letter coalesces with empty phoneme [var’r’u] as spoken in the previous chapter. 282/79
  • The words denoting a particular kind of trees [visai], [nje’mai] and [namai] coalesces as the tree name [see’] coalesces that discussed in the previous chapter. 283/80
  • The words [panai]=Palmyra, [aria]=a kind of tree and [aavirai]= cassia auriculata linn coalesce changing its [ai]-end into [a] and with adding the empty morpheme [am]. 284/81
  • The preceding word [panai] ]=Palmyra and the succeeding word [attu]=sap coalesce with some modifications. The word [panai] elides its ending [ai] and the letter [aa] takes place of [ai] in coalescence. 285/82
  • The preceding word [panai] ]=Palmyra and the succeeding word [kodi]=flag coalesce with an additional consonant of the succeeding. 286/83
  • Words denoting the name of a month and a name of a day in a month coalesce as discussed in previous chapter. 287/84
  • The word [mazai]=rain coalesces as the word [val’] does. 288/85
  • According to the learned men, the preceding word [ve’tkai]=appetite and the succeeding word [avaa]=desire coalesce with some modifications. Letter [kai] drop out and letter [t] change into [n’] in the word [vee’tkai] and then coalescence appears. It ends in [ve’m’vaa]=enormous desire. 289/86

Words with [oo’]-endings[edit]

in non-case sense[edit]

  • Words with [oo’]-ending coalesces as [ee’]-ending discussed above. 290/87
  • Ending particles denoting negative elliptical sense and that of interrogative sense coalesce without additional hard consonant of the succeeding word. 291/88
  • Ending particle denoting other than the said also coalesces as above. 292/89

in case-sense[edit]

  • In case sense the ending [oo’] of the preceding word coalesces with augmentation of [o]. 293/90
  • If it comes before the succeeding word [il]=house coalesces without change. 284/91
  • If it denotes a person, it coalesces with an empty-morpheme [on] eliding its initial. 285/92

Word with [au]-ending[edit]

  • Word with [au]-ending coalesces with additional [u] in both case and non-case senses. 286/93