003 Infantry Division (United States) Unit History

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003 Infantry Division (United States) Unit History
United States Army Center for Military History
This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).


Heraldic Achievements[1][edit]

Shoulder Sleeve Insignia[edit]

3 Infantry Div SSI.PNG

  • Description:
  1. Upon a blue square 2 inches (5.08 cm), three white stripes each 3/8 inch (.95 cm) in width from heraldic sinister chief to dexter base; the blue background between the white stripes also being 3/8 inch (.95 cm) in width; all within a 1/8 inch (.32 cm) Army Green border.
  2. The overall dimension is 2 1/4 inches (5.72 cm) on each side.
  • Symbolism:
  1. The three white stripes of the insignia are symbolical of the three major operations in which the division participated during World War I.
  2. The blue field symbolizes the loyalty of those who placed their lives on the altar of self-sacrifice in defense of the American ideals of liberty and democracy.
  • Background:
  1. This insignia was originally approved by telegram for the 3rd Division on 24 October 1918.
  2. It was officially announced on 20 June 1922.
  3. The insignia was amended to correct the wording of the description on 11 October 1922.
  4. It was redesignated for the 3rd Infantry Division retroactive to 1 August 1942 and amended to include the border in the description.
  5. (TIOH Dwg. No. A-1-78)

Combat Service Identification Badge[edit]

  • Description: A silver color metal and enamel device 2 inches (5.08 cm) in height consisting of a design similar to the shoulder sleeve insignia.

Distinctive Unit Insignia[edit]

3 Infantry Div DUI.svg

  • Description: A silver colored metal and enamel insignia 1 1/8 inches (2.86 cm) in height consisting of a silver rock issuing from the inner arc of a blue annulet inscribed with the words “NOUS RESTERONS LA” in silver letters; on the rock and surmounting the upper part of the annulet a silver wyvern winged blue bearing thereon three silver diagonal bands.
  • Symbolism:
  1. The rock, inscription and wyvern refer to the two designations by which men of the 3d Infantry Division are popularly known; i.e., “Marne Men” and “Blue and White Devils”.
  2. The rock represents the Division’s firm stand against the German offensive at the Marne River during World War I.
  3. It was there that it became known as the “Rock of the Marne” and there that the Commanding Officer, General Joseph Dickman, stated “Nous Resterous La”.
  4. The wyvern, a heraldic form of the devil, bears the Division’s blue and white stripes on its wing in commemoration of the Division’s action at Anzio, Italy, during World War II where they were called “Blue and White Devils” by the enemy.
  • Background: The insignia was approved on 27 August 1965.

Lineage[edit]

  • Constituted 12 November 1917 in the Regular Army as Headquarters, 3d Division
  • Organized 21 November 1917 at Camp Greene, North Carolina
  • Redesignated 1 August 1942 as Headquarters, 3d Infantry Division
  • Reorganized and redesignated 1 April 1960 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Infantry Division

Honors[edit]

Campaign Participation Credit[edit]

  • World War I:
  1. Aisne
  2. Champagne-Marne;
  3. Aisne-Marne
  4. St. Mihiel
  5. Meuse-Argonne
  6. Champagne 1918
  • World War II:
  1. Algeria-French Morocco (with arrowhead)
  2. Tunisia;
  3. Sicily (with arrowhead)
  4. Naples-Foggia
  5. Anzio (with arrowhead)
  6. Rome-Arno
  7. Southern France (with arrowhead)
  8. Rhineland
  9. Ardennes-Alsace
  10. Central Europe
  • Korean War:
  1. CCF Intervention
  2. First UN Counteroffensive
  3. CCF Spring Offensive
  4. UN Summer-Fall Offensive
  5. Second Korean Winter
  6. Korea, Summer-Fall 1952
  7. Third Korean Winter
  8. Korea, Summer 1953

Decorations[edit]

Unit Awards[edit]

  • Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for:
  1. COLMAR
  • French Croix de Guerre with Palm, World War II for:
  1. COLMAR
  • French Croix de Guerre, World War II, Fourragere
  • Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation for:
  1. UIJONGBU CORRIDOR
  2. IRON TRIANGLE
  • Chryssoun Aristion Andrias (Bravery Gold Medal of Greece) for:
  1. KOREA
  • Distinguished Unit Citations: 11.

Individual Awards[edit]

  • Medal Of Honor-35
  • Distinguished Service Cross-109
  • Distinguished Service Medal-6
  • Silver Star-4,817
  • Legion Of Merit-50
  • Soldiers Medal-72
  • Bronze Star Medal-137
  • Air Medal-72

Combat Chronicle[2][edit]

General[edit]

  • Nickname: Rock of the Marne. Slogan: The words of Maj. Gen. Joseph Dickman are sometimes employed
  • Association: Society of the Third Infantry Division, P. O. Box 74, Franklin Station, Washington 4, D. C. Publications: History of the Third Infantry Division, World War II, by unit members; The Infantry Journal, 115 Seventeenth Street NW., Washington 6, D. C.; 1947 ; 575 pp. Blue and White Devils, by unit members; TI&E, ETOUSA ; distributor, Society of the Third Infantry Division.
  • The 3d Division earned the title "Rock of the Marne" at Chateau Thierry in July 1918.

