Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Periodical Literature

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Periodical Literature, Catholic.—The invention of printing, besides exerting a great influence on literature in general and on education, gave birth to a new species of literature: publications appearing at intervals either regular or irregular. These sheets, or broadsides as they were called, dealing mostly with religious and political events, can be traced back to the year 1493. The oldest existing broadsides were published in Germany, the earliest Italian periodicals were the "Notizie scritte" of Florence, which were called Gazetta from the coin paid for reading them. These early precursors of the modern newspaper were of course very rudimentary, and without any set form or scheme. From the first, however, religious interests found an echo in them. The broadsides were later succeeded by the "relations" and the title of the Jesuit "Relations", which has become almost a household word in American history, shows how early the Church authorities appreciated the possibilities of this new kind of periodical publication. In the present article the reader will find not only a history of Catholic periodical literature in the most prominent countries of the western world, but also an account of its present status.

Our article treats of periodical literature whether appearing daily, weekly, semi-weekly, monthly, quarterly, or annually. It includes not merely the political newspaper, of which the American daily is the most characteristic specimen, but also the weekly, of which the London "Tablet" and the New York "America" may serve as types; the monthly, dealing mostly with historical, scientific, religious, and literary subjects, for which the English "Month" or the French "Correspondant" may be cited as examples; the quarterly, of which there are two kinds, the one being more general in character, the other treating of special sciences and interests. Of the former class the "Dublin Review" may be adduced as an instance; of the latter there is a great variety extending from such publications as the "Revue des Questions Scientifiques" to the special reviews on dogmatic and moral theology, canon law, the history of religious orders, and even hagiography, like the "Analecta Bollandiana". It will be perceived at once that many of the last mentioned publications appeal only to a very limited public and that in their case the circulation of 500 may be evidence of great merit and influence, though the number of their subscribers is small compared with the thousands of patrons of which our dailies and some of our magazines can boast.

In order to enable the reader to appreciate justly the information laid before him below, we submit the following general remarks:—(1) Prior to the middle of the eighteenth century and in fact almost up to the time of the French Revolution, all the periodicals published in a country reflected the spirit of the religion dominant in that country; in other words, in Catholic countries they were animated by the Catholic spirit and may be regarded as a part of Catholic literature. (2) Even in the nineteenth century, and especially during its first half, the Press of the various countries of the western world largely represented the feelings and ideas of the majority of their inhabitants. Thus at the present time, the Spanish journals are largely written from the Catholic point of view. (3) The daily journals of continental Europe still differ markedly from the typical American daily. The latter aims above all at gathering and printing the political, social, including criminal and economical, news of the day, while art, literature, and religion occupy a secondary rank and the editorials have grown gradually less important. In continental Europe, editorial articles, feuilletons, and varied essays often fill much more space than telegraphic and other news. This state of things accounts for the fact that the continental European journal requires much less capital than a great American daily. It also explains, why, in general, the non-Catholic European Press is characterized by much greater animosity to the Church and why Catholic dailies are more easily established and supported in some of the European countries.(4) The European weekly Press hardly makes any effort to publish contemporary news. The Catholic weeklies confine themselves for the most part to the discussion of topics, either purely religious or involving ecclesiastical interests.

The following articles have been written by men specially well-informed on the Press of their several countries, deserving of every confidence.

Austria.—The Catholic Press is represented in Austria by 140 newspapers and 152 other periodicals. Of the former, 79 are in German; 22 in the Czech, or Bohemian, language; 16 in Polish; 3 in Ruthenian; 8 in Slovenian; 5 in Croatian; 7 in Italian. The 79 German newspapers are distributed as follows: Lower Austria, 22; Upper Austria, 12; Salzburg, 3; Styria, 6; Tyrol, 13; Vorarlberg, 3; Bohemia, 9; Moravia, 5; Silesia, 1; Carinthia, 4; Carniola, 1. Of the Czech. newspapers, 12 are published in Bohemia, 10 in Moravia; the Polish are published in Silesia (4), Galicia (11), and Bukowina (1); the Ruthenian are all published in Galicia; the Slovenian, 1 in Carinthia, 4 in Carniola, 2 in Görz, and 1 in Istria; the Croatian, 4 in Dalmatia and 1 in Istria; the Italian, 3 in the Tyrol, 2 in Görz, and 2 in Istria. The other periodicals are distributed as follows: Lower Austria, 33; Upper Austria, 8; Salzburg, 5; Styria, 7; the Tyrol, 11; Vorarlberg, 4; Bohemia, 31; Moravia, 18; Silesia, 5; Galicia, 26; Bukowina, 1; Carinthia, 1; Carniola, 11; Görz and Gradisca, 1; Istria, including Triest, 5; Dalmatia, 1.

