1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Abbreviation

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Abbreviation (Lat. brevis, short), strictly a shortening; more particularly, an "abbreviation" is a letter or group of letters, taken from a word or words, and employed to represent them for the sake of brevity. Abbreviations, both of single words and of phrases, having a meaning more or less fixed and recognized, are common in ancient writings and inscriptions (see Palaeography and Diplomatic), and very many are in use at the present time. A distinction is to be observed between abbreviations and the contractions that are frequently to be met with in old manuscripts, and even in early printed books, whereby letters are dropped out here and there, or particular collocations of letters represented by somewhat arbitrary symbols. The commonest form of abbreviation is the substitution for a word of its initial letter; but, with a view to prevent ambiguity, one or more of the other letters are frequently added. Letters are often doubled to indicate a plural or a superlative.

I. CLASSICAL ABBREVIATIONS.[edit]

The following list contains a selection from the abbreviations that occur in the writings and inscriptions of the Romans:—

A.[edit]

A. Absolvo, Aedilis, Aes, Ager, Ago, Aio, Amicus, Annus, Antiquo, Auctor, Auditor, Augustus, Aulus, Aurum, Aut.
A.A. Aes alienum, Ante audita, Apud agrum, Aurum argentum.
AA. Augusti. AAA. Augusti tres.
A.A.A.F.F. Auro argento acre flando feriundo.[AuroArgento]
A.A.V. Alter ambove.
A.C. Acta causa, Alins civis.
A.D. Ante diem; e.g. A.D.V. Ante diem quintum.
A.D.A. Ad dandos agros.
AEO. Aedes, Aedilis, Aedilitas.
AEM. and AIM. Aemilius, Aemilia.
AER. Aerarium. AER.P. Aere publico.
A.F. Acture fide, Auli filius.
AG. Ager, Ago, Agrippa.
A.G. Ammo grato, Aulus Gellius.
A.L.AE. and A.L.E. Arbitrium litis aestimandae.
A.M. and A.MILL. Ad milliarium.
AN. Aniensis, Annus, Ante.
ANN. Annales, Anni, Annona.
ANT. Ante, Antonius.
A.O. Alii omnes, Amico optimo.
AP. Atppius, Apud.
A.P. Ad pedes, Aedilitia potestate.
A.P.F. Auro (or argento) publico feriundo.
A.P.M. Amico posuit monumentum, Annorum plus minus.
A.P.R.C. Anno post Romam conditam.
ARG. Argentum.
AR.V.V.D.D. Aram votam volens dedicavit, Arma votiva dono dedit.
AT A tergo. Also A TE. and A TER.
A.T.M.D.O. Aio te mihi dare oportere.
AV. Augur, Augustus, Aurelius.
A.V. Annos vixit.
A.V.C. Ab urbe condita.
AVG. Augur, Augustus.
AVGG. Augusti (generally of two). AVGGG. Augusti tres.
AVT.PR.R. Auctoritas provinciae Romanorum.

B.[edit]

B. Balbius, Balbus, Beatus, Bene, Beneficiarius, Beneficium, Bonus, Brutus, Bustum.
B.for V. Berna Bivus, Bixit.
B.A. Bixit anos, Bonis auguriis, Bonus amabilis.
BB.or B.B. Bene bene, i.e. optime, Optimus.
B.D. Bonae deae, Bonum datum.
B.DD. Bonis deabus.
B.D.S.M. Bene de se merenti.
B.F. Bona femina, Bona fides, Bona fortuna, Bonum factum.
B.F. Bona femina, Bona filia.
B.H. Bona hereditaria, Bonorum heres.
B.I. Bonum judicium. B.I.I. Boni judicis judicium.
B.M. Beatae memoriae, Bene merenti.
B.N. Bona nostra, Bonum nomen.
BN.H.I. Bona hic invenies.
B.P. Bona paterna, Bonorum potestas, Bonum publicum.
B.Q. Bene quiescat, Bona quaesita.
B.RP.N. Boho reipublicae natus.
BRT. Britannicus.
B.T. Bonorum tutor, Brevi tempore.
B.V. Bene vale, Bene vixit, Bonus vir.
B.V.V. Balnea vina Venus.
BX. Bixit, for vixit.

