002 Infantry Division (United States) Unit History

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
002 Infantry Division (United States) Unit History
United States Army Center for Military History with images by the US Army Institute of Heraldry

Heraldic Achievements[1][edit]

Shoulder Sleeve Insignia[edit]

2 Infantry Div SSI.svg

  • Description: Upon a five pointed white star whose points lie in the circumference of an imaginary circle 3 1/2 inches (8.89 cm) in diameter an Indian's head with war bonnet in profile, face red, bonnet blue with outline of feathers in blue. The star to be superimposed upon a black shield, of dimensions such that the points of the star shall lie at a distance of 1/8 inch (.32 cm) from the perimeter.
  • Symbolism: The star has played an important part in our history from the days of the Colonies to the present time. The Indian signifies the first and original American. These devices were originally established by the division to use as vehicle markings and to identify the vehicles as all American.
  • Background: The shoulder sleeve insignia was originally authorized for the 2nd Division on 6 November 1918 and officially announced by The Adjutant General letter dated 21 June 1922. It was amended to correct the description on 7 November 1927. The insignia was redesignated for the 2nd Infantry Division effective 1 August 1942, and amended to change the dimensions. (TIOH Dwg. No. A-1-77).

Combat Service Identification Badge[edit]

  • Description: A silver color metal and enamel device 2 inches (5.08 cm) in height consisting of a design similar to the shoulder sleeve insignia.

Distinctive Unit Insignia[edit]

2 Infantry Div DUI.PNG

  • Description: A silver color metal and enamel device 1 1/8 inches in height overall consisting of a black field an Indian tomahawk in silver color metal with point to dexter and blade charged with a blue fleur-de-lis; attached to the handle by blue bands three blue feathers displayed fanwise to sinister and contained by a silver scroll bearing the motto "SECOND TO NONE" in black letters.
  • Symbolism: The colors blue and white (silver) allude to Infantry; the tomahawk is used in lieu of the Indian head which appears on the shoulder sleeve insignia for the 2d Infantry Division. The fleur-de-lis is for France where the unit saw its first combat experience during World War I and the feathers denote the three conflicts World Wars I and II and Korea) in which the unit has participated.
  • Background: The distinctive unit insignia was approved on 1 May 1968.

Lineage[edit]

  • Headquarters, 1st Provisional Brigade Organized on 11 August, 1917.
  • Headquarters, 2nd Division Constituted 21 September, 1917 in the Regular Army.
  • Headquarters, 1st Provisional Brigade Redesignated as Headquarters, 3rd Infantry Brigade in the 2nd Division on 22 September, 1917.
  • Headquarters Troop, 2nd Division Organized 8 October, 1917 at Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont.
  • Headquarters, 2nd Division Organized 26 October, 1917 in France
  • HHC, 4th Infantry Brigade Organized in the 2nd Division at Camp Travis, Texas, on October, 1920.
  • Headquarters Troop redesignated as Headquarters and Military Police Company(- MP Platoon) on 18 February, 1921.
  • In March of 1921, Headquarters, 3rd Infantry Brigade was redesignated as HHC, 3rd Infantry Brigade.
  • On 23 March, 1925, the following actions took place:
  1. HHC, 3rd Infantry Brigade redesignated as HHC, 3rd Brigade.
  2. HHC, 4th Infantry Brigade redesignated as HHC, 4th Brigade.
  • On 24 August, 1936, the following actions took place:
  1. HHC, 3rd Brigade redesignated as HHC, 3rd Infantry Brigade.
  2. HHC, 4th Brigade redesignated as HHC, 4th Infantry Brigade.
  • HHC, 3rd Infantry Brigade Disbanded at Fort Sam Huston, Texas on 9 October, 1939.
  • HHC, 4th Infantry Brigade Disbanded at Fort Francis E. Warren, Wyoming on 16 October, 1939.
  • Headquarters and Military Police Campany redesignated as Headquarters Company, 2nd Division on 22 July, 1942.
  • On 1 August, 1942, the following actions took place:
  1. Headquarters, 2nd Division Redesignated as Headquarters, 2nd Infantry Division.
  2. Headquarters Company, 2nd Division Redesignated as Headquarters Company, 2nd Infantry Division.
  • On 2 May, 1960, the following actions took place:
  1. Headquarters, 2nd Infantry Division Reorganized and redesignated 2 May 1960 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Infantry Division.
  2. Headquarters Company, 2nd Infantry Division Disbanded.
  • On 25 January, 1963, the following actions took place:
  1. Former Headquarters Company, 2nd Infantry Division reorganized as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division.
  2. Former HHC, 3rd Infantry Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division Reconstituted as HHC, 3rd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division.
  3. Former HHC, 4th Infantry Brigade Reconstituted as HHC, 2nd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division.