The distribution of the Catholic daily papers is as follows: Lower Austria, 4, of which 2 appear twice daily. Of these the "Reichspost" (Dr. Funder, editor-in-chief) is issued twice daily, and prints 16,000 copies to each edition; "Vaterland" (P. Siebert, editor-in-chief), two editions daily of 2500 copies each; "Neuigkeits-Weltblatt", August Kirsch, owner, 5000 copies to each edition; "Neue Zeitung", 50,000 copies to each edition. All these papers are published at Vienna. Upper Austria has the "Linzer Volksblatt", 4500 copies to each edition; in Salzburg, the "Salzburger Chronik", 3500 copies; in Styria, the "Grazer Volksblatt", 8500 copies; the "Kleine Zeitung", 26,000 copies to an edition, the last two published at Graz. In the Tyrol 3 daily papers are published: at Innsbruck the "Allgemeiner Tiroler Anzeiger", with an edition of 3000 copies, and the "Neue Tiroler Stimmen", with an edition of 1500 copies; at Trent, the Italian "Trentino", with an edition of 5000 copies. At Bregenz in Vorarlberg is published the "Vorarlberger Volksblatt", with an edition of 3500 copies. Bohemia has only one daily in the Czech language, the "Cech" of Prague, with an edition of 3800 copies; in Moravia, the Czech "Hlas" is published at Brünn, 2000 copies to an edition. Polish papers are the "Czas", published at Lemberg, 5000 copies twice daily; the "Gazeta Lwowska", 2000 copies to an edition; the "Gazeta Narodova", published at Lemberg, 4500 copies; the "Glos narodu", published at Cracow, 8800 copies twice daily; two other papers at Lemberg are the "Ruslau" and the "Przeglad", each 5000 copies to an edition. At Klagenfurt in Carinthia is published the "Kärntner Tagblatt", edition of 2000 copies; at Laibach in Carniola, the Slovenian "Slovenec", edition of 3700 copies; at Triest, the Italian "Giornale". In Dalmatia the "Hrvatska kruna" is published in Croatian, with an edition of 9000 copies.

The local Press, weekly and monthly, is very large; this is especially the case in the Alpine provinces and northern Bohemia. The learned periodicals show work of high quality. Among them should be mentioned: the "Kultur", published at Vienna by the Leo-Gesellschaft, and the "Allgemeines Literaturblatt", also the "Correspondenzblatt für den Clerus", edition of 7000 copies, the "Theologischpraktische Quartalschrift", published at Linz, edition of 12,000 copies; "Anthropos" at Salzburg, "Christliche Kunstblätter" at Linz, "Kunstfreund at Innsbruck, "Immergrün" at Warnsdorf, "Vlast" at Prague. As regards illustrated family periodicals the non-Catholic Press is decidedly in the lead. The actual condition of the Catholic Press in Austria is far from satisfactory, though by no means hopeless. Its defects are fully recognized by those who are best able to remedy them. The daily papers, in particular, suffer from the lack of funds. There is no wealthy Catholic middle class, the prosperous city population being to a great extent (politically at least) anti-Catholic, while most of the zealous Catholics are found among the rural population, who, in Austria, care little for newspapers. This state of things renders Catholic journalism an uninviting field for business investment, and the dearth of capital employed in Catholic journalism as business enterprise is only inadequately supplied by donations from the nobility and clergy, who have neither the inclination nor the experience to secure an advantageous employment of the funds subscribed by them. Subsisting on these slender contributions by supporters of the party, the Catholic papers are unable to make any efforts for their own improvement or for the increase of their circulation by advertising; they are party institutions, not business enterprises, and have to be satisfied with keeping their expenditures down to the limits of the party contributions. At the same time, the conduct of the papers is in the hands of persons who, besides having no pecuniary interest in pushing them as enterprises, generally lack journalistic training. This technical inferiority, indeed, affects the whole working value of the Austrian Catholic Press; the remuneration of contributors, as well as of editors, being considerably below the standard of the Liberal Press, the best talent of the country avoids Catholic journalism and enlists itself in the service of the opposition. Lastly, its financial weakness places the Catholic Press at a serious disadvantage in regard to the supply of scientific matter and foreign news, both of which are abundantly commanded by the affluent Liberal Press.

These enormous difficulties are to some extent counteracted, it is true, by Catholic zeal and self-sacrifice, but the strain of ceaseless effort necessarily results in a lack of effective force. External difficulties aggravate the disheartening conditions. The control of public affairs by a Liberal Press lasted so long that the whole reading public, good Catholics included, became habituated to it, and this acquiescence in a wrong state of things resulted in intellectual inertia. Only in the first decade of the present century did the more practically Catholic elements begin to realize that those aristocratic-conservative influences which are popularly regarded as reactionary are not necessarily the most favourable to Catholic interests. The Christian-Socialist popular party has taken up the Catholic programme and thus opened a way for it among the masses; a spirited agitation resulted in diminishing the political power of the Liberal Press; but, in spite of all this, the public, long accustomed to the style of Liberal journalism, find Catholic periodicals lacking in piquancy.

