1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Angary

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ANGARY (Lat. jus angariae; Fr. droit d'angarie; Ger. Angarie; from the Gr. ἀγγαρεία, the office of an ἄγγαρος, courier or messenger), the name given to the right of a belligerent to seize and apply for the purposes of war (or to prevent the enemy from doing so) any kind of property on belligerent territory, including that which may belong to subjects or citizens of a neutral state. Art. 53 of the Regulations respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, annexed to the Hague Convention of 1899 on the same subject, provides that railway plant, land telegraphs, telephones, steamers and other ships (other than such as are governed by maritime law), though belonging to companies or private persons, may be used for military operations, but “must be restored at the conclusion of peace and indemnities paid for them.” And Art. 54 adds that “the plant of railways coming from neutral states, whether the property of those states or of companies or private persons, shall be sent back to them as soon as possible.” These articles seem to sanction the right of angary against neutral property, while limiting it as against both belligerent and neutral property. It may be considered, however, that the right to use implies as wide a range of contingencies as the “necessity of war” can be made to cover. (T. Ba.)