1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Sickingen, Franz von

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SICKINGEN, FRANZ VON (1481-1523), German knight, one of the most notable figures of the first period of the Reformation, was born at Ebernburg near Worms. Having fought for the emperor Maximilian I. against Venice in 1508, he inherited large estates on the Rhine, and increased his wealth and reputation by numerous private feuds, in which he usually posed as the friend of the oppressed. In 1513 he took up the quarrel of Balthasar Schlör, a citizen who had been driven out of Worms, and attacked this city with 7000 men. In spite of the imperial ban, he devastated its lands, intercepted its commerce, and only desisted when his demands were granted. He made war upon Antony, duke of Lorraine, and compelled Philip, landgrave of Hesse, to pay him 35,000 gulden. In 1518 he interfered in a civil conflict in Metz, ostensibly siding with the citizens against the governing oligarchy. He led an army of 20,000 men against the city, compelled the magistrates to give him 20,000 gold gulden and a month's pay for his troops. In 1518 Maximilian released him from the ban, and he took part in the war carried on by the Swabian League against Ulrich I., duke of Württemberg. In the contest for the imperial throne upon the death of Maximilian in 1519, Sickingen accepted bribes from Francis I., king of France, but when the election took place he led his troops to Frankfort, where their presence assisted to secure the election of Charles V. For this service he was made imperial chamberlain and councillor, and in 1521 he led an expedition into France, which ravaged Picardy, but was beaten back from Mezières and forced to retreat. About 1517 Sickingen became intimate with Ulrich von Hutten, and gave his support to Hutten's schemes. In 1519 a threat from him freed John Reuchlin from his enemies, the Dominicans, and his castles became in Hutten's words a refuge for righteousness. Here many of the reformers found shelter, and a retreat was offered to Martin Luther. After the failure of the French expedition, Sickingen, aided by Hutten, formed, or revived, a large scheme to overthrow the spiritual princes and to elevate the order of knighthood. He hoped to secure this by the help of the towns and peasants, and to make a great position for himself. A large army was soon collected, many nobles from the upper Rhineland joined the standard, and at Landau, in August 1522, Sickingen was formally named commander. He declared war against his old enemy, Richard of Greiffenklau, archbishop of Trier, and marched against that city. Trier was loyal to the archbishop, and the landgrave of Hesse and Louis V., count palatine of the Rhine, hastened to his assistance. Sickingen, who had not obtained the help he wished for, was compelled to fall back on his castle of Landstuhl, near Kaiserslautern, collecting much booty on the way. On the 22nd of October 1522 the council of regency placed him under the ban, to which he replied, in the spring of 1523, by plundering Kaiserslautern. The rulers of Trier, Hesse and the Palatinate decided to press the campaign against him, and having obtained help from the Swabian League, marched on Landstuhl. Sickingen refused to treat, and during the siege was seriously wounded. This attack is notable as one of the first occasions on which artillery was used, and by its aid breaches were soon made in an otherwise impregnable fortress. On the 6th of May 1523 he was forced to capitulate, and on the following day he died. He was buried at Landstuhl, and in 1889 a splendid monument was raised at Ebernburg to his memory and to that of Hutten.

His son Franz Conrad was made a baron of the empire (Reichsfreiherr) by Maximilian II., and a descendant was raised in 1773 to the rank of count (Reichsgraf). A branch of the family still exists in Austria and Silesia.

See H. Ulmann, Franz von Sickingen (Leipzig, 1872); F. P. Bremer, Sickingens Fehde gegen Trier (Strassburg, 1885); H. Prutz, “Franz von Sickingen” in Der neue Plutarch (Leipzig, 1880), and the “Flersheimer Chronik” in Hutten's Deutsche Schriften, edited by O. Waltz und Szamatolati (Strassburg, 1891).