CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Armenia

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CIA WFB Seal.png Armenia Flag of Armenia (WFB 2004).gif
Am-map1.png
 
Introduction Armenia
Background: Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. It was incorporated into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution. Turkey imposed an economic blockade on Armenia and closed the common border because of the Armenian occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas.
 
Geography Armenia
Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey
Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 45 00 E
Map references: Asia
Area: total: 29,800 sq km
water: 1,400 sq km
land: 28,400 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries: total: 1,254 km
border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Terrain: Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Debed River 400 m
highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m
Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina
Land use: arable land: 17.55%
permanent crops: 2.3%
other: 80.15% (2001)
Irrigated land: 2,870 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
Environment - current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone
Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note: landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range
 
People Armenia
Population: 2,991,360
note: Armenia's first census since independence was conducted in October 2001 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.7% (male 357,094; female 323,396)
15-64 years: 66.7% (male 929,719; female 1,065,505)
65 years and over: 10.6% (male 128,027; female 187,619) (2004 est.)
Median age: total: 29.7 years
male: 27.1 years
female: 32.4 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.32% (2004 est.)
Birth rate: 11.43 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate: 8.12 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate: -6.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.18 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 24.16 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 29.32 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.23 years
male: 67.73 years
female: 75.36 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.31 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,600 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian
Ethnic groups: Armenian 93%, Azeri 1%, Russian 2%, other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 4% (2002)
note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from Armenia
Religions: Armenian Apostolic 94%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (Zoroastrian/animist) 2%
Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.6%
male: 99.4%
female: 98% (2003 est.)
 
Government Armenia
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local short form: Hayastan
former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic
local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
Government type: republic
Capital: Yerevan
Administrative divisions: 11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan
Independence: 21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1991)
Constitution: adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995
Legal system: based on civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 May 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 19 February and 5 March 2003 (next to be held NA 2008); prime minister appointed by the president; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program
election results: Robert KOCHARIAN reelected president; percent of vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 67.5%, Stepan DEMIRCHYAN 32.5%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; 75 members elected by party list, 56 by direct vote)
elections: last held 25 May 2003 (next to be held in the spring of 2007)
note: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.5%, Justice Bloc 13.6%, Rule of Law 12.3%, ARF (Dashnak) 11.4%, National Unity Party 8.8%, United Labor Party 5.7%; seats by party - Republican Party 23, Justice Bloc 14, Rule of Law 12, ARF (Dashnak) 11, National Unity 9, United Labor 6; note - seats by party change frequently as deputies switch parties or announce themselves independent
Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)
Political parties and leaders: Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALIAN]; Armenia Party [Myasnik MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Alex ARZUMANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Harutyun MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Vahan HOVHANISSIAN]; Democratic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Justice Bloc (comprised of the Democratic Party, National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, and the People's Party); National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGAMIAN, chairman]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party [Albert BAZEYAN and Aram SARKISYAN, chairmen]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARKARYAN]; Rule of Law Party [Artur BAGDASARIAN, chairman]; Union of Constitutional Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
International organization participation: BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Arman KIRAKOSSIAN
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John M. EVANS
embassy: 18 Baghramyan Ave., Yerevan 375019
mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
telephone: [374](1) 521-611, 520-791, 542-117, 542-132, 524-661, 527-001, 524-840
FAX: [374](1) 520-800
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange
 
Economy Armenia
Economy - overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace, but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration. Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic liberalization program that resulted in positive growth rates in 1995-2003. Armenia joined the WTrO in January 2003. Armenia also has managed to slash inflation, stabilize the local currency (the dram), and privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia suffered in the early and mid-1990s have been offset by the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia is now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient generating capacity to replace Metsamor, which is under international pressure to close. The electricity distribution system was privatized in 2002. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been offset somewhat by international aid and foreign direct investment. Economic ties with Russia remain close, especially in the energy sector.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.79 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 9.9% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,500 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 23.4%
industry: 35.1%
services: 41.5% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 19.8% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line: 50% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 46.2% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 44.4 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 1.4 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 45%, industry 25%, services 30% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate: 20% (2001 est.)
Budget: revenues: $425.9 million
expenditures: $460.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2003)
Agriculture - products: fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock
Industries: diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy
Industrial production growth rate: 15% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production: 6.479 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 5.784 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports: 704 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2001)
Electricity - imports: 463 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2001)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption: 5,700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports: NA (2001)
Oil - imports: NA (2001)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance: $-210 million (2003)
Exports: $735 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities: diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy
Exports - partners: Belgium 18.2%, UK 16.8%, Israel 15.7%, Russia 12.1%, Iran 7.9%, US 6.3%, Germany 5% (2003)
Imports: $1.18 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities: natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds
Imports - partners: Belgium 11.6%, Russia 11.6%, Israel 11.3%, US 9.5%, Iran 8.8%, Germany 6.7%, UAE 5.4%, Italy 4.7%, Ukraine 4.6% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: $509.4 million (2003)
Debt - external: $905 million (June 2001)
Economic aid - recipient: ODA $170 million (2000)
Currency: dram (AMD)
Currency code: AMD
Exchange rates: drams per US dollar - 578.763 (2002), 555.078 (2001), 539.526 (2000), 535.062 (1999)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 
Communications Armenia
Telephones - main lines in use: 562,600 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 114,400 (2003)
Telephone system: general assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion
domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)
international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (2000)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios: 850,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus an unknown number of repeaters); (1998)
Televisions: 825,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .am
Internet hosts: 2,206 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 9 (2001)
Internet users: 150,000 (2003)
 
Transportation Armenia
Railways: total: 845 km
broad gauge: 845 km 1.520-m gauge (828 km electrified)
note: some lines are out of service (2003)
Highways: total: 15,918 km
paved: 15,329 km (includes 7,527 km of expressways)
unpaved: 589 km (2000)
Pipelines: gas 1,871 km (2004)
Ports and harbors: none
Airports: 17 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
 
Military Armenia
Military branches: Army, Air Force and Air Defense Force
Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation - 12 months; 18 years of age for voluntary military service (May 2004)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 812,140 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 649,568 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 31,926 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $135 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 6.5% (FY01)
This page was last updated on 1 January 2003



This is a snapshot of the CIA World Fact Book as it existed on 26 March 2005