Brayley, Edward Wedlake (DNB00)

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BRAYLEY, EDWARD WEDLAKE, the elder (1773–1854), topographer and archæologist, born in the parish of Lambeth, Surrey, in 1773, was apprenticed to one of the most eminent practitioners of the art of enamelling in the metropolis. Before the term of his indentures had expired he became acquainted with John Britton, 1771-1857 [q.v.], whom he used to meet at the shop of Mr. Essex in Clerkenwell. Both the young men had literary and artistic tastes and aspirations, and longed to emancipate themselves from the mechanical pursuits in which they were engaged. They formed a close friendship, which was maintained for the long period of sixty-five years, and they produced together many beautifully illustrated volumes on topographical subjects. They began their literary partnership in a very humble way. Their first joint speculation was a song called 'The Powder Tax, or a Puff at the Guinea Pigs,' written by Brayley and sung by Britton publicly at a discussion club meeting at the Jacob's Well, Barbican. The ditty was very popular, and seventy or eighty thousand copies of it were sold. Soon afterwards Brayley wrote 'A History of the White Elephant' for Mr. Fairburn in the Minories. In 1801 Brayley assisted Britton in producing the 'Beauties of Wiltshire.'

About the same time the two friends entered into a mutual copartnership as joint editors of the 'Beauties of England and Wales.' Having concluded arrangements with a publisher, they made in 1800 a pedestrian tour from London through several of the western and midland counties, and visited every county of North Wales in search of materials for the work. They soon discovered that they possessed but few qualifications for the adequate execution of their self-imposed task; but as the work progressed they gradually extended the sphere of their studies, and finally they acquired a fair, if not a profound, knowledge of the essential branches of topography and archæology. The first volume appeared in 1801, and contained descriptions of Bedfordshire, Berkshire, and Buckinghamshire. Accounts followed of the other counties in their alphabetical order. The first six volumes, ending with Herefordshire, were jointly executed by Brayley and Britton, the greater part of the letterpress being supplied by Brayley, while most of the travelling, correspondence, labour of collecting books and documents, and the direction of draughtsmen and engravers devolved on his partner. Although it had been at first announced that the work would be comprised in about six volumes, and finished in the space of three years, it extended to no fewer than twenty-five large volumes, and was in progress of publication for nearly twenty years. This once famous and highly popular work was beautifully embellished with copper-plate engravings. Dissensions arose, however, between the two authors and their publishers. At length the former practically withdrew from the undertaking (1814), and other writers filled their places. Brayley produced the accounts of Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Kent, and part of the description of London (vols. vi.-x. pt. 2); but his name does not appear in any subsequent volume, and Britton was only responsible later for parts of vols. xi. and xv. The other volumes were compiled by the Rev. Joseph Nightingale, Mr. James Norris Brewer, and others. The 'Beauties' were completed in 1816. Upwards of 50,000l. had been expended on the work, and the number of illustrations exceeded seven hundred.

After the termination of his apprenticeship Brayley had been employed by Henry Bone [q. v.] (afterwards a Royal Academician) to prepare and fire enamelled plates for small fancy pictures in rings and trinkets. Subsequently, when that artist was endeavouring to elevate painting in enamel to the position it eventually acquired in his hands as a legitimate branch of pictorial art, Brayley prepared enamel plates for Bone's use, and he continued to do so for some years after he had become eminent as a topographer. The plates for the largest paintings in enamel which Bone executed—the largest ever produced until they were exceeded in several instances by those of Charles Muss—were not only made by Brayley, but the pictures also were conducted by him throughout the subsequent process of 'firing,' or incipient fusion on the plate, in the muffle of an air-furnace, requisite for their completion.

After as well as during the publication of the 'Beauties of England and Wales,' Brayley wrote a number of other popular topographical works. His literary activity was most remarkable. 'Mr. Brayley,' remarks Britton, 'was constitutionally of a healthy and hardy frame, and was thus enabled to endure and surmount great bodily as well as mental exertion. I have known him to walk fifty miles in one day, and continue the same for three successive days. After completing this labour, from Chester to London, he dressed and spent the evening at a party. At the end of a month, and when pressed hard to supply copy for the printer, he has continued writing for fourteen and for sixteen hours without sleep or respite, and with a wet handkerchief tied round a throbbing head.' Brayley was elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1823, and in 1825 he was appointed librarian and secretary of the Russell Institution in Great Coram Street, which offices he held until his death. He continued his topographical labours, in addition to discharging his official duties, and nearly the whole of his most extensive work, the 'Topographical History of the County of Surrey,' was written by him between the ages of sixty-eight and seventy-six. His death occurred on 23 Sept. 1854.