HHC, 3rd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division Activated at Fort Benning, Georgia on 1 February, 1963.

  • HHC, 2nd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division Activated at Fort Benning, Georgia on 15 February, 1963
  • HHC, 1st Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division Activated on 16 April, 1963 at Fort Benning, Georgia.
  • HHC, 3rd Brigade 2nd Infantry Division Inactivated on 16 September 1992 in Korea.
  • HHC, 3rd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division Activated 16 April, 1995 at Fort Lewis, Washington.

Honors[edit]

Campaign Participation Credit[edit]

  • World War I:
  1. Aisne
  2. Aisne-Marne
  3. St. Mihiel
  4. Meuse-Argonne
  5. Ile de France 1918
  6. Lorraine 1918
  • World War II:
  1. Normandy
  2. Northern France;
  3. Rhineland
  4. Ardennes-Alsace
  5. Central Europe
  • Korean War:
  1. UN Defensive
  2. UN Offensive
  3. CCF Intervention
  4. First UN Counteroffensive
  5. CCF Spring Offensive
  6. UN Summer-Fall Offensive
  7. Second Korean Winter
  8. Korea, Summer-Fall 1952
  9. Third Korean Winter
  10. Korea, Summer 1953

Decorations[edit]

Unit Awards[2][edit]

  • Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for HONGCHON[3]
  • French Croix de Guerre with Palm, World War I for:
  1. AISNE-MARNE[4]
  2. MEUSE-ARGONNE[5]
  • French Croix de Guerre, World War I, Fourragere. ref>Division Cited in War Department General Order 11—1924.</ref>
  • Belgian Fourragere 1940.[6]
  • Cited in the Order of the Day of the Belgian Army for:
  1. Action in the ARDENNES.[7]
  2. Action at ELSENBORN CREST.[8]
  • Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation for:
  1. NAKTONG RIVER LINE.[9]
  2. KOREA.[10]
  • Distinguished Unit Citations: 16.

Individual Awards[edit]

  • Medal Of Honor-6 ;
  • Distinguished Service Cross-34
  • Distinguished Service Medal-1
  • Silver Star-741
  • Legion Of Merit-25
  • Soldiers Medal-14
  • Bronze Star Medal-5,530
  • Air Medal-89

Combat Chronicle[11][edit]

General[edit]

  • Nickname: Indian head;
  • Slogan: Second to none.
  • Shoulder patch[12]: An Indian head on a white star superimposed on black shield.
  • Association: Second Division Association,
    New Colonial Hotel,
    Fifteenth and M Streets NW.
    Washington 5, D. C.;
    Mr. Ralph C. Lundgren, treasurer.

World War I[edit]

  • Activated: October 1917.
  • Deployment:
  1. Overseas: October 1917.
  2. Returned to U. S.: September 1919.
  • Casualties:
  1. KIA-1,964
  2. WIA-9,782
  3. Total-11,746
  • Commanders:
  1. Brig. Gen. Charles A. Doyen, USMC (26 October 1917)
  2. Maj. Gen. Omar Bundy, USA] (8 November 1917)
  3. Maj. Gen. James G. Harbord, USA (15 July 1918)
  4. Maj. Gen. John A. Lejeune, USMC (26 July 1918).


