1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Scaup

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SCAUP, the wild-fowler's ordinary abridgment of SCAUP-DUCK, meaning a duck so called "because she feeds upon Scaup, i.e. broken shell-fish," as may be seen in F. Willughby's Ornithology (p. 365); but it would be more proper to say that the name comes from the "mussel-scaups," or "mussel-scalps," the beds of rock or sand on which mussels are aggregated. It is the Anas marila of Linnaeus and Fuligula marila of modern systematic writers, a very abundant bird around the costs of most parts of the northern hemisphere, repairing inland in spring for the purpose of reproduction, though so far as is positively known hardly but in northern districts, as Iceland, Lapland, Siberia and the fur-countries of America. The scaup-duck has considerable likeness to the pochard (q.v.), both in habits and appearance; but it much more generally affects sea-water, and the head of the male is black, glossed with green; hence the name of "Blackhead," by which it is commonly known in North America, where, however, a second species or race, smaller than the ordinary one, is also found, the Fuligula affinis. The female scaup-duck can be readily distinguished from the dunbird or female pochard by her broad white face. (A. N.)