1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Russell, Bertrand Arthur William
RUSSELL, BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM (1872- ), English mathematician and philosopher, second son of Viscount Amberley and grandson of the 1st Earl Russell, was born at Chepstow May 18 1872. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took a first-class both in the mathematical tripos and in the 2nd part of the moral sciences tripos, he remained at Cambridge as a lecturer, and became well known as a student of mathematical philosophy and a leading exponent of the views of the newer school of Realists. In June 1916, Mr. Russell, who had taken a strong line against the Government, and was a “conscientious objector,” throughout the World War, was fined £100 and £10 costs for making statements calculated to prejudice recruiting, and, in consequence, Trinity College, Cambridge, deprived him of his lectureship. His chief published works, on which his philosophical reputation was based up to the outbreak of the World War, were German Social Democracy (1896); Essay on the Foundations of Geometry (1897); Principles of Mathematics (1903); Principia Mathematica (with A. N. Whitehead, 1910) and Our Knowledge of the External World (1914). Later he published Principles of Social Reconstruction (1917); Mysticism and Logic (1918); The Analysis of Mind (1920) and (after a visit to Russia) The Theory and Practice of Bolshevism (1920).