Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Maspha
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Name of several places in the Bible. The Septuagint transcribes Masphá, Massephá, Massephát; Vulg.: Maspha and Masphath (once Masphe, Masepha, Mespha); Hebrew: Míçpeh and Míçpah; the latter almost invariably in pause. The word, with many other proper names, is derived from ÇPH=watch, observe, and means "watch- tower" (speculum, skopía), which sense it bears twice in the Bible (Is., xxi, 8; II Par., xx, 24). Josephus interprets by katopteuó or (Antt. VI, ii, 1). It is thus a natural name for a town in a commanding position (cf. the Crusading Belvoir, and elMúshrífeh (Palmer, Desert of the Exodus, II, 513). Like the latter it almost invariably has the article.
MASPHA OF GALAAD
Jacob to ratify his compact with Laban, "took a stone and set it up for a title, and he said to his brethren 'Bring hither stones'. And they, gathering stones together, made a heap and they ate upon it (or by it R. V.). And Laban said, 'This heap (gal) shall be a witness ('ed) between me and thee this day, and therefore the name thereof was called Galaad (gal'ed) and Míçpah (so R. V. with Hebrew) for he said 'The Lord watch (yeçef ÇPH) between me and thee when we are absent one from another'" (Gen., XXXI, 45 ff.). Here the Vulgate omits hámMíçpah, the Septuagint translates 'e 'óresis, Targums of Onkelos and Sifre, Sekûthâ, i.e. view. The play on the Hebrew words is not unnatural if we suppose that the spot itself or some neighbouring height was already called Maspha. The name seems to have gradually extended from the height to the whole region (Judges, xi, 29). The monument was probably a cairn or a dolmen. While the latter is suggested by the flat surface on which they ate (verse 46; Josephus, "Ant.", I, xix, 11; Conder, "Heth and Moab," 241), the sepulchral destination of the dolmens and the ambiguity of the Hebrew militate against this view (Schumacher, "Across the Jordan pass.").
Around Jacob's monument Israel assembled to repel Ammon (Judges, x,17). Thither they summoned Jephte, "and Jephte spoke all his words before the Lord at Maspha" (Judges, xi, 11). By Maspha of Galaad (a region?) he marched against Ammon, and after victory "to Maspha to his house". The Septuagint translates by skopía the rendezvous of Israel, and the place by which Jephte passed over against Ammon. They thus distinguish between the sanctuary and town, and a watch-tower on the height above (cf. Palmer, op. cit., II, 512-513); but in Osee, v, 1, they likewise use the common noun when parallelism manifestly requires the proper name. At Maspha probably Jephte was buried (Judges, xii, 7, and variants in Kittel, and perhaps Josephus, "Antiquities", V, vii, 12).
We cannot decide whether the Maspha of Jacob and Jephte is identical with Ramáth hámMiçpéh (Jos., xiii, 26), or both with Râmoth Gil'ed (III Kings, iv, 13), nor even whether Maspha refers to one or many places. In Jephte's history it seems near the borders of Ammon, in that of Judas Maccabæus far to the N.E., and, if we place here the events of Judges, xxi-xxii, near the Western frontier (G. A. Smith, "Hist. Geog. of H. Land", 586). Jacob was coming from Padan Aram and probably approached Galaad by the Hajj route. Turning westward N. of Jabeor he would traverse the valley of Jerash. About four miles from Jerash, S. E. of Mahneh (before Mahanaim?), on a high mountain overhanging the valley, is the village of Sûf in a locality rich in dolmens. Many identify with Maspha this place whose derivation may be identical with and whose name recalls the Sebeés of Josephus, l. c. But Dr. Schumacher discovered N.E. of Jerash Tell Máspha, whose summit dominating all the surrounding heights is strewn with dolmens and stone-hewn altars. The ideal site, exact preservation of the ancient name and the veneration still attaching to the spot (it is still a ma'bad) all justify its identification with Maspha.