World War I[edit]

  • Deployment:
  1. Overseas: April, 1918.
  2. Returned to U. S.: August, 1919.
  • Casualties:
  1. KIA-2,637
  2. WIA-12,764
  3. Total-15,401
  • Commanders:
  1. Maj. Gen. Joseph T. Dickman
    1. (28 November 1917 - 11 February 1918)
    2. (13 February 1918 - 27 February 1918)
    3. (12 April 1918 - 18 August - 1918)
  2. Brig. Gen. J. A. Irons
    1. (11 February 1918 – 13 February 1918)
    2. (27 February 1918)
    3. (10 March 1918)
  3. Brig. Gen. Charles Crawford
    1. (8 March 1918)
    2. (19 March 1918)
  4. Brig. Gen. F. W. Sladen (18 August- 1918)
  5. Maj. Gen. Beaumond B. Buck (27 August 1918)
  6. Brig. Gen. Preston Brown (18 October 1918)
  7. Maj. Gen. R. L. Howze (19 November 1918).

World War II[edit]

  • Deployment
  1. Overseas: 27 October 1942.
  2. Days of Combat: 233.
  3. Returned to U. S.: 4 September 1946.
  • Commanders:
  1. MG. Charles F. Thompson (July 1940-August 1941)
  2. BG. Charles P. Hall (August 1941-September 1941)
  3. MG. John P. Lucas (September 1941-March 1942)
  4. MG. Jonathan W. Anderson (March 1942-March 1943)
  5. Maj. Gen. Lucian K. Truscott, Jr. (March 1943-February 1944)
  6. MG. John W. O'Daniel (February 1944-December 1945)
  7. MG. William R. Schmidt (July 1945-August 1946)
  8. MG. Edwin P. Parker, Jr. (August 1946-October 1946)
  9. MG. Jens A. Doe (October 1946-February 1947)
  10. MG. Percy W. Clarkson (February 1947 to 1948).

Narrative[edit]

  • The 3rd Division is the only American Division which fought the Nazi on all fronts. The Division first saw action in the North African invasion, landing at Fedala, 8 November 1942, and capturing half of French Morocco.
  • On 10 July 1943, the Division made an assault landing on Sicily, fought its way into Palermo before the armor could get there, and raced on to capture Messina, thus ending the Sicilian campaign.
  • Nine days after the Italian invasion, 18 September 1943, the 3rd landed at Salerno and in intensive action drove to and across the Volturno and to Cassino.
  • After a brief rest, the Division was ordered to hit the beaches at Anzio, 22 January 1944, where for 4 months it maintained its toe-hold against furious German counterattacks.
  • On 29 February 1944, the 3rd fought off an attack by three German Divisions. In May the Division broke out of the beachhead and drove on to Rome, and then went into training for the invasion of Southern France.
  • On 15 August 1944, another D-day, the Division landed at St. Tropez, advanced up the Rhone Valley, through the Vosges Mountains, and reached the Rhine at Strasbourg, 26—27 November.
  • After maintaining defensive positions it took part in clearing the Colmar Pocket, 23 January—18 February 1945, and on 15 March struck against Siegfried Line positions south of Zweibrucken.
  • The Division smashed through the defenses and crossed the Rhine, 26 March 1945 ; then drove on to take Nurnberg in a fierce battle, capturing the city in block-by-block fighting, 17—20 April.
  • The 3rd pushed on to take Augsburg and Munich, 27—30 April, and was in the vicinity of Salzburg when the war in Europe ended.

Assignments in the ETO[3][edit]

  • 1 July 1944: AFHQ, but attached to Seventh Army and SOS, NATOUSA for supply.
  • 13 July 1944: AFHQ, but attached to the VI Corps, Seventh Army.
  • 15 September 1944: VI Corps, Seventh Army, 6th Army Group.
  • 15 December 1944: Seventh Army, 6th Army Group but attached to the French II Corps of the French First Army.]
  • 28 January 1945: XXI Corps, Seventh Army, 6th Army Group, but attached to French First Army.
  • 15 February 1945: Seventh Army, 6th Army Group, but attached to the French II Corps of the French First Army.
  • 18 February 1945: Seventh Army, 6th Army Group, but attached to the French II Corps.]
  • 12 March 1945: XV Corps, Seventh Army, 6th Army Group.
  • 31 April 1945: Seventh Army, 6th Army Group.
  • 23 April 1945: XXI Corps, Seventh Army, 6th Army Group.
  • 28 April 1945: XV Corps.
  • 6 May 1945: Seventh Army, 6th Army Group.
  • 8 May 1945: XV Corps, Seventh Army, 6th Army Group.

References[edit]

  1. Source: US Army Institute of Heraldry
  2. Nota Bene: These combat chronicles, current as of October 1948, are reproduced from The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950, pp. 510-592.]
  3. In these tabulations, the army and higher headquarters to which the division is assigned or attached is not repeated when the division is assigned or attached to a different corps in the same army. On 6 November 1943, for example, the 1st Infantry Division was assigned to the VII Corps which was itself assigned to First Army; on 1 August 1944, the 12th Army. Group became operational; and on 6 May 1945, the 1st Infantry Division left First Army for the first time during the operations on the Continent for reassignment to the Third Army.