Narrative[edit]

  • In World War I, the 2nd Division included the 4th Marine Brigade, which consisted of the 5th and 6th Marine Regiments. The Navy furnished the hospital corpsmen for the Marine Brigade, and made a special uniform change which allows hospital corpsmen of this organization to wear a shoulder strap on the left shoulder of the "Dress Blues" so that the French Fourragere could be worn. This is the only Navy unit to wear the Fourragere.

World War II[edit]

  • Deployment
  1. Overseas: 10 October 1943.
  2. Days of Combat: 303.
  3. Returned to U. S.: 20 July 1945.
  • Commanders:
  1. Maj. Gen. John C. H. Lee (6 November 1941-8 May 1942)
  2. Maj. Gen. Walter M. Robertson (9 May 1942-June 1945)
  3. Brig. Gen. W. K. Harrison (June-September 1945)
  4. Maj. Gen. Edward M. Almond (September 1945-June 1946)
  5. Maj. Gen. Paul W. Kendall (June 1946 to 24 May 1948)
  6. Maj. Gen. Harry J. Collins (30 June 1948- ).


Narrative[edit]

  • After training in Ireland and Wales from October 1943 to June 1944, the 2d Infantry Division crossed the channel to land on Omaha Beach on D plus 1, 7 June 1944, near St. Laurent-sur-Mer.
  • Attacking across the Aure River, the Division liberated Trevieres, 10 June, and proceeded to assault and secure Hill 192, the key enemy strongpoint on the road to St. Lo.
  • With the hill taken 11 July 1944, the Division went on the defensive until 26 July. Exploiting the St. Lo break-through, the 2nd Division advanced across the Vire to take Tinchebray 15 August 1944.
  • The Division then moved west to join the battle for Brest, the heavily defended fortress surrendering 18 September 1944 after a 39-day contest. The Division took a brief rest 19-26 September before moving to defensive positions at St. Vith.
  • The German Ardennes offensive in mid-December forced the Division to withdraw to defensive positions near Elsenborn, where the German drive was halted.
  • In February 1945 the Division attacked, recapturing lost ground, and seized Gemund, 4 March.
  • Reaching the Rhine 9 March, the 2d advanced south to take Breisig, 10-11 March, and to guard the Remagen bridge, 12-20 March. The Division crossed the Rhine 21 March and advanced to Hadamar and Limburg, relieving elements of the 9th Armored Division, 28 March.
  • Advancing rapidly in the wake of the 9th Armored, the 2nd Division crossed the Weser at Veckerhagen, 6-7 April, captured Gottingen 8 April, established a bridgehead across the Saale, 14 April, seizing Merseburg on the 15th.
  • On the 18th the Division took Leipzig, mopped up in the area, and outposted the Mulde River; elements which had crossed the river were withdrawn 24 April.
  • Relieved on the Mulde, the 2nd moved 200 miles, 1-3 May, to positions along the German—Czech border near Schonsee and Waldmunchen, and attacked in the general direction of Pilsen, reaching that city as the war in Europe ended.

Assignments in the ETO[13][edit]

  • 22 October 1943: Attached to First Army.
  • 24 December 1943: XV Corps, but attached to First Army.
  • 14 April 1944: V Corps, First Army.
  • 1 August 1944: V Corps, First Army, 12th Army Group.
  • 17 August 1944: XIX Corps.
  • 18 August 1944: VIII Corps, Third Army, 12th Army Group.
  • 5 September 1944: VIII Corps, Ninth Army, 12th Army Group.
  • 22 October 1944: VIII Corps, First Army, 12th Army Group.
  • 11 December 1944: V Corps.
  • 20 December 1944: Attached, with the entire First Army, to the British 21st Army Group.
  • 18 January 1945: V Corps, First Army, 12th Army Group.
  • 28 April 1945: VII Corps.
  • 1 May 1945: V Corps.
  • 6 May 1945: Third Army, 12th Army Group

Bibliography[edit]