Subjoined is a list of his publications:

  1. 'Beauties of England and Wales, or Delineations Topographical, Historical, and descriptive of each County,' 1801-14. We have already indicated the portions of this great work that were written by Brayley.
  2. 'Sir Reginalde, or the Black Tower. A Romance of the Twelfth Century. With Tales and other Poems,' 1803 (conjointly with William Herbert).
  3. 'The Works of the late Edward Dayes, edited with Illustrative Notes,' 1805. The topographical portion of this volume was reprinted in 1825 under the title of 'A Picturesque Tour through the Principal Parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire.'
  4. 'Views in Suffolk, Norfolk, and Northamptonshire, illustrative of the Works of Robert Bloomfield; accompanied with descriptions; to which is annexed a Memoir of the Poet's Life,' 1806.
  5. 'Lambeth Palace illustrated by a series of Views representing its most interesting Antiquities,' 1806.
  6. 'The British Atlas; comprising a series of maps of all the English and Welsh counies; also plans of the Cities and principal Towns,' 1810.
  7. 'Cowper: illustrated by a series of views accompanied with copious descriptions, and a brief sketch of the Poet's Life,' 1810.
  8. Descriptions of places represented in 'Middiman's Views of Antiquities of Great Britain,' 1813.
  9. 'Popular Pastimes: a selection of Picturesque Representations, accompanied with Historical Descriptions,' 1816.
  10. 'Delineations, Historical and Topographical, of the Isle of Thanet and the Cinque Ports,' 1817.
  11. 'The History and Antiquities of the Abbey Church of St. Peter, Westminster: including Notices and Biographical Memoirs of the Abbots and Deans of that Foundation; illustrated by J. P. Neale,' 2 vols. 1818.
  12. Article on 'Enamelling' in vol. xiii. of Rees's 'Cyclopædia,' 1819.
  13. 'The Ambulator, or Pocket Companion for the Tour of London and its Environs; twelfth edition, with an appendix containing lists of pictures in all the royal palaces and principal mansions round London,' 1819.
  14. 'A Series of Views in Islington and Pentonville by A. Pugin, with a description of each subject by E. W. Brayley,' 1819.
  15. 'Topographical Sketches of Brighthelmstone and its neighbourhood; with engravings,' 1825.
  16. 'An Inquiry into the Genuineness of Prynne's "Defence of Stage Plays," &c., together with a reprint of the said tract, and also of Prynne's " Vindication,"' 1825.
  17. 'The History and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of Exeter,' in Britton's 'Cathedral Antiquities,' 1826-7.
  18. 'Historical and Descriptive Accounts of the Theatres of London. Illustrated by a view of each theatre drawn and engraved by D. Havell,' 1826.
  19. 'Catalogue of the Library of the Russell Institution,' 1826, 1849.
  20. 'Devonshire illustrated in a series of views of Towns, Docks, Churches, Antiquities, Abbeys, Picturesque Scenery, Castles, Seats of the Nobility, &c.' 1829.
  21. 'Londiniana, or Reminiscences of the British Metropolis,' 4 vols., 1829.
  22. 'Outlines of the Geology, Physical Geography, and Natural History of Devonshire.' In Moore's 'History of Devonshire,' vol. i. 1829.
  23. 'Memories of the Tower of London,' 1830 (conjointly with Britton).
  24. 'Devonshire and Cornwall illustrated; with Historical and Topographical descriptions,' 1832 (conjointly with Britton).
  25. 'The Graphic and Historical Illustrator: an Original Miscellany of Literary, Antiquarian, and Topographical Information,' 4to. This periodical contained a variety of essays, criticisms, biographical and archæological papers, with woodcut illustrations. It was carried on from July 1832 to November 1834, when it was discontinued.
  26. 'The Antiquities of the Priory of Christchurch, Hants, consisting of plates, sections, &c., accompanied by historical and descriptive accounts of the Priory Church, &c., by B. Ferrey. The literary part by E. W. Brayley,' 1834. There is a copy printed on vellum in the British Museum.
  27. A revised edition of De Foe's 'Journal of the Plague Year,' 1835, reprinted 1872 and 1882.
  28. 'The History of the Ancient Palace and late Houses of Parliament at Westminster,' 1836.
  29. 'Illustrations of Her Majesty's Palace at Brighton, formerly the Pavilion; executed under the superintendence of John Nash, architect: to which is prefixed a History of the Palace,' 1838.
  30. 'A Topographical History of the County of Surrey. The geological section by G. Mantell,' 5 vols., Dorking and London, 1841-8, 4to; new edition by Edward Walford, 4 vols., London, 1878-81, 4to.

[Memoir by Britton (privately printed), London, 1855; Gent. Mag. N.S. xlii. 538, 582; Brewer's introductory volume to the Beauties of England and Wales; Britton's Autobiography; English Cyclopædia; Athenæum, 30 Sept. 1854, p. 1170; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. ed. Bohn, i. 139, 261; Proceedings of the Soc. of Antiquaries, iii. 181; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. iv. 284, 420.]

T. C.