C.[edit]

C. Caesar, Cains, Caput, Causa, Censor, Civis, Conors, Colonia, Comitialis (dies), Condemno, Consul, Cum, Curo, Custos.
C. Caia, Centuria, Cum, the prefix Con.
C.B. Civis bonus, Commune bonum, Conjugi benemerenti, Cui bono.
C.C. Calumniae causa, Causa cognita, Conjugi carissimae, Consilium cepit, Curiae consulto.
C.C.C. Calumniae cavendae causa.
C.C.F. Caesar (or Caius) curavit faciendum, Cains Caii filius.
CC.VV. Clarissimi viri.
C.D. Caesaris decreto, Cains Decius, Comitialibus diebus.
CES. Censor, Censores. CESS. Censores.
C.F. Causa fiduciae, Conjugi fecit, Curavit faciendum.
C.H. Custos heredum, Custos hortorum.
C.I. Caius Julius, Consul jussit, Curavit judex.
CL. Clarissimus, Claudius, Clodius, Colonia.
CL.V. Clarissimus vir, Clypeum vovit.
C.M. Caius Marius, Causa mortis.
CN. Cnaeus.
COH. Coheres, Conors.
COL. Collega, Collegium, Colonia, Columna.
COLL. Collega, Coloni, Coloniae.
COM. Comes, Comitium, Comparatum.
CON. Conjux, Consensus, Consiliarius, Consul, Consularis.
COR. Cornelia (tribus), Cornelius, Corona, Corpus.
COS. Consiliarius, Consul, Consulares. COSS. Consules.
C.P. Carissimus or Clarissimus puer, Civis publicus, Curavit ponendum.
C.R. Cains Rufus, Civis Romanus, Curavit reficiendum.
CS. Caesar, Communis, Consul.
C.V. Clarissimus or Consularis vir.
CVR. Cura, Curator, Curavit, Curia.

D.[edit]

D. Dat, Dedit, &c., De, Decimus, Decius, Decretum, Decurio, Deus, Dicit, &c., Dies, Divus, Dominus, Domus, Donum.
D.C. Decurio coloniae, Diebus comitialibus, Divus Caesar.
D.D. Dea Dia, Decurionum decreto, Dedicavit, Deo dedit, Dono dedit.
D.D.D. Datum decreto decurionum, Dono dedit dedicavit.
D.E.R. De ea re.
DES. Designatus.
D.I. Dedit imperator, Diis immortalibus, Diis inferis.
D.l.M. Deo invicto Mithrae, Diis inferis Manibus.
D.M. Deo Magno, Dignus memoria, Diis Manibus, Dolo malo.
D.O.M. Deo Optimo Maximo.
D.P.S. Dedit proprio sumptu, Deo perpetuo sacrum, De pecunia sua.

E.[edit]

E. Ejus, Eques, Erexft, Ergo, Est, Et, Etiam, Ex.
EG. Aeger, Egit, Egregius.
E.M. Egregiae memoriae, Ejusmodi, Erexit monumentum.
EQ.M. Equitum magister.
E.R.A. Ea res agitur.

F.[edit]

F. Fabius, Facere, Fecit, &c., Familia, Fastus (dies), Felix, Femina, Fides, Filius, Flamen, Fortuna, Frater, Fuit, Functus.
F.C. Faciendum curavit, Fidei commissume, Fiduciae causa.
F.D. Fidem dedit, Flamen Dialis, Fraude donavit.
F.F.F. Ferro flamma fame, Fortior fortuna fato.
FL. Filius, Flamen, Flaminius, Flavius.
F.L. Favete linguis, Fecit libens, Felix liber.
FR. Forum, Fronte, Frumentarius.
F.R. Forum Romanum.

G.[edit]

G. Gaius (=Caius), Gallia, Gaudium, Gellius, Gemma, Gens, Gesta, Gratia.
G.F. Gemma fidelis (applied to a legion). So G.P.F. Gemma pia fidelis.
GL. Gloria.
GN. Genius, Gens, Genus, Gnaeus (=Cnaeus).
G.P.R. Genro populi Romani.

H.[edit]

H. Habet, Heres, Hic, Homo, Honor, Hora. HER. Heres, Herennius. HER. and HERC. Hercules.
H.L. Hac lege, Hoc loco, Honesto loco.
H.M. Hoc monumentum, Honesta mulier, Hora mala.
H.S.E. Hic sepultus est, Hic situs est.
H.V. Haec urbs, Hic vivit, Honeste vixit, Honestus vir.

