1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Waitz, Georg

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WAITZ, GEORG (1813-1886), German historian, was born at Flensburg, in the duchy of Schleswig, on the 9th of October 1813. He was educated at the Flensburg gymnasium and the universities of Kiel and Berlin. The influence of Ranke early diverted him from his original purpose of studying law, and while still a student he began that series of researches in German medieval history which was to be his life's work. On graduating at Berlin in August 1836, Waitz went to Hanover to assist Pertz in the great national work of publishing the Monumenta Germaniae historica; and the energy and learning he displayed in that position won him a summons to the chair of history at Kiel in 1842. The young professor soon began to take an interest in politics, and in 1846 entered the provincial diet as representative of his university. His leanings were strongly German, so that he became somewhat obnoxious to the Danish government, a fact which made an invitation in 1847 to become professor of history at Göttingen peculiarly acceptable. The political events of 1848-1849, however, delayed his appearance in his new chair. When the German party in the northern duchies rose against the Danish government, Waitz hastened to place himself at the service of the provisional government. He was sent to Berlin to represent the interests of the duchies there, and during his absence he was elected by Kiel as a delegate to the national parliament at Frankfort. Waitz was an adherent of the party who were eager to bring about a union of the German states under a German emperor; and when the king of Prussia declined the imperial crown the professor withdrew from the assembly in disappointment, and ended his active share in public life. In the autumn of 1849 Waitz began his lectures at Göttingen. His style of speaking was dry and uninteresting; but the matter of his lectures was so practical and his teaching so sound that students were attracted in crowds to his lecture-room, and the reputation of the Göttingen historical school spread far and wide. At the same time Waitz's pen was not idle, and his industry is to be traced in the list of his works and in the Proceedings of the different historical societies to which he belonged. In 1875 Waitz removed to Berlin to succeed Pertz as principal editor of the Monumenta Germaniae historica. In spite of advancing years the new editor threw himself into the work with all his former vigour, and took journeys to England, France and Italy to collate works preserved in these countries. He died at Berlin on the 24th of May 1886. He was twice married — in 1842 to a daughter of Schelling the philosopher, and in 1858 to a daughter of General von Hartmann.

Waitz is often spoken of as the chief disciple of Ranke, though perhaps in general characteristics and mental attitude he has more affinity with Pertz or Dahlmann. His special domain was medieval German history, and he rarely travelled beyond it.

Waitz's chief works, apart from his contributions to the Monumenta, are: — Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte (8 vols., Kiel, 1844-1878; 2nd ed., 2 vols. only, 1865-1870); Schleswig-Holsteins Geschichte (2 vols., Göttingen, 1851-1854; the 3rd vol. was never published); Lübeck unter Jürgen Wullenwever und die europäische Politik (3 vols.; Berlin, 1855-1856); and Grundzüge der Politik (Kiel, 1862). Among his smaller works, which, however, indicate the line of his researches, are the following: — Jahrbücher des deutschen Reichs unter Heinrich I. (Berlin, 1837, 3rd ed., 1885); Über das Leben und die Lehre des Ulfila (Hanover, 1840); Das alte Recht der salischen Franken (Kiel, 1846); and Deutsche Kaiser von Karl dem Grossen bis Maximilian (Berlin, 1872). In conjunction with other scholars Waitz took a leading part in the publication of the Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte (Munich, 1862 seq.), and in the Nordalbingische Studien, published in the Proceedings of the Schleswig-Holstein Historical Society (Kiel, 1844-1851). A Bibliographische Übersicht über Waitz's Werke was published by E. Steindorff at Göttingen in 1886.

Obituary notices of Waitz are to be found in the Historische Zeitschrift, new series, vol. xx.; in the publications for 1886 of the Berlin Akademie der Wissenschaften, the Göttingen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, and the Hansischer Geschichtsverein; in the Historisches Jahrbuch der Görres Gesellschaft, vol. viii. ; and in the Revue historique, vol. xxxi.