1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Voivode
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VOIVODE (also Vaivode, Vayvode, Wayvode, &c., Med. Gr. βοεβόδος), a title in use among certain Slavonic peoples, meaning literally "leader of an army" (Sl. voi, host, army; voiditi, to lead), and so applied at various periods and in various eastern European countries to rulers, governors or officials of varying degree. It is best known as the title of the princes of Moldavia and Wallachia. In these states the title remained in use from the earliest times until 1658 in the case of the first state, and until 1716 in that of the second, when it gave way to Hospodar (q.v.). During the period of Hungarian domination of Transylvania (1004-1526) it was governed by a voivode as an Hungarian province, the last voivode raising himself to the position of an independent prince. In Poland the title was used of certain administrative officials; Polish historians latinized it by palatinus. At the present day voivode is used in its original sense of a high military officer, in the Montenegrin army, where it corresponds to the general officer in other European armies.