One more external difficulty with which Catholic periodical literature in Austria — in contrast to the conditions of United Germany — has to contend, is the multiplicity of races and languages among the populations of the empire. The national rivalries are not always held in check by the profession of a common faith. The Catholics of each race insist upon maintaining distinct Catholic periodicals in their respective languages; hence a large number of periodicals each with a circulation far too small to ensure success. This difficulty has recently increased rather than diminished. The "Vaterland", e.g., a Vienna periodical, formerly read by Catholics throughout the Austrian crown lands, irrespective of their own national languages, has now had its circulation curtailed through this cause. And in general it may be said that no Catholic paper in Austria can count upon a circulation among all Catholics under the Austrian Crown; a separate Press has to be organized for the Catholics of each language.

The result of all these internal and external difficulties is the present embarrassed position of the Catholic Press of Austria. Attempts have been made, with the best intentions, at various times, by individuals, corporate bodies, and congresses; all, however, have failed of lasting success, because they lacked system and organization. It is greatly to the credit of some that this defect was finally recognized, and an effort made to correct it, by the Pius-Verein. As attempts to obtain money for the Press from the few rich have failed, a constant appeal is made to the great mass of people of small means, and large sums are thus collected. In this way the question of means is to be settled. By constant agitation, or by frequent meetings, local groups, and confidential agents, the apathy of the people is to be ended.

Although the condition, taken as a whole, of the Catholic Press in Austria is not prosperous, still the great efforts that have been made of late years and are still making with ever-increasing zeal, at the present time, justify the hope that the apathy of large sections of the reading public may be overcome, an appreciation aroused of the importance of a Press that is honourable and steadfast in the Faith. Only when this is attained will the sacrifices in money and labour that have been made for many years for the sake of the Catholic Press bear fruit, and a powerful press will be the strongest protection against the opponents of the Church in Austria.

Anton Weiman

Belgium.—Historical Outline of the Press in Belgium.—Periodical literature in Belgium may be traced back to 1605 when the Archduke and Archduchess Albert and Isabella granted Abraham Verhoeven of Antwerp the privilege of publishing his newspaper "Nieuwe Tijdingen". But it is in the Dutch period of Belgian history that Catholic literature really originated. At that time appeared the "Spectateur Belge" of Father de Foere, which several times provoked the anger of William I; the "Courrier de la Meuse", founded at Liège in 1820 by Kersten; the "Catholique des Pays-Bas" and the "Vaderland", both founded at Ghent by de Neve; the "Politiquede Gand", the "Noord-Brabanter", all showing remarkable zeal in defending the Catholic Church at a time when Catholic journalists were threatened with imprisonment. A few years after the establishment of Belgian independence the "Courrier de la Meuse" was transferred from Liège to Brussels, and took the name of "Journalde Bruxelles". Long afterwards under the editorship of the Baron Prosper de Haulleville (died 1899) it became the leading Catholic organ; but now it has lost its prominence.

Causes which stopped its Development.—The Revolution of 1830 brought Belgium the liberty of the press. The majority of the population and of the National Congress were Catholics, but the Catholic Press from 1830 to 1874 improved very slowly. The first cause of this was the disagreement between the Catholics and the Catholic Liberals; the next was the neglect of the old and the establishment of new publications. Among the new publications were "Le nouveau conservateur belge", an ecclesiastical and literary magazine, founded in 1830 and discontinued in 1835; the "Messager des sciences historiques et des arts de la Belgique", founded in 1833 and discontinued in 1896; the "Revue Belge" of 1834, which lasted only a few years; the "Revue catholiquede Louvain", devoted to religious controversy, history, and apologetics; from 1843 till 1884 it counted among its contributors the foremost professors of the University of Louvain. Another obstacle to the growth of the Catholic Press is the fact that the people of Belgium consist of two races with different languages, customs, and habits. Also the competition of French journals injured the growth of the Belgian press. French periodicals and newspapers appear in Brussels almost at the same time as in Paris. Besides their intrinsic merits, they have the advantage of being fashionable. Moreover, many Belgian writers have contributed to French periodicals. As an instance we may name the "Mélanges théologiques", a review of moral theology and canon law founded by a society of Belgian ecclesiastics at Liège in 1847. This magazine removed to Paris in 1856, where it was styled "Revue Théologique", and was conducted by a committee of French and Belgian priests. In 1861 it settled at Louvain, and there continued many years.

Present State.—About the middle of the last century, the religious question became prominent in Belgium. Catholics felt the need of a vigorous defence against irreligion and Freemasonry. New life was infused into the Catholic Press and today its condition is more satisfactory.