I.[edit]

I. Immortalis, Imperator, In, Infra, Inter, Invictus, Ipse, Isis, Judex, Julius, Junius, Jupiter, Justus.
IA. Jam, Intra.
I.C. Julius Caesar, Juris Consultum, Jus civile.
ID. Idem, Idus, Interdum.
l.D. Inferis diis, Jovi dedicatnm, Jus dicendum, Jussu Dei.
I.D.M. Jovi deo magno.
I.F. In foro, In fronte.
I.H. Jacet hic, In honestatem, Justus homo.
IM. Imago, Immortalis, Immunis, Impensa.
IMP. Imperator, Imperium.
I.O.M. Jovi optimo maximo.
I.P. In publico, Intra provinciam, Justa persona.
I.S.V.P. Impensa sua vivus posuit.

K.[edit]

K. Kaeso, Caia, Calumnia, Caput, Carus, Castra.
K., KAL. and KL. Kalendae.

L.[edit]

L. Laelius, Legio, Lex, Libens, Liber, Libra, Locus, Lollius, Lucius, Ludus.
LB. Libens, Liberi, Libertus.
L.D.D.D. Locus datus decreto decurionum.
LEG. Legatus, Legio.
LIB. Liber, Liberalitas, Libertas, Libertus, Librarius.
LL. Leges, Libentissime, Liberti.
L.M. Libens merito, Locus monumenti.
L.S. Laribus sacrum, Libens solvit, Locus sacer.
LVD. Ludus.
LV.P.F. Ludos publicos fecit.

M.[edit]

M. Magister, Magistratus, Magnus, Manes, Marcus, Marins, Marti, Mater, Memoria, Mensis, Miles, Monumentum, Mortuus, Mucius, Mulier.
M'. Manius.
M.D. Magno Deo, Manibus diis, Matri deum, Merenti dedit.
MES. Mensis. MESS. Menses.
M.F. Mala fides, Marci filius, Monumentum fecit.
M.I. Matri Idaeae, Matii Isidi, Maximo Jovi.
MNT. and MON. Moneta.
M.P. Male positus, Monumentum posuit.
M.S. Manibus sacrum, Memoriae sacrum, Manu scriptum.
MVN. Municeps, or municipium; so also MN., MV. and MVNIC.
M.V.S. Marti ultori sacrum, Merito votum solvit.

N.[edit]

N. Natio, Natus, Nefastus (dies), Nepos, Neptunus, Nero, Nomen, Non, Nonae, Noster, Novus, Numen, Numerius, Numerus, Nummus.
NEP. Nepos, Neptunus.
N.F.C. Nostrae fidei commissum.
N.L. Non licet, Non liquet, Non longe.
N.M.V. Nobilis memoriae vir.
NN. Nostri. NN., NNO. and NNR. Nostrorum.
NOB. Nobilis. NOB., NOBR. and NOV. Novembris.
N.P. Nefastus primo (i.e. priore parto diei), Non potest.

O.[edit]

O. Ob, Officium, Omnis, Oportet, Optimus, Opus, Ossa.
OB. Obiit, Obiter, Orbis.
O.C.S. Ob cives servatos.
O.H.F. Omnibus honoribus functus.
O.H.S.S. Ossa hic sita sunt.
OR. Hora, Ordo, Ornamentum.
O.T.B.Q. Ossa tua bene quiescant.

P.[edit]

P. Pars, Passus, Pater, Patronus, Pax, Perpetuus, Pes, Pius, Plebs, Pondo, Populus, Post, Posuit, Praeses, Praetor, Primus, Pro, Provincia, Publicus, Publius, Puer.
P.C. Pactum conventum, Patres conscripti, Pecunia constituta, Ponendum curavit, Post consulatum, Potestate censoria.
P.F. Pia fidelis, Pius felix, Promissa fides, Publii filius.
P.M. Piae memoriae, Pius minus, Pontifex maximus.
P.P. Pater patratus, Pater patriae, Pecunia publica, Praepositus, Primipilus, Propraetor.
PR. Praeses, Praetor, Pridie, Princeps.
P.R. Permissu reipublicae, Populus Romanus.
P.R.C. Post Romam conditam.
PR.PR. Praefectus praetorii, Propraetor.
P.S. Pecunia sua, Plebiscitum, Proprio sumptu, Publicae saluti.
P.V. Pia victrix, praefectus urbi, Praestantissimus vir.

