1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Albuquerque

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ALBUQUERQUE, a city and the county-seat of Bernalillo county, New Mexico, U.S.A., situated in the central part of the state, about 325 m. S. by W. of Denver, on the E. bank of the Rio Grande, at an altitude of 4950 ft. Pop. (1890) 3785; (1900) 6238 (956 foreign-born and 226 negroes); (1910 census) 11,020. In 1900 Albuquerque was the largest city in New Mexico. It is the connecting point of two main lines of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railway system. A short distance E. of the city is the university of New Mexico, under state control, founded in 1889 and opened in 1892; in 1908 it had a college of letters and science, a school of engineering, a school of education, a preparatory school and a commercial school. Albuquerque is also the seat of the Harwood Industrial School (Methodist) for Mexican girls, of the Menaul Mission School (Presbyterian) for Mexican boys, and of a government Indian training school (1881) for boys and girls. The city has a public library. The excellent climate has given Albuquerque and the surrounding country a reputation as a health resort. The city is an important railway centre, has extensive railway repair shops and stock-yards, and exports large quantities of live-stock, hides and wool. The largest industrial establishment is the American Lumber Company's plant, including a saw-mill, a sash, door and blind factory and a box factory. The timber used, chiefly white pine, is obtained from the Zuni mountains. The city has also flour and woollen mills, breweries and ice factories. The old Spanish town of Albuquerque (pop. in 1900 about 1200) lies about 1 m. W. of the present city; it was founded in 1706, and was named in honour of the duke of Albuquerque, viceroy of New Spain from 1702 to 1710. During the Civil War it was occupied, late in February 1862, by Confederate troops under General Henry Hopkins Sibley (1816-1886), who soon afterwards advanced with his main body into northern New Mexico. In his retreat back into Texas he made a stand on the 8th of April 1862 at Albuquerque, where during the whole day there was a fight at long range and with few casualties against a detachment of Union soldiers commanded by Colonel Edward R. S. Canby (1819-1873). The modern city dates its origin from the completion of the first railway to Albuquerque in 1880.