A. The first declension comprises all substantives and adjectives which form their genitive in ae. The nominative of such of these words as are of purely Roman origin ends in a, that of a few Greek words in ē, ēs, and ās. Those in ā and ē are mostly feminine, the rest are masculine. The singular of a noun in a in connection with mea, "my", and tua, "thy" or "your" is thus inflected: —
of my paper
to or for my paper
O my paper
with, from, or by my paper
of your table
to or for your table
O your table
with, from, or by your table
So decline taenia, fascia, hōra, penna
Remark.—The a of the ablative of the first declension is always long, and sometimes printed â. - But in all other cases of words declined, the final a is generally short, as charta (Nom.); candēlābra, candlesticks; templa, temples.
N.B. — In the vocabularies of the Grammar the quantity of every Latin word will be given, and the paradigms of the inflection will show the the quantity of the different case-terminations. From these data the student will accent according to the Rules of Lesson I., page 6. Examples of the application of these principles of accentuation are furnished in the phrases of each Lesson.
1 In asking questions, the Romans usually employed certain signs of interrogation, of which the most common are the enclitic ne (always affixed either to the verb or to some other word of the sentence), the particles num, an, ecquid, numquid, utrum, nōnne, &c. — The enclitic ne and ecquid can be used in questions of every description, whether the expected answer be affirmative or negative; num and numquid, only when it is expected to be "no"; nōnne, only when it is to be "yes"; an and utrum chiefly in double questions. 2 The most current Latin adverbs corresponding to our English "yes" are: etiam (= even, even so), vērō (indeed), rēctē (you are right), certē (certainly), ita, ita est, sīc, sīc est (it is so), sānē or sānē quidem (indeed, surely), immō or immō vērō (yes, yes). But the Romans frequently reply by a simple repetition of the verb or of the emphatic word of the inquiry, e.g. here with a simple Habeō and Est. — The ceremonious use of a word like our "Sir" was unknown to the ancients. To domine, however, the vocative of dominus (master, lord), there can be no objection. 3 The Romans have no article. Its place is in certain cases supplied by demonstrative pronoun, by ūnus, aliquis, some one, &c. But ordinarily the distinctions expressed by our articles must be mentally supplied from the context.—The learner will also notice the omission of the pronouns ego, tū which the Latin language employs only for the sake of emphasis or contrast. 4 The substantives pīleus and sāl have two forms, i.e. the masculine and neuter, without any difference of signification.