  • American Battle Monuments Commission. “American Armies and Battlefields in Europe”. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1938. Reprint. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1992.
  • 2nd Division, Summary of Operations in the World War. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1944.
  • Andriot, R. Belleau Wood and the American Army, 2nd and 261/i Divisions (June and July 1918). Washington: Belleau Wood Memorial Assn., 1925.
  • Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu. United States Army in the Korean War. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1961.
  • Barnett, William W., et al. “The Second United States Infantry Division in Korea, 1 .Jan 53-31 Dec 53”. Tokyo: Toppan Printing Co., 1954.
  • Blumenson, Martin. “Breakout and Pursuit. United States Army in World War II”. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1961.
  • Bruce, A. D. “Principles and Methods of Pursuit by Direct Pressure as Illustrated by the Second Division (US) in the Third Phase of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive”. Fort Leavenworth: Command and General Staff School, 1933.
  • Cheyenne Chamber of Commerce. “Fort Francis E. Warren, Wyoming, 1930”. Cheyenne, Wyo.: Labor- Journal Publishing Co., 1930.
  • Chiles, John H. "A Community Relations Program of the 2nd infantry Division--Second to None." Army Information Digest 21 (April 1966):18-20.
  • Clyma, Carleton B., editor. “Connecticut Men of the Second Division”, August 1945. Hartford, 1945.
  • Cochrane, Rexmond C. Gas Wafare at Belleau Wood, June 1918. U.S. Army Chemical Corps Historical Studies, Gas Warfare in World War 1, no. 1. Washington: U.S. Army Chemical Corps Historical Office, 1957.
  • Cole, Hugh M. The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge. United States Army in World War II. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1965.
  • ”Combat History Of the Second Infantry Division in World War II”. Baton Rouge: Army and Navy Publishing Co., 1946. Reprint. Nashville: Battery Press, 1979.
  • Commendations of Second Division, American Expeditionary Forces, France, 1917 1919, Germany. Cologne, Germany: Second Division Association, 1919.
  • Davenport, Robert .J. “Barrier Along the Korean DMZ" Infantry 57 (May June 1967):40-42.
  • Diehl, William J., Jr. "2nd Infantry Division." Infcintry 68 (November-December 1978):14-18.
  • ”From D+1 to 105: The Story of the Second Infantry Division”. G.I. Stories .. . Paris, 1944.
  • Gabel, Christopher R. The U.S. Army GHQ Maneuvers of 1941. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1991.
  • Gugeler, Russell A. Combat Actions in Korea. Washington: Combat Forces Press, 1954. Rev. ed. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1970.
  • Harbord, James G. Leaves From a War Diary. New York: Dodd. Mead. & Co., 1925.
  • Harrington, Floyd. "Treasure House." Soldiers 32 (February 1972):34-36.
  • Harrison, Gordon A. Cross-Channel Attack. United States Army in World War II. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1951.
  • Hermes, Walter G. Truce Tent and (Fighting Front. United States Army in the Korean War. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1966.
  • Historical Branch, War Plans Division. Blanc Mont (Meuse—Argonne—Charnpagne). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1922.
  • Historical Division, War Department. “Omaha Beachhead (6 .June-13 June 1944)”. American Forces in Action. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1945.
  • Historical Division, War Department. “St-Lo (7 July-19 July 1944)”. American Forces in Action. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1947.
  • Historical Section, Army War College. Order of Battle of the United States Land Forces in the World War; American Expeditionary Forces; Divisions. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1931. Reprint. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1988.
  • Jackson, Melvin S. “Second to None”. Los Angeles: Sam Babcock, Sixth Marines, 1933.
  • Jacobs, Bruce. "Second to None, The Story of the 2nd Infantry Division." SAGA. True Adventures for Men 9 (February 1955 ):24-29 ff'.
  • Jacobs, Bruce. “Soldiers: The Fighting Divisions of the Regular Army”. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1958.
  • Kahn, E. J., Jr., and McLcmore, H. “Fighting Divisions”. Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1945. Reprint. Washington: Zenger Publishing Co., 1980. Korea 1950. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1952.
