1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Andrew

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ANDREW (Gr. Ἁνδρἐας, manly), the Christian Apostle, brother of Simon Peter, was born at Bethsaida on the Lake of Galilee. He had been a disciple of John the Baptist (John i. 37-40) and was one of the first to follow Jesus. He lived at Capernaum (Mark i. 29). In the gospel story he is referred to as being present on some important occasions as one of the disciples more closely attached to Jesus (Mark xiii. 3; John vi. 8, xii. 22); in Acts there is only a bare mention of him (i. 13). Tradition relates that he preached in Asia Minor and in Scythia, along the Black Sea as far as the Volga. Hence he became a patron saint of Russia. He is said to have suffered crucifixion at Patras (Patrae) in Achaea, on a cross of the form called Crux decussata (X) and commonly known as “St Andrew's cross.” According to tradition his relics were removed from Patras to Constantinople, and thence to St Andrews (see below). The apocryphal book, The Acts of Andrew, mentioned by Eusebius, Epiphanius and others, is generally attributed to Leucius the Gnostic. It was edited and published by C. Tischendorf in the Acta Apostolorum apocrypha (Leipzig, 1821). This book, as well as a Gospel of St Andrew, was declared apocryphal by a decree of Pope Gelasius. Another version of the Andrew legend is found in the Passio Andreae, published by Max Bonnet (Supplementum II Codicis apocryphi, Paris, 1895). On this was founded an Anglo-Saxon poem (“Andreas und Elene,” first published by J. Grimm, 1841; cf. C. W. Goodwin, The Anglo-Saxon Legends of S. Andreas and S. Veronica, 1851). The festival of St Andrew is held on the 30th of November.

See Apocryphal Literature; also Lipsius, Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichten und Apostellegenden, vol. i. (1883), and Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, s.v.

Scottish Legends.—About the middle of the 8th century Andrew became the patron saint of Scotland. Concerning this there are several legends which state that the relics of Andrew were brought under supernatural guidance from Constantinople to the place where the modern St Andrews stands (Pictish, Muckross; Gaelic, Kilrymont). The oldest stories (preserved in the Colbertine MSS., Paris, and the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum) state that the relics were brought by one Regulus to the Pictish king Angus (or Ungus) Macfergus (c. 731-761). The only historical Regulus (Riagail or Rule, whose name is preserved by the tower of St Rule) was an Irish monk expelled from Ireland with St Columba; his date, however, is c. 573-600. There are good reasons for supposing that the relics were originally in the collection of Acca, bishop of Hexham, who took them into Pictland when he was driven from Hexham (c. 732), and founded a see, not, according to tradition, in Galloway, but on the site of St Andrews. The connexion with Regulus is, therefore, due in all probability to the desire to date the foundation of the church at St Andrews as early as possible.

See A. Lang, St Andrews (London, 1893), pp. 4 ff.; W. F. Skene, Celtic Scotland; also the article St Andrews.