MASPHA OF BENJAMIN
Maspha was assigned to Benjamin by Josue (Jos., xviii, 26). Here, according to many, Israel assembled to avenge the outrage on the Levite's wife, and swore not to give their daughters in marriage to the survivors. But as they would scarcely have gathered in the heart of the enemy's country, others place the events of Judges, xx-xxi, at Maspha of Galaad. Note that Jabes Galaad is mentioned in close connection with the camp of Israel. Further, Judges, xx, 3, implies that Maspha was outside the borders of Benjamin. To Maspha Samuel when Judge convoked all Israel, prayed for them there while they defeated the Philistines, and erected a monument to commemorate the victory between Maspha and Sen (I Kings, vii, 5-12). Here he held some of his chief assizes (Kings, x, 13-16), and his final assembly for the election of Saul (ibid., 17). Two hundred and fifty years later Maspha was fortified by Asa, King of Juda, with the materials left behind at Rama by King Baasa in his hasty march northwards against the Syrians (III Kings, xv, 22; II Par., xvi, 6). Jerusalem destroyed (586 B. C.)Godolias, Governor of Juda, made Maspha his headquarters (Jer., xii, 6; IV Kings, xxv, 23 sq.) and there the tragic events of Jer., xiii, took place. In the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem the lords of Maspha took an active part (II Esd., iii, 7, 15, 17). Some infer from verse 7 that Maspha was the seat of government (Holscher, "Palästina in der Pers. und Hellen. Zeit", 29); but this is unlikely (Smith, "Jerusalem", II, 354 n.). Judas Machabeus, preparing for war with the Syrians, gathered his men "to Maspha, over against Jerusalem: for in Maspha was a place of prayer heretofore in Israel" (I Mach., iii, 46), and transported thither the ritualistic observances.
(a) Many moderns suggest NebîSámwîl, the most striking position around Jerusalem, and identify Maspha with Rama and Ramathaim- Sophim, relying chiefly on the connection with Samuel implied by the modern name. In that case the rendezvous for the Benjaminite war must be sought in Galaad or Ephraim, perhaps near Silo, and the "house of the Lord" (Jer., xii, 6) cannot refer to Jerusalem.
(b) Guérin (Judée, I, 395-402) placed Maspha at Shâfat, a village on high ground overlooking Jerusalem, but his etymology is suspect, and Shâfat suits neither III Kings, xv, 22, nor I Mach., iii, 46. The same objections hold for Tell elFûl only three miles N. of Jerusalem.
(c) Others suggest Tell enNásbeh, which commands a narrow defile on the high road two miles S. of elBîreh.
(d) Perhaps the best conjecture is el-Bîreh, which has a copious water supply, is sufficiently northerly to permit of a camp there against Benjamin, lies on the road from Silo to Jerusalem, and is near Bethel (cf. Josephus, "Antiq.", V, ii, 10). This identification was expressly made by Surius ("Le Pieux Pílerin", III, ii, 547, Brussels, 1660), and by some copies of the map of Sanuto (1306) (Röhricht, "Zeitsch. des deut. paläst. Vereins," 1898, Map 6). Near the village is a large spring, 'în Mísbâh, whose name may be a modernization of Maspha. Burchard (1283), indeed, identifies elBîreh with Machmas ("Peregrinationes medii ævi quatuor", Leipzig, 1873, p. 56), and similarly others [e.g. Maundrell (1697) in "Pinkerton Voyages", X, 337]; but Machmas was certainly elsewhere, and the identification serves only to show that the homophony of Beroth and Bîreh is not conclusive.
MASPHA OF JUDA
(HamMiçpeh, Masepha, Maspha) is placed in the Sephela, in the second group of towns "in the lot of Juda", between Delea and Jechtel (Jos., xv, 38). Eusebius and Jerome place it in the territory of Eleutheropolis near the road to Elia. William of Tyre mentions a crusading fortress eight miles N. of Ascalon near the frontiers of Palestine and Simeon, called Tell es-Saphi-Blanche Garde-Alba Specula. This is undoubtedly Tell es-Sâfîyeh and is commonly identified with Maspha. Both places served to watch Ascalon. The map of Madaba calls the place Saphitha. As however this can scarcely be other than Sephata (cf. II Par., xiv, 10; List of Thotmos III in "Mittheil. der Deut. Vorderas. Gesell.", 1907 pl.; "Rev. Bib.", 19-8; 516), the question arises whether Masepha and Sepheta can refer to the same place.