(1) Dailies.—Out of a total of 86 political daily papers 38 are Catholic. In consequence of the constant political activity all the important towns, even the suburbs of Brussels, have their local daily papers. Bruges has "La Patrie"; Charleroi, "Le Pays Wallon", a democratic journal of wide and vigorous efficiency; Liège, the "Gazette de Liège", which under editorship of Demarteau (1909) has reached a larger circulation than all the other Liège newspapers together. The "Bien Public", founded at Ghent in 1853 by Senator Lammens, Count de Hemptine, and others, circulates in all the provinces of Belgium, especially among the clergy. Its chief editor, Count Verspeyen, who has just celebrated his fiftieth anniversary as a journalist, has secured for it a well-deserved reputation on thoroughly Catholic lines. The most influential Catholic journal in Belgium is the "Patriote", founded in Brussels in 1883 by M. Jourdain, which with its local issue the "National" has a circulation of 180,000. His bold and skilful attacks brought about the downfall of the Liberal Government in 1884. The "XXe Siècle", founded also in Brussels by the late Duke d'Ursel, the present ministers Helleputte, de Brocqueville, and others, is more democratic. In Brussels also is published "Het Nieuws van den Dag", the most popular newspaper among the Flemings.

(2) Weeklies.—Of the 1200 Belgian weeklies, the Catholics certainly control more than one-half. Each important locality has its political and illustrated weeklies. Many parishes have their "Bulletin paroissial". Each diocese publishes its "Semaine religieuse". In Mechlin the organ of the archbishopric, which is styled "La Vie diocésaine", receives contributions from Cardinal Mercier.

(3) Reviews and Magazines.—About a thousand reviews and magazines are published in Belgium, many of them by Catholics.

(a) Theology and Religion.—The "Revue théologique" mentioned above was replaced in 1907 by the "Nouvelle revue théologique", edited by Father Besson. Besides this small but useful review, about 150 periodicals of various descriptions treat of theology, apologetics, missions, special devotions etc. The Jesuits have their "Missions belges de la Compagnie de Jésus", a well-illustrated monthly magazine, which in 1899 took the place of the old "Précis historiques", founded by Father Terwecoren. The Fathers of Scheut (near Brussels) have their "Missions en Chine, au Congo et aux Philippines. Other religious congregations and some large monasteries issue reports of their pious works, or reviews of piety, of liturgy, hagiography, etc.

(b) Scientific Reviews.—The Catholic standard scientific review is the "Revue des questions scientifiques", a large quarterly to which is joined a smaller one of a more technical character. Both were founded in 1877 by Father Carbonnelle, S.J., and a Franco-Belgian committee of prominent Catholic scientists. Their motto: Nulla unquam inter fidem et rationem vera dissensio esse potest (Conc. Vatican.) found a practical confirmation in the sound scientific character of the whole series. The present editors are Prof. Mansion and Father Thirion. The "Revue néo-scolastique" was founded in 1894 by Cardinal Mercier, while directing his Institut de philosophie thomiste at Louvain, with which it is closely connected (quarterly: present editor, Prof. de Wulf). With the same institution is connected the "Revue catholique de droit", of Prof. Crahay of Liège, and the "Revue sociale catholique", of Mgr Deploige, Prof. Thiery, Prof. Defourny, and others. At Louvain also appear some special scientific reviews, such as the "Revue médicale" and the celebrated magazine of cytology entitled "La Cellule" of the late Canon Carnoy (present editor, Prof. Gilson). Also some philosophical reviews: "Le Muséon" of the late Mgr de Harlez, continued by Prof. Colinet, Prof. Lefort, and others; "Le Musée belge" of Prof. Collard and Prof. Waltzing (the latter of the Liège University); the "Leucensche Bijdragen" (for Dutch philology), edited by Prof. Colinet, Lecoutere, and others. There is also the Belgian law review, "Revue pratique des sociétés civiles", founded by Prof. Nyssens, Minister of Labour, and continued by Prof. Corbiau. Outside of Louvain, we notice "Mathesis" (Prof. Mansion of Ghent); the "Courrier littéraire et mathématique", edited by Prof. H. Gelin and the present writer as a guide for preparing for public examinations.

(c) Historical reviews.—The largest is the important "Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique", a quarterly founded in 1900 by Canon Cauchie and Canon Ladeuze, now Mgr Ladeuze, Rector of Louvain University. Others are: the "Revue bénédictine", which in 1895 took the place of the "Messager des fidèles", edited since 1884 at the Benedictine Abbey of Maredsous by Dom Gerard van Caloen; the "Archives Belges" (Prof. G. Kurth, at Liège, since 1899); the "Analectes pour servir à l'histoire de l'Ordre de Prémontré", edited at the Park Abbey (Louvain) by Father van Waffelghem. Mention should also be made of the "Analecta Bollandiana" (see Bollandists).

(d) Literature.—The "Revue Générale", though it deals, according to its title, with all matters of common interest, is chiefly a literary review. This monthly publication, founded in 1863, reckoned among its ordinary contributors the distinguished statesmen Malou, Deschamps, and Nothomb, Deputy Coomans, Prof. de Monge, the publicist Prosper de Haulleville etc. Today the parliamentary leader, M. Ch. Woeste, makes it the vehicle of his political views. M. Eug. Gilbert regularly contributes to it a most valuable literary chronicle. With this magazine we may mention the "Dietsche Warande en Belfort". Other Catholic literary reviews are: "Le Magasin Littéraire", of Ghent; "La Lutte" and "Le Journal des gens de lettres belges", of Brussels, which have pleaded for Catholic art, but have been succeeded by younger magazines such as "Durandal", a monthly illustrated review edited by Abbé Moeller, "Le Catholique", and "La Revue Jeune".

