Advanced Automation for Space Missions

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Advanced Automation for Space Missions  (1980) 
The painting above was created by Mr. Rick Guidice. It captures the spirit of the space missions described in this study.

Proceedings of the 1980 NASA/ASEE Summer Study, Sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the American Society for Engineering Education

Held at the University of Santa Clara in Santa Clara, California, from June 23-August 29, 1980

NASA Conference Publication 2255

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Scientific and Technical Information Branch, 1982

Abstract[edit]

This document is the final report of a study on the feasability of using machine intelligence, including automation and robotics, in future space missions. The 10-week study was conducted during the summer of 1980 by 18 educators from universities throughout the United States who worked with 15 NASA program engineers. The specific study objectives were to identify and analyze several representative missions that would require extensive applications of machine intelligence, and then to identify technologies that must be developed to accomplish these types of missions.

This study was sponsored jointly by NASA, through the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology and the Office of University Affairs, and by the American Society for Engineering Education as part of their continuing program of summer study faculty fellowships. Co-hosts for the study were the NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Santa Clara, where the study was carried out. Project co-directors were James E. Long of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Timothy J. Healy of the University of Santa Clara.

Editors[edit]

  • Robert A. Freitas, Jr. of Space Initiative/XRI, Santa Clara, California
  • William P. Gilbreath of NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California

Table Of Contents[edit]

Figures and tables[edit]