Q.[edit]

Q. Quaestor, Quando, Quantus, Que, Qui, Quinquennalis, Quintus, Quirites.
Q.D.R. Qua de re.
Q.I.S.S. Quae infra scripta sunt; so Q.S.S.S. Quae supra, &c.
QQ. Quaecunque, Quinquennalis, Quoque.
Q.R. Quaestor reipublicae.

R.[edit]

R. Recte, Res, Respublica, Retro, Rex, Ripa, Roma, Romanus, Rufus, Rursus.
R.C. Romana civitas, Romanus civis.
RESP. and RP. Respublica.
RET.P. and RP. Retro pedes.

S.[edit]

S. Sacrum, Scriptus, Semis, Senatus, Sepultus, Servius, Servus, Sextus, Sibi, Sine, Situs, Solus, Solvit, Sub, Suus.
SAC. Sacerdos, Sacrificium, Sacrum.
S.C. Senatus consultum.
S.D. Sacrum diis, Salutem dicit, Senatus decreto, Sententiam
S.D.M. Sacrum diis Manibus, Sine dolo malo.
SER. Servius, Servus.
S.E.T.L. Sit ei terra levis.
SN. Senatus, Sententia, Sine.
S.P. Sacerdos perpetua, Sine pecunia, Sua pecunia.
S.P.Q.R. Senatus populusque Romanus.
S.S. Sanctissimus senatus, Supra scripture.
S.V.B.E.E.Q.V. Si vales bene est, ego quidem valeo.

T.[edit]

T. Terminus, Testamentum, Titus, Tribunus, Tu, Turma, Tutor.
TB., TI. and TIB. Tiberius.
TB., TR. and TRB. Tribunus.
T.F. Testamentum fecit, Titi filius, Titulum fecit, Titus Flavius.
TM. Terminus, Testamentum, Thermae.
T.P. Terminum posuit, Tribunicia potestate, Tribunus plebis.
TVL. Tullius, Tunus.

V.[edit]

V. Urbs, Usus, Uxor, Vale, Verba, Vestalis, Vester, Vir, Vivus, Vixit, Volo, Votum.
VA. Veterano assignatus, Vixit annos.
V.C. Vale conjux, Vir clarissimus, Vir consularis.
V.E. Verum etiam, Vir egregius, Visum est.
V.F. Usus fructus, Verba fecit, Vivus fecit.
V.P. Urbis praefectus, Vir perfectissimus, Vivus posuit.
V.R. Urbs Roma, Uti rogas, Votum reddidit.

II. MEDIEVAL ABBREVIATIONS.[edit]

Of the different kinds of abbreviations in use in the middle ages, the following are examples:—

A.M. Ave Maria.
B.P. Beatus Paulus, Beatus Petrus.
CC. Carissimus (atso plur. Carissimi), Clarissimus, Circum.
D. Deus, Dominicus, Dux.
D.N.PP. Dominus hoster Papa.
U.F. Felicissimus, Fratres, Pandectae (prob. for Gr. II).
I.C. or I.X. Jesus Christus.
I.D.N. In Dei nomine.
KK. Karissimus (or-mi).
MM. Magistri, Martyres, Matrimonium, Meritissimus.
O.S.B. Ordinis Sancti Benedicti.
PP. Papa, Patres, Piissimus.
R.F. Rex Francorum.
R.P.D. Reverendissimus Pater Dominus.
S.C.M. Sacra Caesarea Majestas.
S.M.E. Sancta Mater Ecclesia.
S.M.M. Sancta Mater Maria.
S.R.I. Sanctum Romanum Imperium.
S.V. Sanctitas Vestra, Sancta Virgo.
V. Venerabilis, Venerandus. .
V.R.P. Vestra Reverendissima Paternitas.

III. ABBREVIATIONS NOW IN USE.[edit]

The import of these will often be readily understood from the connexion in which they occur. There is no occasion to explain here the common abbreviations used for Christian names, books of Scripture, months of the year, points of the compass, grammatical and mathematical terms, or familiar titles, like "Mr.", &c.