(e} Art Reviews.—Most of these literary reviews touch upon art questions, but there are also "Revue de l'art chrétien", a review of medieval archæology; the "Courrier de Saint Grégoire" and "Musica sacra" which aims at promoting the use of sound music in Church services; "Le Bulletin de la Société d'art et d'histoire du diocèse de Liège", of which Mgr Rutten, now Bishop of Liège, was the president for a long time; the "Bulletin des métiers d'art", which serves as the organ of the St. Luke schools, founded by Brother Marès for teaching the technical arts on Christian principles.

Ath. Glouden

Canada.—Under the French domination, periodical literature, still in its infancy in France even as late as the close of the eighteenth century, was totally unknown in Canada. The first newspapers founded in the colony, the "Quebec Gazette" (1764) and the "Montreal Gazette" (1778), both weeklies with a double-colunm page alternately in English and in French, without being professedly Catholic, were not unfriendly towards the Church.

Province of Quebec, or Lower Canada.—The first periodical of importance was "Le Canadien", founded in Quebec (1806) by Pierre Bédard. Although essentially political and patriotic, nevertheless by its vindication of religious as well as civil liberty, and owing to the unexceptionable Catholicism of the French Canadian population whose interests it represented, "Le Canadien" may safely be styled a Catholic organ. This same principle applies to the greater number of French papers published in Canada. After a series of suppressions and interruptions, "Le Canadien" (first weekly, then daily) lasted for over fifty more years, during a long period of which its chief editor was Etienne Parent, whose valiant pen ably defended the rights of his fellow-citizens and helped to maintain their national dignity and autonomy.

Next in order of importance, if not of date, follows "La Minerve" (first weekly, then daily), founded in Montreal (1826) by Augustin-Norbert Morin. It had a career of seventy years, and numbered among its ablest editors Antoine* Gérin-Lajoie, Raphael Bellemare, and Joseph Tassé. The chief organ of the English-speaking Catholics was the "True Witness" (weekly), founded in Montreal (1850) by George E. Clerk, a convert from Anglicanism, who loyally and generously served the cause of the True Faith during his prolonged editorship. The "True Witness" had been preceded by the short-lived "Irish Vindicator" of Montreal (1828), and still exists under the lately assumed name of "The Tribune".

In 1857 was founded in Quebec "Le Courrier du Canada" (first weekly, then daily). It had an honourable and fruitful career of forty-five years under the leadership of such learned, vigorous, and elegant writers and uncompromising Catholics as Doctor Joseph Charles Taché, Auguste-Eugène Aubry, and Thomas Chapais. Montreal gave birth to two entirely Catholic daily papers: "Le Nouveau-Monde" (1867-81) with the Honourable Alphonse Desjardins as chief editor, and "L'Etendard" (1883-) under the direction of the Honourable Senator Anselme Trudel. A weekly, "Les Mélanges Religieux", founded in Montreal (1839) by Reverend J. C. Prince, lasted till 1846. "L'Opinion Publique", an illustrated weekly, published in Montreal for fourteen years (1870-83) counted many brilliant littérateurs among its contributors. Most noteworthy among the monthlies are, in order of date, "Le Journal de l'Instruction Publique", founded in Montreal (1857) by the Honourable Pierre-J.-O. Chauveau, a distinguished orator and writer, who was its chief editor until its cessation (1878); "Les Soirées Canadiennes", Quebec (1861-5); "Le Foyer Canadien", Quebec (1863-6); "La Revue Canadienne", Montreal (1864), still flourishing under the direction of the Montreal branch of the University of Laval; "Le Canada Français", semi-monthly, edited by the parent University of Quebec (1888-91). These five reviews form a collection replete with the best productions of French Canadian literature. For divers reasons, the Catholic Press in Lower Canada, in fact throughout the whole Dominion, with the exception of a few short-lived ventures cannot boast of a daily newspaper published in the English language. In the Province of Quebec the only organ of the English-speaking Catholics is the above mentioned "Tribune" (weekly). Of the existing French Catholic dailies, "L'Action Sociale", founded in Quebec (1907) by Archbishop L.-N. Bégin, is totally independent of politics, appreciating men and events from an exclusively Catholic and non-partisan viewpoint; its present circulation, comprising the weekly edition, is 28,000, as compared with the 90,000 of the non-Catholic "Montreal Star". Another, "Le Devoir", advocating nationalism; founded in Montreal (1909) and directed by Henri Bourassa, has also a good circulation. The foremost weekly, still in existence, is "La Vérité", founded in Quebec (1881) by Jules-Paul Tardivel, who has been called the Canadian Veuillot. This paper, during the career of its founder, exerted a considerable influence on Catholic opinion. Le Courrier de St-Hyacinthe" (1853), "Le Journal de Waterloo"(1879), "Le Bien Public", Three-Rivers (1909), all weeklies still in operation, deserve a special mention for their soundness of judgment and dutiful submission to the guidance of the spiritual authority. Among the existing monthlies may be mentioned "Le Naturaliste Canadien", Quebec, founded by the Abbé Léon Provancher (1868), the only Catholic scientific review in Canada; "La Nouvelle-France", a high-class review with a comprehensive programme; "Le Bulletin du Parlerfrançais", a technical review of a chiefly philological character, both founded in Quebec in 1902; "L'Enseignement Primaire", a pedagogical review, now in its thirty-second year, published in Quebec, and distributed by the Government to all the Catholic primary schools of the province, renders good service to the cause of elementary education. The outlook of the Catholic Press in the old French province seems very hopeful, thanks to the improvement of higher education, to the inculcation of a more thorough Catholic spirit, and a more dutiful compliance with the directions of the Vicar of Christ.

