1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Below, Otto von

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BELOW, OTTO VON (1857- ), German general, was born at Danzig June 18 1857. At the beginning of the World War he was in command of the 2nd Infantry Div. at Insterburg in East Prussia. He was first of all promoted to the command of the I. Reserve Corps, and in this capacity took part in the battles against the Russian army of the Narev which resulted in the almost complete destruction of that army. He was then appointed to the chief command of the VIII. Army which bore an essential part in the victory over the Russian X. Army at the battles of the Masurian Lakes (Feb. 7-15 1915). In May 1915 he was placed in chief command of the German Niemen army and pressed forward with it in Courland (Kurland) and Lithuania as far as the southern reaches of the Dvina. In the autumn of 1916 he received the command of the German army group in Macedonia and in the autumn of 1917 was placed in chief command of the XIV. Army, which was fighting against Italy. In 1918 he led the XVII. Army, which particularly distinguished itself in the battles around Arras. After the war he was for a short period general in command of the XVII. Army Corps at Danzig. He resigned in June 1919.