Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Juan Cardenas

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Moral theologian and author; b. at Seville, 1613; d. 6 June, 1684. He entered the Society of Jesus at the age of fourteen, and during many years held in it the office of rector, master of novices, and provincial. Through his busy life he ever found time for intellectual work of a high order. He composed several small ascetical treatises: "Seven Meditations on Jesus Crucified" (originally published at Seville, 1678) and "Geminum sidus Mariani diadematis" (Lyons, 1673). From his pen we also have two pious biographies: "Historia de la Vida y Virtudes de la Venerable Virgen Damiana de las Llangas" (Seville, 1675) and "Breve relación de la Muerte, Vida, y Virtudes del Venerabile Cavallero D. Miguel Manara Vincentelo de Leca" (Seville, 1679).

But he is chiefly remembered for his important contributions to moral theology, which won for him the highest praise from St. Alphonsus Ligouri. In a singularly clear style and with great profundity of thought he examines some of the moral opinions prevalent in his day, especially those tinged with extreme Laxism, in his well known "Crisis theologica bipartita, sive Desputationes selectæ" (Lyons, 1670). This work, which appeared in two parts, opened up a storm of controversy, and in the edition of 1680 he reasserted his position in a supplement which defended moderate Probabilism against the twofold attacks of Laxists and Rigorists. Though the argument is unquestionably strong, and the opinions advanced moderate and sound, the many digressions that the controversy suggests make this part of the book rather uninteresting. In the Venetian editions of 1694, 1700, and 1710 there were first published, together with these three parts, and explanation of the propositions condemned by the pope in 1679. This last work, of which Father P.J. Kugler, S.J., composed a compendium in 1704, has often been published separately under the title: Crisis theologica in qua plures selectæ difficultates ex morali theologia ad lydium veritatis lapidem revocantur ex regula morem positâ a SS. D.N. Innocentis XI P.M., etc.

Antonio, Bibliotheca Hispana nova (Madrid, 1783), I, 671; Ribadeneira-Sotwell, Bibliotheca Scriptorun S.J. (Rome, 1676); De Backer and Sommervogel, Bibliothéque de la c de J., (Brussels, Paris, 1891), II, col. 734-37; De Backer, Bibliographie des éscrevains de la c. de J. (Liège, 1869), I, col. 1078; Hunter, Nomenclator (Innsbruck, 1876), II, p. 1, 231; Döllinger-Reusch, Geschicte der Moralstreitigkeiten in der Römishkatholishchen Kirche (Nördlingen, 1889), I, 39, 41, 46.

Leo F. O'Neil.