The ordinary abbreviations, now or recently in use, may be conveniently classified under the following headings:-

1. ABBREVIATED TITLES AND DESIGNATIONS.[edit]

A.A. Associate of Arts.
A.B. Able-bodied seaman; (in America) Bachelor of Arts.
A.D.C. Aide-de-Camp.
A.M. (Artium Magister), Master of Arts.
A.R.A. Associate of the Royal Academy.
A.R.I.B.A. Associate of the Royal Institution of British Architects.
A.R.S.A. Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy.
B.A. Bachelor of Arts.
Bart. Baronet.
B.C.L. Bachelor of Civil Law.
B.D. Bachelor of Divinty.
B.LL. Bachelor of Laws.
B.Sc. Bachelor of Science.
C. Chairman.
C.A. Chartered Accountant.
C.B. Companion of the Bath.
C.E. Civil Engineer.
C.I.E. Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire.
C.M. (Chirurgiae Magister), Master in Surgery.
C.M.G. Companion of St Michael and St George.
C.S.I. Companion of the Star of India.
D.C.L. Doctor of Civil Law.
D.D. Doctor of Divinity.
D.Lit. or Litt. D. Doctor of Literature.
D.M. Doctor of Medicine (Oxford).
D.Sc. Doctor of Science.
D.S.O. Distinguished Service Order.
Ebor. (Eboracensis) of York.[Eboracensis]
F.C.S. Fellow of the Chemical Society.
F.D. (Fidei Defensor), Defender of the Faith.
F.F.P.S. Fellow of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons (Glasgow)
F.G.S. Fellow of the Geological Society.
F.K.Q.C.P.I. Fellow of King and Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland.
F.L.S. Fellow of the Linnaean Society.
F.M. Field Marshal.
F.P.S. Fellow of the Philological Society.
F.R.A.S. Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.
F.R.C.P. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.
F.R.C.P.E. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.
F.R.C.S. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons.
F.R.G.S. Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.
F.R.H.S. Fellow of the Royal Horticultural Society.
F.R.Hist.Soc. Fellow of the Royal Historical Society.
F.R.I.B.A. Fellow of the Royal Institution of British Architects.
F.R.S. Fellow of the Royal Society.
F.R.S.E. Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
F.R.S.L. Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.
F.S.A. Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.
F.S.S. Fellow of the Statistical Society.
F.Z.S. Fellow of the Zoological Society.
G.C.B. Knight Grand Cross of the Bath.
G.C.H. Knight Grand Cross of Hanover.
G.C.I.E. Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire.
G.C.M.G. Knight Grand Cross of St Michael and St George.
G.C.S.I. Knight Grand Commander of the Star of india.
G.C.V.O. Knight Grand Commander of the Victorian Order.
H.H. His or Her Highness.
H.I.H. His or Her Imperial Highness.
H.I.M. His or Her Imperial Majesty.
H.M. His or Her Majesty.
H.R.H. His or Her Royal Highness.
H.S.H. His or Her Serene Highness.
J. Judge.
J.C.D. (Juris Canonici Doctor, or Juris Civilis Doctor), Doctor of Canon or Civil Law.
J.D. (Juris utriusque Doctor), Doctor of Civil and Canon Law.
J.P. Justice of the Peace.
K.C. King's Counsel.
K.C.B. Knight Commander of the Bath.
K.C.I.E. Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire.
K.C.M.G. Knight Commander of St Michael and St George.
K.C.S.I. Knight Commander of the Star of India.
K.C.V.O. Knight Commander of the Victorian Order.
K.G. Knight of the Garter.
K.P. Knight of St Patrick.
K.T. Knight of the Thistle.
L.A.H. Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Hall.
L.C.C. London County Council, or Councillor.
L.C.J. Lord Chief Justice
L.J. Lord Justice.
L.L.A. Lady Literate in Arts.
LL.B. (Legum Baccalaureus), Bachelor of Laws.
LL.D. (Legum Doctor), Doctor of Laws.
LL.M. (Legum Magister), Master of Laws.
L.R.C.P. Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians.
L.R.C.S. Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons.
L.S.A. Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Society.
M.A. Master of Arts.
M.B. (Medicinae Baccalaureus), Bachelor of Medicine
M.C. Member of Congress.
M.D. (Medicinae Doctor), Doctor of Medicine.
M.Inst.C.E. Member of the Institute of Civil Engineers.
M.P. Member of Parliament.
M.R. Master of the Rolls.
M.R.C.P. Member of the Royal College of Physicians.
M.R.C.S. Member of the Royal College of Surgeons.
M.R.I.A. Member of the Royal Irish Academy.
Mus.B. Bachelor of Music.
Mus.D. Doctor of Music.
M.V.O. Member of the Victorian Order.
N.P. Notary Public.
O.M. Order of Merit.
P.C. Privy Councillor.
Ph.D. (Philosophiae Doctor), Doctor of Philosophy.
P.P. Parish Priest.
P.R.A. President of the Royal Academy.
R. (Rex, Regina), King, Queen.
R. & I. Rex et Imperator.
R.A. Royal Academician, Royal Artillery.
R.A.M. Royal Academy of Music.
R.E. Royal Engineers.
Reg. Prof. Regius Professor.
R.M. Royal Marines, Resident Magistrate.
R.N. Royal Navy.
S. or St. Saint.
S.S.C. Solicitor before the Supreme Courts of Scotland.
S.T.P. (Sacrosanctae Theologiae Professor), Professor of Sacred Theology.
V.C. Vice-Chancellor, Victoria Cross.
V.G. Vicar-General.
V.S. Veterinary Surgeon.
W.S. Writer to the Signet [in Scotland]. Equivalent to Attorney

