A Practical Grammar of the Latin Language/Lesson 13

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A Practical Grammar of the Latin Language  (1858)  by G. J. Adler
Lesson XIII.—Pēnsum Tertium Decimum.
Transcription of this lesson is complete - project of sergius

Of the Plural of Substantives And Adjectives.[edit]

Of Substantives.[edit]

A. The nominative plural of the five declensions is characterized by the follwing terminations:—

  1. Substantives and adjectives of the first declension have the nominative in ae, and the genitive ārum; as mēnsae, mēnsārum;, bonae, bonārum.
  2. Masculines (and feminines) of the second declension form their plural in ī, neuters in a. The genitive of both is ōrum. E. g. dominī, dominōrum; puerī puerōrum; fīla, fīlōrum; bonī, neut. bona, bonōrum.
  3. Masculines and feminines of the third declension change is of the genitive singular into ēs, neuters, into a and ia. The genitive of this declension is um, or ium. E. g., lapidis, pl. lapidēs, lapidum; vestis, pl. vestis, vestium; pistōris, pl. pistōrēs, pistōrum; capitis, pl. capita, capitum; turpis, pl. turpēs, neut. turpia, gen. turpium.
  4. Masculines and feminines of the fourth declension retain the ūs of the genitive singular, and neuters (in ū) assume the termination ua. The genitive plural of this declension is uniformly uum. E. g. frūctūs, frūctuum; cornua, cornuum.
  5. Nouns of the fifth declension form their plural in ēs, and their genitive ērum; as rēs, rērum; diēs, diērum.

The following list exhibits the nominative and genitive plural of the majority of substantives thus far used in this book, according to the respective declensions:—

First Declension.[edit]

The husbandmen. Agricolae, ārum.
The candles. Candēlae, "
The letters. Epistolae, "
The hens. Gallīnae, "
The lamps. Lūcernae, "
The grains. Mīcae, "
The pens. *Pennae, "
The notes. Schedulae, "
The brooms. Scōpae, "
The chairs. Sellae, "
The horse-shoes. *Soleae ferreae, "

Second Declension.[edit]

The friends. Amīcī, ōrum.
The asses. Asinī, "
The cheeses. Cāseī, "
The nails. Clāvī, "
The cooks. Coquī, "
The knives. Cultrī, "
The corks. *Embolī, "
The carpenters. Fabrī tignāriī, "
The servants. Famulī,
Ministrī,
"
The Frenchmen. Francogallī, "
The gardens. Hortī, "
The books. Librī "
The hammers. Malleī, "
The eyes. Oculī "
The buttons. *Orbiculī fibulātōriī, "
The strangers. Hospitēs, "
The hats. *Pilleī, "
The chickens. Pullī gallīnāciī, "
The bags. Saccī, "
The pencils. *Stilī cērussātī, "
The men. Virī, "
The neighbors. Vīcīnī, "
The canes. Bācula, "
The gloves. Digitābula, "
The threads. Fīla, "
The grains. Grāna, "
The carriages. Pīlenta, "
The knives. Scalpra, "
The looking glasses. *Specula, "
The umbrellas. *Umbrācula, "

Third Declension.[edit]

The youths. Adolēscentēs, ium, m.
The trees. Arborēs, f.
The birds. Avēs, ium, f.
The oxen. Bovēs, boum, m. & f.
The dogs. Canēs, um, m. & f.
The brothers Frātrēs, m.
The men. Hominēs, um, m.
The strangers. Hospitēs, um, m.
The young men. Juvenēs, um, m.
The lamps. Lampades1, um, f.
The merchants. Mercātōrēs, um, m.
The ships, Nāvēs, ium, f.
The sheep, Ovēs, ium, f.
The different sorts of bread. Pānēs, um, m.
The feet. Pedēs, um, m.
The bakers. Pistōrēs, um, m.
The (different sorts of) of salt. Salēs, ium, m.
Salia, ium, m.
The tailors. Sartōrēs, um, m.
The canes. Scīpiōnēs, um, m.
The shoemakers. Sūtōrēs, um, m.
The rams. Vervēcēs, um, m.
The garments. Vestēs, ium, f.
The birds. Volucrēs, um, m. & f.
The heads. Capita, um, n.
The lights. Lūmina, um, n.
The stockings. *Tībiālia, ium, n.

Fouth Declension.[edit]

The carriages. Currus, uum, m.
The houses. Domus, uum, f.
  • B. The following paradigms may serve as examples of the declension of the plural number.

Summary of the Plural of the First Declension.[edit]

Mēnsae, tables; fīliae, daughters; nautae, sailors.
Nom. mēnsae fīliae nautae
Gen. mēnsārum fīliārum nautārum
Dat. mēnsīs fīliābus nautīs
Acc. mēnsās fīliās nautās
Voc. mēnsae fīliae nautae
Abl. mēnsīs. fīliābus.2 nautīs.