  • Figures for Chapter 1:
    • Figure 1.1 - Overview of NASA/ASEE 1980 Summer Study on Advanced Automation for Space Missions.
    • Figure 1.2 - Comparison of linear and exponentiating (self-replicating) systems in production capability.
  • Tables for Chapter 4:
    • Table 4.1.- Compilation Of Average Composition Of Lunar Soils For 80 Elements
    • Table 4.2.- Typical Lunar Resource Availability
    • Table 4.3.- Mineral Distribution In Lunar Basalts
    • Table 4.4.- A Normative Analysis Of Typical Lunar Basalts
    • Table 4.5.- Modal Mineralogy Of Lunar Anorthosite
    • Table 4.6.- Normative Chemistry Of Lunar Class
    • Table 4.7.- Characterization Of Apollo/Amor Objects
    • Table 4.8.- Asteroid Data
    • Table 4.9.- Planetary Atmospheres
    • Table 4.10.- Comets
    • Table 4.11.- Composition And Mass Of Annual Solar Wind Outflow
    • Table 4.12.- Research Directions For The Development Of New Processing Technologies For Utilization Of Lunar And Silicate Minerals
    • Table 4.13.- Aqueous Isoelectric Points Of Lunar Minerals
    • Table 4.14.- Chemical Composition And Strengths Of Fibers From Basalts Obtained From Various Locations
    • Table 4.15.- Comparison Of Physical Properties Of Basalt With Other Bulk Materials
    • Table 4.16.- Lunar Factory Applications Of Processed Basalt
    • Table 4.17.- Taxonomy Of Manufacturing Processes
    • Table 4.18.- Selection Criteria For Space Manufacturing Options
    • Table 4.19.- Comparison Of Basic Machining Processes
    • Table 4.20.- Manufacturing Processes Applicable To Space
    • Table 4.21.- Functional Components Required In Nonterrestrial Manufacturing And Available Materials
    • Table 4.22.- Metal/Clay Binders Appropriate For Terrestrial Use
    • Table 4.23.- Intermediate Goals In The Evolution Of Space Manufacturing
    • Table 4.24.- General Classification Of Manufacturing Processes
    • Table 4.25.- Extrusion Temperatures Of Common Metals And Alloys
    • Table 4.26.- Average Tensile Strengths Of Basalt Fibers
    • Table 4.27.- Operational Sequence For Automated Manufacture Of Spun Basalt Using Unimate Robotics Technology
    • Table 4.28.- Metal/Rock Test Equipment Suitable For Lunar-Factory Research Friction And Abrasion Wear
    • Table 4.29.- Simplified Qualitative Comparisons Between Lasers, E-Beams, And Two Common Forms Of Resistance And Arc Welding
  • Figures for Chapter 4:
    • Figure 4.1.- Components of the proposed automated electrophoretic lunar materials separator.
    • Figure 4.2.- Sequence of operations in the proposed electrophoretic lunar materials separator.
    • Figure 4.3.- Cast basalt pipe used in coke transfer.
    • Figure 4.4.- Ladling of molten basalt into metal molds.
    • Figure 4.5.- Centrifugal casting of basalt.
    • Figure 4.6.- Basalt casting removed from centrifugal casting drum and positioned for placement into annealing oven.
    • Figure 4.7.- Single fiber drawing equipment for basalt fiber production.
    • Figure 4.8.- Tensile strength of epoxy resin composite DGEBA reinforced by untreated and silane A-1100 treated basalt fibers.
    • Figure 4.9.- Tensile modulus of epoxy resin composite (DGEBA) reinforced by untreated and silane A-1100 treated basalt fibers.
    • Figure 4.10.- Delta-V's for various orbital transfers.
    • Figure 4.11.- Schematic of a rail-gun impulse launcher.
    • Figure 4.12.- Three basic methods of electromagnetic forming: (a) compression forming. (b) expansion forming, and (c) contour forming.
    • Figure 4.13.- A typical electroforming setup.
    • Figure 4.14.- Typical CO2 gas laser system.
    • Figure 4.15.- Impact molder powder process starting kit.
    • Figure 4.16.- Metal clays and pottery manufacturing.
    • Figure 4.17.- Schematic of the principle of thread rolling.
    • Figure 4.18.- An advanced Space Manufacturing Facility (SMF).
    • Figure 4.19.- Space manufacturing milestones.
    • Figure 4.20.- A generalized paradigm for space industrialization.
    • Figure 4.21.- Mobility/diffusibility materials processing options.
    • Figure 4.22.- Separation materials processing options.
    • Figure 4.23.- Comprehensive manufacturing schema.
    • Figure 4.24.- Schematics of an aluminum atomization plant.
    • Figure 4.25.- Two methods for producing metal powders.
    • Figure 4.26.- Multilayer powder product production using sheathed extrusion.
    • Figure 4.27.- Application of 4000A three-axis Unimate to the production of forged diesel engine crankshafts
    • Figure 4.28.- Ribbon and sheet operations; detailed layout for proposed SMF system.
    • Figure 4.29.- Thickness range of welding processes.
  • Tables for Chapter 5:
    • Table 5.1 - Seed Mass And Power Requirements Estimates
    • Table 5.2 - Growth Rates And Productivity For Exponential SRS Expansion
    • Table 5.3 - Average Chemical Element Abundances In Lunar Maria
    • Table 5.4 - Developmental Milestones For A General Product Factory
    • Table 5.5 - Economics Of Self-Replicating Factories
    • Table 5.6 - Suggested Sources For GLARMF Development Studies
    • Table 5.7 - A Sample Announcement Of Opportunity For SRS-Related Basic And Applied Research
    • Table 5.8 - Horizon Distances For The Moon
    • Table 5.9 - Properties Of Cast Basalt
    • Table 5.10 - Typical Values For LMF Paving Robot Parameters
    • Table 5.11 - Minimum Seed Element And Process Chemical Requirements
    • Table 5.12 - Minerals Typically Found In Lunar Regolith (From Williams And Judwick, 1980)
    • Table 5.13 - Maximum Mass Of Chemical Elements Extractable From Lunar Soil, Per Year, For A 100-Ton Seed With Extraction Ratio R = 40
    • Table 5.14 - Hydrogen-Limited Materials Processing Reagents