2. ABBREVIATIONS DENOTING MONIES, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES.[edit]

ac. acre.
bar. barrel.
bus. bushel.
c. cent.
c. (or cub.) ft. &c. cubic foot,&c.
cwt. hundredweight.
d. (denarius), penny.
deg. degree.
dr. drachm or dram.
dwt. pennyweight.
f. franc.
fl. florin.
ft. foot.
fur. furlong.
gal. gallon.
gr. grain.
h. or hr. hour.
hhd. hogshead.
in. inch.
kilo. kilometre.
L.,[Pound] £, or l. (libra), pound (money).
lb. or lb. (libra), pound (weight).
m. or mi. mile, minute.
m. minim.
mo. month.
na. nail.
oz. ounce.
pk. peck.
po. pole.
pt. pint.
q. (quadrans), farthing.
qr. quarter.
qt. quart.
ro. rood.
Rs.[Rupee] rupees.
s. or / (solidus), shilling.
s. or sec. second.
sc. or scr. scruple.
sq. ft. &c, square foot, &c.
st. stone.
yd. yard.
.

3. MISCELLANEOUS ABBREVIATIONS.[edit]

A. Accepted.
A.C. (Ante Christum), Before Christ.
acc., a/c. or acct. Account.
A.D. (Anno Domini), In the year of our Lord.
A.E.I.O.U. Austriae est imperare orbi universo,[Austriae] or Alles Erdreich Ist Oesterreich Unterthan.
Aet. or Aetat. (Aetatis, [anno]), In the year of his age.
A.H. (Anno Hegirae), In the year of the Hegira (the Mohammedan era).
A.M. (Anno Mundi), In the year of the world.
A.M. (Ante meridiem), Forenoon.
Anon. Anonymous.
A.U.C. (Anno urbis conditae), In the year from the building of the city (i.e. Rome).
A.V. Authorized version of the Bible.
b. born.
B.V.M. The Blessed Virgin Mary.
B.C. Before Christ.
c. circa, about.
C. or Cap. (Caput), Chapter.
C. Centigrade (or Celsius's) Thermometer.
cent.[Percent] (Centnim), A hundred, frequently L. 100.
Cf. or cp. (Confer), Compare.
Ch. or Chap. Chapter.
C.M.S. Church Missionary Society.
Co. Company, County.
C.O.D. Cash on Delivery.
Cr. Creditor.
curt. Current, the present month.
d. died.
D.G. (Dei gratia), By the grace of God.
Do. Ditto, the same.
D.O.M. (Deo Optimo Maximo), To God the Best and Greatest.
Dr. Debtor.
D.V. (Deo volente), God willing.
E.& O.E. Errors and omissions excepted.
e.g. (Exempti gratia), For example.
etc. or &c. (Et caetera), And the rest; and so forth.
Ex. Example.
F. or Fahr. Fahrenheit's Thermometer.
fec. (Fecit), He made (or did) it.
fl. Flourished.
Fo. or Fol. Folio.
f.o.b. Free on board.
G.P.O. General Post Office.
H.M.S. His Majesty's Ship, or Service.
Ib. or Ibid. (Ibidem), In the same place.
Id. (Idem), The same.
ie. (Id est), That is.
I.H.S. A symbol for "Jesus", derived from the first three letters of the Greek (I E S); the correct origin was lost sight of, and the Romanized letters were then interpreted erroneously as standing for Jesus, Hominum Salvator, the Latin "h" and Greek long "e" being confused.
I.M.D.G. (In majorem Dei gloriam), To the greater glory of God.
Inf. (Infra), Below.
Inst. Instant, the present month.
I.O.U. I owe you.
i.q. (Idem quod), The same as.
k.t.l. (gr kai ta loipa) Et caetera, and the rest.
L. or Lib. (Liber), Book.
Lat. Latitude.
l.c. (Loco citato), In the place cited.
Lon. or Long. Longitude.
L.S. (Locus sigilli), The place of the seal.
Mem. (Memento), Remember, Memorandum.
MS. Manuscript. MSS. Manuscripts.
N.B. (Nota bene), Mark well; take notice.
N.B. North Britain (i.e. Scotland).
N.D. No date.