Remark.—In the plural of every declension the nominative and vocative, and the dative and ablative, end always alike.

Summary of the Plural of the Second Declension.[edit]

Equī, the horses; librī, the books; candēlābra, the candlesticks.
Nom. equī librī candēlābra
Gen. equōrum librōrum candēlābrōrum
Dat. equīs librīs candēlābrīs
Acc. equōs librum candēlābra
Voc. equī librī candēlābra
Abl. equīs. librīs. candēlābrīs.

The pl. līberī, children, and the plural of deus, a god, are thus declined:—

Nom. līberī deī, diī, or
Gen. līberōrum or līberum3 deōrum or deum3
Dat. līberīs deīs, diīs or dīs
Acc. līberum deōs
Voc. līberī deī, diī or
Abl. līberīs. deīs, diīs or dīs.

Summary of the Plural of the Third Declension.[edit]

Hominēs, the men; pistōrēs, the bakers; vestēs, garments; nāvēs, the ships.
Nom. hominēs pistōrēs vestēs nāvēs
Gen. hominūm pistōrum vestium nāvium
Dat. hominibus pistōribus vestibus nāvibus
Acc. hominēs pistōrēs vestēs nāvēs
Voc. hominēs pistōrēs vestēs nāvēs
Abl. hominibus. pistōribus. vestibus. nāvibus.

Lūmina, lights; tībiālia, stockings; poëmata, n., poems.

Nom. lūmina tībiālia poëmata
Gen. lūminum tībiālium poëmatum
Dat. lūminibus tībiālibus poëmatīs
Acc. lūmina tībiālia poëmata
Voc. lūmina tībiālia poëmata
Abl. lūminibus. tībiālibus. poëmatīs.
Adolēscentēs, young men; canēs, dogs; bovēs, oxen.
Nom. adolēscentēs tībiālia poëmata
Gen. adolēscentium canum boum
Dat. adolēscentibus canibus būbus or bōbus
Acc. adolēscentēs canēs bovēs
Voc. adolēscentēs canēs bovēs
Abl. adolēscentibus. canibus. būbus or bōbus.
Remarks.
  1. The normal termination for the Nom., Acc., and Voc. pl. of neuters is a. Some, however, have always ia. They are:
    a) Those ending in e, al, ar, as maria, salia, calcāria, from mare, the sea, sāl, salt, and calcar, a spur;
    b) All participles in ns and such adjectives as have either ī or else e or ī in the ablative singular, comparatives excepted, as amantia, ēsurientia, pāria, facilia, turpia from amāns, ēsuriēns, pār, facile, turpe. But we say mājora, doctiōra, from the comp. mājor, greater, doctior, more learned.
  2. The general termination of the genitive plural is um; but the following have ium:—
    a) All those which have ia in the nominative plural, as marium, calcārium, amantium, facilium, turpium.
    b) Words in ēs and is which do not increase in the genitive singular (i.e. which receive no additional syllable), as nāvis, nāvium; vestis, vestium; nūbēs, nūbium; except vātēs, struēs, canis, pānis, and juvenis, which have vātum, struum, canum, &c.
    c) Of nouns in er some have ium, as imber, imbrium; linter, lintrium; venter, ventrium; ūter, ūtrium; others again have um, as patrum, mātrum, frātrum, accipitrum, from pater, māter, &c.—Caro has carnium and senex, senum.
    d) Many monosyllables, especially those ending in s and x with a consonant preceding; as dēns, dentium; mōns, montium; merx, mercium; līs, lītium; os, ossium; nox, noctium; vīs, vīrium, &c.
    e) Dissylables and polysyllables in ns and rs have generally ium and sometimes um; cohors, cohortium; cliēns, clientium; adolēscēns, adolēscentium; sapiēns, sapientium; but parentēs, parentium.
  3. In the dative and ablative plural, Greek nouns in ma have usually is, sometimes however ibus; as poëma, poëmatis or poëmatibus; diploma, diplomatis or diplomatibus, &c.
  4. The accusative plural of those verbs which have ium in the genitive is among some writers īs or eis, instead of ēs; as artīs, cīvīs, omnīs, instead of artēs, cīvēs, &c.

Summary of the Plural of the Fourth and Fifth Declensions.[edit]

Frūctūs, m., fruits; cornua, n., horns; domūs, f., houses; diēs, m., days; rēs, f., things;
Nom. frūctūs cornua domūs diēs rēs
Gen. frūctuum cornuum domuum diērum rērum
Dat. frūctibus cornibus domibus diēbus rēbus
Acc. frūctūs cornua domōs diēs rēs
Voc. frūctūs cornua domūs diēs
Abl. frūctibus. cornibus. domibus. diēbus. rēbus.