Ontario.—The first Catholic paper published in Upper Canada was the "Catholic", founded and edited in Kingston (1830) by Very Rev. William Peter MacDonald, and published later in Hamilton (1841-44). In 1837 Toronto had its first Catholic organ, "The Mirror", which lasted till 1862. It was followed successively by "The Canadian Freeman" (1858-63). under the editorship of J. J. Mallon and James G. Moylan; "The Irish Canadian", established by Patrick Boyle (1863-92; 1900-01); "The Tribune" (1874-85), with the Hon. Timothy Warren Anglin for its latest editor; "The Catholic Record", London (1878), is by far the most flourishing Catholic weekly in Canada, with its circulation of 27,000. Toronto likewise claims the following noteworthy Catholic periodical: "The Catholic Weekly Review" (1887-93); its editors were successively F. W. G. Fitzgerald, H. F. McIntosh, P. DeGruchy, Revs. F. W. Flannery and J. D. McBride; in 1893 it was merged into the "Catholic Register", whose editors were, in order of date, Rev. Doctor J. R. Teefy, J. C. Walsh, and P. P. Cronin. In 1908, under the title of "Register-Extension", it became the organ of the Catholic Church Extension Society, under the editorship of Rev. A. E. Burke, D.D.

Maritime provinces.—Nova Scotia.—Though Halifax can boast of the first newspaper in Canada, now including the Maritime Provinces (the "Royal Gazette", 1752), the first Catholic periodical, "The Cross", was founded only in 1845, by the future Archbishop W. Walsh, and lasted till 1857. By far the most important Catholic organ of the province is "The Casket" (weekly), of Antigonish, founded in 1852 and still in full activity. Its editorial chair was successively filled by the learned theologians, Doctors M. McGregor, N. McNeil, and Alex. McDonald, the two last named since appointed respectively to the Sees of Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia. Sureness of doctrine and vigilance in denouncing contemporary errors are its chief characteristics.

New Brunswick.—"The Freeman", a political paper, was founded in St. John, 1851, with Hon. T. W. Anglin as editor. He was succeeded by W. R. Reynolds. Under the name of "The New Freeman" since 1902, its character is exclusively Catholic. While strongly advocating temperance and total abstinence, it strives to enlighten non-Catholics and to foster vocations for the priesthood. French Acadian journalism is chiefly represented by "Le Moniteur Acadien", founded at Shediac (1866), and "L'Evangeline", of Moncton.

Prince Edward Island.—The first Catholic paper of the island was the "Palladium" (1843-5). It was followed by the "Examiner" (1847-67), both edited by Edward Whelan. Then came "The Vindicator" (1862-4), strictly non-political, to be succeeded by "The Charlottetown Herald", still in existence.

Northwest Provinces.—Catholic journalism in the north-west begins in 1871 with "Le Métis", the organ of the half-breeds, under the editorship of Hon. J. Royal. Next comes "Le Manitoba", a valiant champion of the Catholic schools, founded by Hon. J. Bernier, and now edited by his son. The first Catholic paper in English was "The North-West Review", begun in 1885, long edited by Rev. L. Drummond, S.J., and still fighting the good fight. The German Catholics have also their organ, "West Canada", and the Poles their "Gazeta Katolicka". These three papers are issued by the same printing-house in Winnipeg, under the patronage of the present Archbishop of St. Boniface (1911). A Ruthenian Catholic paper will shortly appear under the same auspices. "Le Patriote" began publication in 1910, at Duck Lake, Sask. Edmonton, Alta, has "Le Courrier de l'Ouest", and Vancouver, British Columbia, "The Western Catholic".

Turcotte, Le Canada sous l'Union (Quebec, 1905); Morice, Hist. of the Catholic Church in Western Canada (Toronto, 1909); Hopkins, Canada (Quebec, 1899).

