Treaty Of Friendship And Alliance Between Bulgaria And Serbia

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Treaty Of Friendship And Alliance Between Bulgaria And Serbia

Sofia, 29 February 1912[1]

His Majesty, Ferdinand the First, King of the Bulgars, and His Majesty Peter the First, King of Serbia, thoroughly convinced of the common interests and the common destiny of their countries, and of the brother nations of Bulgarian and Serbian peoples, and being resolved firmly to defend these interests with their united forces, and to endeavour to pursue them to a happy conclusion, have agreed upon the following:

Article 1

The Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Serbia mutually and reciprocally guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of each other, agreeing absolutely without exception of any kind, to support one another with their entire strength in any case where one of the two kingdoms may be attacked by one or more States.

Article 2

The two contracting parties agree also to aid one another with their entire strength in case anyone of the great Powers shall attempt to annex or occupy, or to take military possession of, even temporarily, any part whatever of the territory of the Balkan peninsula now under Turkish domination, if one of the contracting parties believes this action to be injurious to its vital interests, and a casus belli.

Article 3

The two contracting parties agree not to conclude peace except jointly and after prior agreement.

Article 4

A military convention shall be concluded for the purpose of insuring the complete execution of the present treaty in the manner best suited to the accomplishment of the desired purpose. This convention shall provide also everything that is to be done by each party in case of war, as well as everything regarding military organization, demobilization and mobilization of troops, superiority of orders, which should be determined in time of peace with regard to the preparation for, and proper conduct of war.

The military convention shall form an integral part of the present Treaty. The work of drafting the same shall begin at the latest two weeks after the signature of the present treaty and must be concluded within the two months following.

Article 5

The present Treaty and Military Convention shall be in force from the date of their signature to the thirty-first of December, 1920, inclusive. They cannot be prolonged beyond this period without a supplementary agreement of the contracting parties, expressly authorized. However, in case the two parties should find themselves at war at the expiration of the Treaty and the Military Convention, or in case they shall not have yet recovered from the situation resulting from the war, the Treaty and Convention shall be continued in force until the signing of the treaty of peace or the settlement of the conditions brought about by the war.

Article 6

The present Treaty shall be drawn up in two identic copies, in both the Serbian and Bulgarian languages. It shall be signed by the sovereigns and ministers of foreign affairs of the two countries. The military convention, also in two copies and drawn up in the Bulgarian and Serbian languages, shall be signed by the sovereigns, the ministers of foreign affairs and the special military plenipotentiaries.

Article 7

The present Treaty and the Military Convention shall not be published or communicated to other countries except by previous agreement of the two contracting parties, and then it shall be done jointly and at the same time. Previous agreement shall also be necessary for the admission of a third State into the alliance.


Secret Appendix

Article I

In case internal disorders arise in Turkey, of such a character as to endanger the national or state interests of the contracting parties, or of one of them, as for instance in case Turkey should find itself beset by internal or external difficulties which might involve the maintenance of the status quo in the Balkan peninsula, the first of the contracting parties to arrive at the conviction that military action should be taken on this account, shall make a statement, giving the reasons therefor, to the other party which shall be bound to enter immediately upon an exchange of views, and if the latter party does not agree with its ally, shall give to the ally an answer stating the reasons.

If an agreement is arrived at, this agreement shall be communicated to Russia, and in case that Power does not oppose it, the action shall be undertaken in accordance with the agreement which has been reached, and in accordance with the sentiments of unity and community of interests. In the contrary case, if an agreement is not reached, the two states shall appeal to the opinion of Russia, which opinion shall, so far as Russia shall pronounce the same, be binding upon the two parties.

In case Russia does not give its opinion and an agreement between the two contracting parties cannot, even after that, be reached, and in case the party which is in favour of action decides to pursue such action alone and at its own risk, the other party shall be obliged to observe a friendly neutrality towards its ally, to proceed at once to mobilize its troops within the limits provided by the military convention, and to go to the assistance of its ally with all its power, if a third State takes the part of Turkey.

Article II

All territorial additions which may be secured by common action as provided in articles one and two of the Treaty and Article I of this secret appendix thereto, shall be under the common dominion (condominium) of the allied States. The division thereof shall be made without delay within the maximum period of three months after the re-establishment of peace and upon the following bases:

Serbia recognizes the right of Bulgaria to territories to the east of the Rhodopes and the Struma river, Bulgaria recognizes the rights of Serbia to those situated to the north and west of Char-Planina.

As regards territories situated between the Char, Rhodopes, the Aegean Sea and Ochrida Lake, if the two parties reach the conclusion that it is impossible because of the common interests of the Bulgarian and Serbian nations, or for other reasons of domestic or foreign affairs, to organize these territories as a separate autonomous province, they shall be disposed of according to the following provisions:

Serbia agrees not to lay any claim to the territory situated beyond the line traced upon the annexed map, starting from the Turkish-Bulgarian frontier at Mt. Golen (to the north of Kriva Palanka) and following a generally south-westerly direction of Ochrida Lake, passing Mt. Kitka, between the villages of Metejeve and Podarjikon, by the summit to the east of the village Nerav, and following the watershed to the peak of 1,000, north of the village of Baschtevo, between the villages of Liubentzi and Petarlitza, by the peak Ostritch 1,000 (Lissetz Mountain), the peak 1,050 between the villages of Dratch and Opila by the villages of Talichmantzi and Jivalevo, the peak 1,050, the peak 1,000, the village Kichali, the principal line of the Gradischte Planina [Mountain] watershed to the peak Goritchte, to the peak 1,023, following then the watershed between the villages of Ivankovtzi and Loghintzi, through Vetersko and Sopot on the Vardar. Crossing the Vardar, it follows the ridges toward the peak 2,550 and as far as Mt. Petropole, along the watershed of this mountain between the villages of Krapa and Barbares to the peak 1,200, between the villages of Yakryenovo and Drenovo, to the Mt. Tchesma (1,254), along the watershed of the mountains Baba-Planina and Krouchka-Tepessi, between the villages of Salp and Tzerske, to the summit of Protoyska- Planina, to the east of the village of Belitza, through Brejani to the peak 1,200 (llinska Planina), along the line of the watershed passing the peak 1,330 to the peak 1,217 and between the villages of Livoichta and Gorentzi to Lake Ochrida near the monastery of Gabovitzi.

Bulgaria agrees to accept this frontier if His Majesty the Emperor of Russia, who shall be asked to be the final arbitrator of this question, decides in favour of this line.

It is understood that the two contracting parties agree to accept as the final frontier the line which His Majesty the Emperor of Russia, within the above indicated limits, may find to correspond the closest to the rights and interests of the two parties.

Article III

A copy of the treaty and of this secret appendix thereto shall be communicated together to the Imperial Government of Russia, which shall be asked at the same time to take note thereof, as a proof of the good intentions of the parties thereto in connection with the purposes sought by them, and with the request that His Majesty the Emperor of Russia deign to accept and approve the powers attributed to himself and his government in the provisions of these two documents.

Article IV

Every difference which shall arise concerning the interpretation and execution of any of the provisions of the treaty, of this secret appendix and of the military convention, shall be submitted to Russia for final decision, as soon as one of the two parties shall have declared that it believes it is impossible to reach an agreement by direct negotiations.

Article V

None of the provisions of this secret appendix shall be published or communicated to another Power without a prior agreement thereon by the two parties hereto and the consent of Russia.

  1. "Treaty of Friendship and Alliance Between the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Servia". The American Journal of International Law VIII (1, Supplement, Official Documents): 1–2. January 1914. JSTOR 2212398. doi:10.2307/2212398.