Remark 1. Some nouns of the fourth declension have ubus instead of ibus in the dat. and abl. pl.; as arcus, arcubus; verū, verubus, &c.
Remark 2. The plural of the fifth declension is regular throughout.

Of Adjectives.[edit]

The plural of adjectives is subject to the same laws as that of substantives. Thos in us, a, um, and er, ra, rum, follow the inflection of the first and second declensions, and the rest that of the third. Examples:—

Bonī, bonae, bona, the good; pulchrī, pulchrae, pulchra, the beatiful.[edit]

Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. bonī bonae bona
Gen. bonōrum bonārum bonōrum
Dat. bonīs bonīs bonīs
Acc. bonōs bonās bona
Voc. bonī bonae bona
Abl. bonīs bonīs bonīs.
Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. pulchrī pulchrae pulchra
Gen. pulchrōrum pulchrārum pulchrōrum
Dat. pulchrīs pulchrīs pulchrīs
Acc. pulchrōs pulchrās pulchra
Voc. pulchrī pulchrae pulchra
Abl. pulchrīs pulchrīs pulchrīs.

Like bonī, ae, a, decline meī, meae, mea, my, mine; tuī, tuae, tua, thy (your), thine (yours), &c. Like pulchrī, rae, ra: miserī, miserae, misera, the miserable, &c.

Dēformēs, dēformia, the ugly; ācrēs, ācria, the fierce.[edit]

Masc. & Fem. Neut. Masc. & Fem. Neut.
Nom. dēformēs dēformia ācrēs ācria
Gen. dēformēs dēformia ācrium ācrium
Dat. dēformibus dēformibus ācribus ācribus
Acc. dēformēs deformia ācrēs ācria
Voc. dēformēs deformia ācrēs ācria
Abl. dēformibus dēformibus. ācribus ācribus.

Remark.—The general rule is that all adjectives of the third declension have ia in the neuter plural and ium in the genitive.—Like dēformēs are inflected vīlēs, turpēs, and all adjectives in is, e; Like ācrēs, all those ending in er, ris, re.

Fēlīcēs, fēlīcia, happy; veterēs, vetera, old; sapientēs, sapientia, wise.[edit]

Nom. fēlīcēs fēlīcia veterēs vetera sapientēs -tia
Gen. fēlīcēs fēlīcia veterium veterum sapientium or -um
Dat. fēlīcibus fēlīcibus veteribus veteribus sapientibus
Acc. fēlīcēs deformia veterēs vetera sapientēs -tia
Voc. fēlīcēs deformia veterēs vetera sapientēs -tia
Abl. fēlīcibus fēlīcibus. veteribus veteribus. sapientibus.

Remark.—Adjectives of one termination, including participles in ns, generally have ia in the neuter plural and ium in the genitive. Some, however, have a instead of ia in the nominative and accusative, as vetera, plūra, and comparatives generally; e.g. fēlīciōra, mājōra, &c.—Exceptions to the genitive in ium are:

  1. such as have e only in the abl. sing., as pauperum, superstitum;
  2. compounds of faciō and capio, or of such nouns as have um in the gen. pl., as ancipitum, inopum, quadrupedum, &c.;
  3. the following adjectives have likewise um: caelebs, celer, cicur, compos, impos, dīves, memor, immemor, supplex, ūber, vetus, vigil;
  4. particples in ns sometimes have um among the poets.
  • C. The following table exhibits the terminations of the five declensions through all the cases, singular and plural.

Summary of Terminations of the Singular.[edit]

I. II. III. IV. V.
Neut. Neut.
Nom. a (ē, ās, ēs)4 us, er,
(ōs,
um
on)
a, e, o, c, l, n,
r, s, t, x
us ū ēs
Gen. ae5 (ēs) ī is ūs ēī
Dat. ae ō ī ēī
Acc. am (ēn) um em, im um ū em
Voc. a (ē) e, er, um Like Nom. us ū ēs
Abl. ā (ē).4 ō. e (ī). ū. ē.

Summary of Terminations of the Plural.[edit]

I. II. III. IV. V.
Neut. Neut. Neut.
Nom. ae ī a ēs, a (ia) ūs, ua ēs
Gen. ārum ōrum um (ium) uum ērum
Dat. īs (ābus) īs ibus ibus ēbus
Acc. ās ōs a ēs a (ia) ūs, ua ēs
Voc. ae ī, a ēs, a (ia) ūs, ua ēs
Abl. īs (ābus). īs. ibus. ibus. ēbus.