Lionel Lindsay

England.—Not until the toleration acts of the early nineteenth century and the Catholic revival incident upon the immigration of the French clergy, were English Catholics in any position to conduct a periodical literature of their own, though occasional pamphlets on various questions of Catholic interest had been issued. With the agitation over the Veto and Emancipation, a beginning was made with a monthly review, the pioneer Catholic publication of the kind, "Andrews' Orthodox Journal", first issued in 1812 by Eusebius Andrews, a Catholic printer and bookseller of London. It had but a few years of chequered existence, as there was not a sufficiently large reading public to make it self-supporting. The real beginnings of Catholic periodical literature were made more than twenty years later, by which time the growth of the Catholic body in its newly won freedom, the progress of Catholic education, and the interest excited by the Tractarian movement had all combined to supply a wider circle of readers. A great step was taken by Wiseman and O'Connell in the foundation of a quarterly, the "Dublin Review" (1836). The fame of the "Edinburgh" suggested a territorial title, and Dublin was chosen as a great Catholic centre, though from the first it was edited and published in London. The review was intended to provide a record of current thought for educated Catholics and at the same time to be an exponent of Catholic views to non-Catholic inquirers. Beginning before the first stirrings of the Oxford Movement, it presents a record of the intellectual life of the century and produced articles which had an immense influence upon the religious thought of the times. It was in the August of 1839 that an article by Wiseman on the Anglican Claim caught the attention of Newman. Impressed by the application of the words of St. Augustine, securus judicat orbis terrarum, which interpreted and summed up the course of ecclesiastical history, he saw the theory of the Via media "absolutely pulverized" (Apologia, 116-7). It was a turning point for Newman and for the whole course of the Oxford Movement, and the incident is worth remembering as an example of the power of a good Catholic Press. Gradually the Tractarian converts appeared in the lists of contributors: Ward, Oakeley, Marshall, Morris, Christie, Formby, Capes, Allies, Anderson (q.v.), Manning, and a glance through the volumes of the "Dublin' will reveal names prominent in the great religious, scientific, and literary movements of the century. During the sixties and the early seventies it was under the vigorous direction of Dr. W.G. Ward. After his retirement it was edited by Dr. Hedley, afterwards Bishop of Newport, and then acquired by Cardinal Manning, who appointed Canon Moyes editor. It is now the property and under the direction of Mr. Wilfrid Ward, son of its famous editor.

The first issue of the annual "Catholic Directory" appeared in 1837. Owing to the Oxford Movement, the forties were a time of marked literary activity. In 1840 two new enterprises were inaugurated. Mr. Dolman, a Catholic publisher in London who had issued a number of really important books including the writings of Lingard and Husenbeth, produced in "Dolman's Magazine" a high class literary monthly, and on 16 May, 1840, Frederick Lucas became the pioneer of the Catholic newspaper Press in England by publishing the first number of "The Tablet", a weekly newspaper and review. Lucas was a strong man, and regarded his work as founder and editor of a Catholic paper as a sacred mission. He threw into it all his zeal and energy, realizing the enormous possibilities for good of the religious Press when many were hopelessly blind to such considerations. His uncompromising views led to difficulties with his financial supporters, but he emerged triumphant. For awhile after the crisis of 1848 Lucas, then active in Irish politics, removed "The Tablet" office to Dublin, but it was brought back to London by the new proprietors, into whose hands it passed when failing health compelled Lucas to give up the editorship. It was not easy to replace such a man. He had not been content to chronicle events; he had influenced them. For many years after his death, in 1855, "The Tablet" was a mere humdrum record of news. Among the distinguished editors was Cardinal Vaughan who conducted the "Tablet" during the stormy discussions on Papal Infallibility and the Vatican Council. When he became Bishop of Salford, he placed the editorship in the hands of Mr. Elliot Ranken, who was succeeded by Mr. Snead-Cox, the present editor. "The Tablet", besides championing the Catholic cause, assists in the propagation of the Faith in far-off lands, as under the terms of the trust created by the late Cardinal Vaughan its profits go to the support of St. Joseph's Missionary College, of which he was the founder.