LAND OF MASPHA
Near Hermon. "The Hevite, who dwelt at the foot of Hermon in the land of Maspha", was amongst the foes on whom Josue fell at Lake Merom and chased to "the great Sidon and the waters of Maserephoth, and the field of Maspha" eastward (Jos., xi, 8). Probably the two names here mentioned indicate one place despite the variations of the versions (Heb., Miçpah, Miçpeh; LXX, Massuma, Massóch; Alex, Massepháth, Massephá; Vulg., Maspha, Masphe).
Suggestions differ according as "eastward" is referred to Sidon or Merom. Hence west of Hermon either (a) the Merj 'úyûn, a fertile plain, the Litâny, actually called elbuqâ'. If "eastward" refers to Merom (which is more probable) then Maspha may be the Wâdy el'ájám, stretching south of Jermon and traversed by the Roman road (Via Maris) from Damascus.
At the western end of the valley is the village of elBúqâ'ty, perhaps an echo of Bíq'át Miçpeh.
MASPHA OF MOAB
Whither David fled with his parents from Adullam (I Kings, xxii, 3 sq.). We have no clue to its identification, save that it was, temporarily, at least, a royal residence.
MASPHA OF GALAAD: For identification with Ramath Bilead and es-Salt, cf.:-Schwartz, Tebuoth haArez, 269, 270 (Jerusalem, 1900); V. Riess, Biblische Geographie (Freiburg im Br., 1872), 64. Against it cf. Driver, Commentary on Deuteronomy (Edinburgh, 1902). For Sûf, etc.:-Conder, Heth and Moab (London, 1889), 181; Armstrong, Names and Places in the Old Testament (London, 1887); Oliphant, Land of Galaad (London, 1880), 209-18; Buhl, Geographie des Alten Palästina (Freiburg im Br., '96); Merrill, East of Jordan, 365-374; Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land, 487, 679 (London, 1907); Mittheilungen und Nachrichten des deut. paläst. Vereins, 1897, 66; 1890, 1f, 66.
MASPHA OF BENJAMIN: For the testimony of Eusebius and the Franks cf. Heidet in Vigouroux, Dict. de la Bible, s. v. For identification with (a) cf. Schwartz, op. cit., 152, 492; Armstrong, op. cit., 127; Robinson, Biblical Researches, II (Boston, 1841), 139-149; Survey of Western Palestine, Memoirs, III, 144; Buhl, op. cit., 16l7; Fischer Guthe, Map of Palestine; (b) Shâfat.-V. Riess, op. cit., p. 64; Gatt in Das heilige Land (Cologne, 1879), 119-126; 15 184-194; Stanley, Sinai and Palestine (London, 1871), 228; Hagen, Index Topographicus (Paris, 1908); De Saucy, Voyage autour de la Mer Morte I (Paris, 1883), 112-115; (c) Vincent, Revue Biblique (1898), 630; (1890), 315-316; (1901), 151; (1902), 458; Conder, Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly (1898), 169, 251; Raboisson, Les Mizpeh (Paris, 1897); (d) Heidet in Revue Biblique, 1894, 321-356, 450; 1895, 97; Idem in Revue d'Orient, 1898, 295-300; La Palestine, Guide historique et pratique (Paris, 1904), 317 sqq.
MASPHA OF JUDA: Survey of Western Palestine, Memoirs, II, 440; Robinson, op. cit., II, 31; Guérin, op. cit., II, 92; De Saulcy, Dictionaire topographique abrégé 220 (Paris, '71); V. Riess, op. cit., 64; Buhl, op. cit., 196.
LAND OF MASPHA: Armstrong, op. cit., 127; Schwartz, op. cit., 74; V. Riess, Bible Atlas, 10, `887;Buhl, op. cit., 240; Dillmann, Commentarium in Josue.
MASPHA OF MOAB: Schwartz, op. cit., 254. For general reference:-Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible, s. v.; Vigouroux, Dictionnaire de la Bible, s. v.; Baedeker, Syria and Palestine, 4th ed. (Leipzig, 1906).
J. A. Hartigan.