Remark.—With respect to the quantity of the terminations of the plural number, the following rules may serve to guide the learner:—

  1. I final is always long, and a final always short, as dominī, librī, bona, fīla.
  2. The is of the dative and ablative plural of the first and second declensions is long, as taeniīs, dominīs, candēlābrīs.
  3. The terminations es and os are long, as canēs, lapidēs, dominōs, librōs.
  4. The vowel before the m final in all Latin words is generally considered short, as lapidem, canem, pānem, dominātōrem.
  5. the us of the plural of the fourth declension is long, but in ābus, ēbus, ibus it is short; as frūctūs, manūs; frūctibus, diēbus, hominibus.

Examples.[edit]

The good boys. Nom. Puerī bonī.
Acc. Puerōs bonōs.
The fine tables. Nom. Mēnsae pulchrae.
Mēnsās pulchrās.
The bad boys. Nom. Puerī nēquam.
Puerōs nēquam.
The pretty dogs. Nom. Canēs venustī.
Acc. Canēs venustōs.
The ugly dogs. Nom. & Acc. Canēs dēformēs.
The old stockings. Nom. & Acc. Tībiālia vetera.
My silver candlesticks. Nom. & Acc. Candēlabra mea argentea.
Your good books. Nom. Librī tuī bonī
Acc. Librōs tuōs bonōs.
Have you those fine tables? Num habēs mēnsās illās pulchrās?
I have them not. Nōn habeō.
Have you pretty dogs? Ecquid tibi sunt 6 canēs venustī?
Habēsne canēs venustōs?
I have pretty dogs. Sunt mihi canēs venustī
Habeō (canēs venustōs).
Have you my good books? Tenēsne tū librōs meōs bonōs?
I have your good books. Teneō (librōs tuōs bonōs).
Have you my silver candlesticks. Habēsne candēlabra mea argentea?
I have them not. Nōn habeō.
Have I them? An egō habeō?
You have them not. Nōn habēs.

Exercise 14.[edit]

See the answers here.

  1. Have you the tables? — Yes, sir, I have the tables?
  2. Have you my tables? — No, sir, I have not your tables.
  3. Have I your buttons? — You have my buttons.
  4. Have I your fine houses? — You have my fine houses?
  5. Has the tailor the buttons? — He has not the buttons, but the threads.
  6. Has your tailor my good buttons? — My tailor has your good cold buttons.
  7. What has the boy? — Ho has the gold threads.
  8. Has he my gold or my silver threads? — He has neither your gold nor your silver threads.
  9. Has the Frenchman the fine houses or the good notes? — He has neither the fine houses nor the cood notes.
  10. What has he? — He has his good friends.
  11. Has Uiis man my fine umbrellas? — He has not your fine umbrellas, but your good coats.
  12. Has any one my good letters? — No one has your good letters.
  13. Has the tailor's son my good knives or my good thimbles? — He has neither your good knives nor your good thimbles, but the ugly coats of the stranger.
  14. Have I your friend's good ribbons? — You have not my friend's good ribbons, but my neighbor's fine carriage.
  15. Has your friend the shoemaker's pretty sticks, or my good tailor's pretty dogs? — My friend has my good shoemaker's fine books; but he has neither the shoemaker's pretty sticks nor your good tailor's pretty dogs.
  16. Is vour neighbor right or wrong? — He is neither right nor wrong.
  17. Is he thirsty or hungry? — He is neither thirsty nor hungry.
  18. Is he tired or sleepy? — He is sleepy.
  19. Am I sleepy? — You are not sleepy.
  20. What have I? — You have my fine notes.
  21. You have the chairs of my neighbor.
  22. Have you the knives of my friend? — I have not the knives of your friend, but the dogs of my neighbor.

Footnotes.[edit]

1 The plural of this noun is likewise Greek : N. lampades, G. -adum, D. -adibus, Acc. -ades or -adus, V. -ades, Abl. -adibus.

2 This form of the dative and ablative is the best for dea and fīlia, in order to distinguish them from the same cases of deus and fīlius of the second declension. So the words anima, the soul; līberta, a freed-woman; nāta, daughter; mūla, a she-mule; equa, a mare; asina, a she-ass.—may have ābus instead of īs, and for the same reason. The numerals duo, two, and ambō, both, have duābus and ambābus regularly.

3 So also fabrum, socium, decemvirum, instead of fabrōrum, &c. This contracted genitive (commonly but incorrectly printed um) is the common form of names of measures, weights, and coins, nummum, sēstertium, dēnārium, cadum, medimnum, modium, jūgerum, talentum, the regular genitive plural of nummus, sēsterius, &c. The poets extend this form to names of nations, and say Argīvum, Danaum, &c., in lieu of Argīvōrum, &c.

4 Of the nouns in ē, ās, ēs of this declension no examples have as yet been given. They are mostly of Greek origin, and will be considered hereafter.

5 Of this there is also an ancient form in āī, as aulāī, for aulae, from aula, a hall. But this is not used except in poetry.

6 When a noun is in the plural, sunt, there are, must take the place of the singular est.