  • MacDonald, Charles B. “Company Commander”. Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1947.
  • MacDonald, Charles B. “The Last Offensive”. United States Army in World War II. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1973.
  • MacDonald, Charles B. "The Man Who Did Not Capture Leipzig." Infantry .Journal 60 (June 1947):47-5 1.
  • MacDonald, Charles B. “The Siegfried Line Campaign”. United States Army in World War II. Washington: Government Printing Office, I963.
  • May, Joseph R., et al. “The Second United States Infantry Division in Korea, 1951-1952”. Vol. 2. Tokyo: Toppan Printing Co., 1953.
  • Miller, John, Jr., et al. “Korea 1951-1953”. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1956.
  • Mossman, Billy C. “Ebb and Flow. United States Army in the Korean War”. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1990.
  • Munroe, Clark C. “The Second United States Infantry Division in Korea, 1950-1951”. Vol. 1. Tokyo: Toppan Printing Co., 1952.
  • Otto, Ernest. “The Battle at Blanc Mont (October 2 to October 10, 1918)”. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1930.
  • Polewski, David, editor. “Second to ;None, The Soldiers of the 2nd lnfantry Division, Korea”. Korea: Printing and Publications Center, 1981.
  • Rast, James F. "Highland Fox: The 2nd Division's Off-Post Counterinsurgency Exercise." Infantry 55 (May-June 1965):45-49.
  • Schnabel, James F. “Policy and Direction: The First Year. United States Army in the Korean War”. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1972.
  • ”The Second Division American Expeditionary Forces, 1917-1919” ... Neuwied on-the-Rhine, Germany. 1919.
  • ”The Second Division Syllabi of Histories of Regiments and Separate Organizations. from Dates of Organization to June 1, 1919”. Coblenz, Germany: Coblenzer Volkszeitung, 1919.
  • “Second Infantry Division”. Paducah, Ky.: Turner Publishing Co., 1989.
  • 2nd Infantry Division, Information Office. “2nd Infantry Division: Korea”. Camp Casey, Korea, 1972.
  • 2nd Infantry Division, Public Affairs Office. “Second to None in Three Wars”. Korea, 1980.
  • "The 2nd's Fiftieth." Army Digest 22 (October 1967):57.
  • "Second to None: A Short History of the Second Infantry Division, 1918-1951”. Japan, 1952.
  • "Second to None: The Second United States Infantry Division in Korea, 1951-1952”. Tokyo: Toppan Printing Co., 1953.
  • Shetter, M. D., editor. “Warrior: Second Infantry Division, Korea, Fall 1970”. Seoul, Korea, 1970.
  • Spaulding, Oliver Lyman, and Wright, John Womack. “The Second Division, American Expeditionary Forces, in France, 1917-1919”. New York: Hillman Press, 1937.
  • Westover, John G. “Combat Support in Korea”. Washington: Combat Forces Press, 1955. Reprint. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1990.
  • Wood, Edward W., and Allsbrook, Raleigh. “D+106 to V E, The Story of the Second Division”. San Antonio: D. A. Clegg Co., 1945.

References[edit]

  1. Source: US Army Institute of Heraldry
  2. 2nd Brigade had no Decorations prior to 9-11. 3rd Brigade only had World War I Decorations prior to 9-11.
  3. Division cited in Department of the Army General Order 72—1951
  4. Division Cited in War Department General Order 11—1924.
  5. Division Cited in War Department General Order 11—1924.
  6. Division cited in Department of the Army General Order 43—1950
  7. Division cited in Department of the Army General Order 43—1950
  8. Division cited in Department of the Army General Order 43—1950
  9. Division cited in Department of the Army General Order 35—1951
  10. Division cited in Department of the Army General Order 10—1954
  11. Nota Bene: These combat chronicles, current as of October 1948, are reproduced from The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950, pp. 510-592.]
  12. The proper name for the so-called “Shoulder patch” is the Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.
  13. In these tabulations, the army and higher headquarters to which the division is assigned or attached is not repeated when the division is assigned or attached to a different corps in the same army. On 6 November 1943, for example, the 1st Infantry Division was assigned to the VII Corps which was itself assigned to First Army; on 1 August 1944, the 12th Army. Group became operational; and on 6 May 1945, the 1st Infantry Division left First Army for the first time during the operations on the Continent for reassignment to the Third Army.

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).