1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Wouwerman, Philip

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[ 838 ] WOUWERMAN, PHILIP (1619-1668), Dutch painter of battle and hunting scenes, was bom at Haarlem in May 1619. He learned the elements of his art from his father, Paul Joosten Wouwerman, an historical painter of moderate ability, and he then studied with the landscape painter, Jan Wynants (1620-1679). Returning to Haarlem, he became a member of its gild of painters in 1642, and there he died in May 1668. About 800 pictures were enumerated in John Smith's Catalogue raisonné (1840) as the work of Philip Wouwerman, and in C. Hofstede de Groot's enlarged Catalogue, vol. ii. (1909), the number exceeds 1200; but probably many of these are the productions of his brothers Peter (1623-1682) and Jan (1629-1666), and of his many other imitators. His authentic works are distinguished by great spirit and are infinitely varied, though dealing recurrently with cavalry battle-pieces, military encampments, cavalcades, and hunting or hawking parties. He is equally excellent in his vivacious treatment of figures, in his skilful animal painting, and in his admirable and appropriate landscape backgrounds. Three different styles have been observed as characteristic of the various periods of his art. His earlier works are marked by the prevalence of a foxy-brown colouring, and by a tendency to angularity in draughtsmanship; the productions of his middle period have greater purity and brilliancy; and his latest and greatest pictures possess more of force and breadth, and are full of a delicate silvery-grey tone.

See the Catalogue raisonné of the works of the most eminent Dutch and Flemish Painters of the 17th Century, by De Groot, vol. ii. (1909), referred to above.