nem. con. (Nemine contradicente), No one contradicting.
No. (Numero), Number.
N.S. New Style.
N.T. New Testament.
ob. (Obiit), Died.
Obs. Obsolete.
O.H.M.S. On His Majesty's Service.
O.S. Old Style.
O.S.B. Ordo Sancti Benedicti (Benedictines).
O.T. Old Testament.
P. Page. Pp. Pages.
/(Per) For; e.g. /lb., For one pound.
Pinx. (Pinxit), He painted it.
P.M. (Post Meridiem), Afternoon.
P.O. Post Office, Postal Order.
P.O.O. Post Office Order.
P.P.C. (Pour prendre conge), To take leave.
P.R. Prize-ring.
prox. (Proximo [mense]), Next month.
P.S. Postscript.
Pt. Part.
p.t. or pro tem. (Pro tempore), For the time.
P.T.O. Please turn over.
Q., Qu., or Qy. Query; Question.
q.d. (Quasi dicat), As if he should say: as much as to say.
Q.E.D. (Quod erot demonstrandum), Which was to be demonstrated.
Q.E.F. (Quod erat faciendum), Which was to be done.
q.s. or quant. suff. (Quantum sufficit), As much as is sufficient.
q.v. (Quod vide), Which see.
R. or @. (Recipe), Take.
sqrt. (=r. for radix), The sign of the square root.
R.I.P. (Requiescat in pace!), May he rest in peace!
R.S.V.P. (i Respondes s'il vous plait), please reply.
sc. (Scilicet), Namely; that is to say.
Sc. or Sculp. (Sculpsit), He engraved it.
S.D.U.K. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.
seq. or sq., seqq. or sqq. (Sequens, sequenitia), The following.
S.J. Society of Jesus.
sp. (Sine prole), Without offspring.
S.P.C.K. Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge
S.P.G. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.
S.T.D.

S.T.B.
S.T.L.

Doctor, Bachelor, Licentiate of Theology.
Sup. (Supra), Above.
s.v. (Sub voce), Under the word (or heading).
T.C.D. Trinity College, Dublin.
ult. (Ultimo [mense]), Last month.
U.S. United States.
U.S.A. United States of America.
v. (versus), Against.
v. or vid: (Vide), See.
viz. (Videlicet), Namely.
Xmas. Christmas. This X is a Greek letter, corresponding to Ch.

See also[edit]

  • Graevius's Thesaurus Antiquitatum (1694, sqq.);
  • Nicolai's Tractatus de Sigils Veterum;
  • Mommsen's Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (1863, sqq.);
  • Natalis de Wailly's Paleographie (Paris, 1838);
  • Alph. Chassant's Paleographie (1854), and Dictionnaire des Abreviations (3rd ed. 1866);
  • Campelli, Duzionario di Abbreviature (1899).

Endnotes[edit]

1 ^ Describing the function of the triumviri monetales.

2 ^ An archbishop or bishop, in writing his signature, substitutes for his surname the name of his see; thus the prelates of Canterbury, York, Oxford, London, &c., subscribe themselves with their initials (Christian names only), followed by Cantuar., Ebor., Oxon., Londin. (sometimes London.), &c.

3 ^ Characters, not properly abbreviations, are used in the same way; e.g. "deg." for "degrees, minutes, seconds" (circular measure); @, @, @ for "ounces, drachms, scruples." @ is probably to be traced to the written form of the z in "oz."

4 ^ These forms (as well as $, the symbol for the American dollar) are placed before the amounts.

5 ^ It is given to Austria to rule the whole earth. The device of Austria, first adopted by Frederick III.

6 ^ "Per cent." is often signified by %, a form traceable to "100".