    • Table 5.15 - Comparison Of Chemical Processing Plant Masses And Power Requirements From Previous Related Studies
    • Table 5.16 - Characteristics And Performance Of Various Lasers Commonly Used For Welding (Acharekar, 1974)
    • Table 5.17 - Typical Performance Data For CO2 Welding/Cutting Lasers
    • Table 5.18 - Comparison Of Fabrication Plant Masses And Power Requirements From Previous Related Studies
    • Table 5.19 - Assembly Tasks For A One-Robot Configuration, To Assemble Small Motor Rotors
    • Table 5.20 - Mass And Power Estimates For Assembly Systems From Various Sources
    • Table 5.21 - Comparison Of Important Factors For Solar Canopy And Lunar Igloo Models Of Self-Replicating Or Growing LMF
  • Figures for Chapter 5:
    • Figure 5.1 - Automated space exploration and industrialization using self-replicating systems.
    • Figure 5.2 - Finite state automation cellular space.
    • Figure 5.3 - Twenty-nine states of von Neumann's cellular automata.
    • Figure 5.4 - Universal construction in the cellular model of machine self-reproduction.
    • Figure 5.5 - Five basic classes of SRS behavior.
    • Figure 5.6 - Functional schematic of unit replication SRS.
    • Figure 5.7 - Work breakdown structure for SRS.
    • Figure 5.8 - SRS materials processing subsystem.
    • Figure 5.9 - SRS parts production plant subsystem.
    • Figure 5.10 - SRS stationary universal constructor.
    • Figure 5.11 - SRS mobile universal constructors.
    • Figure 5.12 - Self-replicating lunar factory.
    • Figure 5.13 - Possible growth plan with simultaneous replica construction, suitable for geometry of an SRS field.
    • Figure 5.14 - SRS growth plan with sequential replication.
    • Figure 5.15 - Functional schematic of unit growth SRS.
    • Figure 5.16 - LMF chemical processing sector: Operations.
    • Figure 5.17 - LMF parts fabrication sector: Operations.
    • Figure 5.18 - LMF assembly sector: Operations.
    • Figure 5.19 - Self-growing lunar factory.
    • Figure 5.20 - Flexible scheduling of LMF operational phases.
    • Figure 5.21 - Closure of SRS parts production.
    • Figure 5.22 - Generalized closure engineering cycles.
    • Figure 5.23 - Quantitative materials closure data for various self-replicating systems.
    • Figure 5.24 - Limits to exponential and polynomial expansion of self-replicating interstellar probe populations dispersing throughout the galactic disk.
    • Figure 5.25 - Natural evolution of complexity of matter in the cosmos.
    • Figure 5.26 - Accessibility of biological and machine-stored information.
    • Figure 5.27 - Population of extraterrestrial civilizations as a function of galactic time.
    • Figure 5.28 - Schematic of simple robot self-replication.
    • Figure 5.29 - Proposed demonstration of simple robot self-replication.
    • Figure 5.30 - Schematic of simple robot replication exponentiation.
    • Figure 5.31 - Relationship of three R&D approaches to SRS development and demonstration.
    • Figure 5.32 - Suggested timeline for development and demonstration of replicating systems technologies.
    • Figure 5.33 - Range circles for mobile robots using LMF transponder network for navigation.
    • Figure 5.34 - Slab pattern of LMF cast basalt platform.
    • Figure 5.35 - LMF paving robot optical geometry.
    • Figure 5.36 - Tentative LMF paving robot design.
    • Figure 5.37 - Lunar surface strip mining.
    • Figure 5.38 - LMF mining robot design.
    • Figure 5.39 - LMF constant-angle wedge corridor access route.
    • Figure 5.40 - Raw material delivery to input hopper.
    • Figure 5.41 - Flowsheet and process equations for the HF acid-leach process.
    • Figure 5.42 - Computer-managed parts manufacturing.
    • Figure 5.43 - Exploded view of SRI compressor cover assembly. (Rosen et al., 1978.)
    • Figure 5.44 - Functional components of the Draper automobile alternator assembly robot. (Nevins and Whitney, 1978.)
    • Figure 5.45 - Program logic for the GM/Delco IC "chip" inspection system.
    • Figure 5.46 - Basic hierarchical system architecture.
    • Figure 5.47 - Interank interface.
    • Figure 5.48 - Morph I fabricator node.
    • Figure 5.49 - Morph II fabricator node.
    • Figure 5.50 - Morph III fabricator node.
    • Figure 5.51 - Morph IV fabricator node.
    • Figure 5.52 - Morph V fabricator node.
    • Figure 5.53 - Selective disassembly of failed system.
    • Figure 5.54 - Reassembly of repaired system.
    • Figure 5.55 - Morph VI fabricator node.
    • Figure 5.56 - Schematic of Solar Canopy and Lunar Igloo models of self-replicating or growing LMF.

Publication information[edit]

  • For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.
  • For sale by the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161
  • Report No. NASA CP-2255
  • Report date: November 1982
  • Performing Organization Report No. A-8618
  • Work Unit No. K-1577C
  • Type of report and period covered: conference publication
  • Sponsoring agency name and address: National Aeronautics and Space Administration and American Society for Engineering Education
  • Distribution statement: Unclassified - Unlimited, subject category 19
  • Security classification: Unclassified
  • Available in PDF form from NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)[1]
This work is in the public domain because it was created by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), whose copyright policy states that "NASA material is not protected by copyright unless noted".
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References[edit]

  1. Gilbreath, William P., Freitas, Robert A., Jr. "Advanced Automation for Space Missions" Paper presented at the University of Santa Clara in Santa Clara, California, June 23-August 29, 1980.