Two other notable periodicals were founded in the forties. "The Tablet" was a sixpenny paper, reduced to its present price, five pence, on the abolition of the newspaper stamp duty. Its price put it beyond the reach of tens of thousands of Catholic workers. To supply them with a penny magazine Mr. Bradley in 1846 founded "The Lamp". It gave much of its space to Catholic fiction, descriptive articles, and the like, and ventured on an occasional illustration, a portrait or a picture of a new church; but it also supplied news and reported in full Wiseman's lectures and other notable Catholic utterances. For years it struggled with lack of capital, and for awhile Bradley edited his paper from his room in the debtors' prison at York. His name deserves honourable record as the pioneer of the popular Catholic Press. The other paper, "The Rambler", of which the first issue appeared on 1 January, 1848, was intended to be a high class weekly review of literature, art, and science. In 1859, Lord Acton, who had then just returned from the Continent, succeeded Newman in the editorship. The price, sixpence, limited its public and in 1862 it became a quarterly under the title of "The Home and Foreign Review". In its last years this review, which had once done good service, was a source of trouble and disedification, but its sale, which dwindled yearly, was largely among Anglicans and other non-Catholics. In the mid years of the nineteenth century the abolition of the various taxes on newspapers and the cheapening of the processes of production led to the coming of the penny newspapers. The first Catholic penny paper with permanent success was "The London Universe". Its origin was connected with the earlier activity of Lucas, who successfully advocated the introduction of the Conferences of St. Vincent de Paul into England. It was a group of members of the London Conferences who produced "The Universe". Speaking to their president, Mr. George Blount, one evening in 1860, Cardinal Wiseman, after alluding to the flood of calumny then poured out in the Press against the Holy See, said: "Cannot the Society of St. Vincent de Paul do something to answer those frightful calumnies, by publishing truths, as M. Louis Veuillot is doing in Paris in 'L'Univers'? We want a penny paper, and now that the tax has been removed it should be possible." It was decided that, though the society, as such, could not found a newspaper, a committee of its members should undertake the task. It included George Blount, Stuart Knill (afterwards the first Catholic Lord Mayor of London), Viscount Fielding (Lord Denbigh), Viscount Campden (Lord Gainsborough), Sidney Lescher, Archibald Dunn, Arthur à Beckett, and George J. Wigley, the London correspondent of the Paris "Univers". Wigley secured a foreign news service for the projected paper from M. Veuillot's Paris office, and at his suggestion the name of "The Universe" was chosen. Mr. Denis Lane undertook the printing, Mr. Dunn the editorship, and on 8 December, 1860, the first Catholic penny paper in England was started. At first it was strictly non-political. The editor and staff gave their services gratuitously, but even with this help expenses were greater than receipts. To attract a larger circulation political articles were inserted, which led to the resignation of the greater part of the staff. Mr. Lane then took over the paper and conducted it for many years as a Catholic paper, giving a general support to the Liberals and the Irish national cause. He had always a priest as "theological editor"; amongst those who thus assisted him were Father W. Eyre, S.J., Father Lockhart, and Cardinal Manning. The movement for the rescue of destitute Catholic children originated in "The Universe" office. It has lately celebrated its fiftieth anniversary, and has amalgamated with another paper, "The Catholic Weekly", founded to give a record of Catholic news without any party politics. "The Universe" has thus reverted to its original programme.

"The Lamp" was reorganized about the same time and had for some years a prosperous existence as a popular magazine. Fathers Rawes and Caswall, Lady Georgiana Fullerton, Miss Drane, Cecilia Caddell were among its contributors. In 1864 Miss Taylor founded "The Month", at first an illustrated magazine giving much of its space to fiction and the lighter forms of literature. When she founded her first community of nuns (Poor Servants of the Mother of God), her magazine passed to the Jesuits, and under the able editorship of the late Father Henry J. Coleridge, "The Month" became a high-class review. It had many notable contributors, and in its pages Newman's "Dream of Gerontius" first appeared. Numerically, the main strength of English Catholicism has always been in the North, and after the foundation of "The Universe" several efforts were made to produce a Catholic penny paper in Lancashire. Three successive enterprises had a brief career. A fourth, a paper known as "The Northern Press" was barely existing, when, in 1867, it was taken over by a remarkable man, the late Father James Nugent of Liverpool. He renamed it "The Catholic Times" and gradually made it the most widely circulated Catholic paper in England. Printed for many years by the boys of the refuge he had founded in Liverpool, when it became a profit-earning paper it helped support this work of charity. Offices were opened in Manchester and London. A special London edition was produced, and in 1878 a Christmas supplement issued under the title of "The Catholic Fireside" was so successful that it was continued as a monthly penny magazine; in 1893 it was made a weekly publication. "The Catholic Times" appeals largely to the Catholics of Irish descent in Great Britain, and has always championed the Nationalist cause. It gives considerable space to reviews and literary matter, and has a well organized service of correspondents. Mr. P.L. Beazley, the present editor, has directed it for twenty-seven years and is now the dean of Catholic journalism.

In the sixties other papers were founded, for awhile fairly prosperous, though they never won the established position of "The Catholic Times" and "The Tablet". "The Weekly Register" was a threepenny paper, of much the same character as "The Tablet", but favouring the Liberals and Nationalists. Later, under the editorship of Charles Kent and then of Mr. Wilfrid Meynell, it had a marked literary quality, but in England it is found that no paper is a permanent success at any price between the popular penny and the sixpence that gives a margin of profit on a moderate circulation. "The Weekly Register" has ceased to exist and with it "The Westminster Gazette", whose name is now that of a London evening paper. The "Westminster" was owned and edited by Pursell, afterwards biographer of Manning. During the months of newspaper controversy that preceded the definition of Papal Infallibility the "Westminster" was "non-opportunist", and Cardinal Vaughan, while he avoided all controversy on the subject in "The Tablet", contributed, week after week, letters to the "Westminster", combating its editorial views. It never had much circulation, and Vaughan was able a few years later to end its competition by buying and stopping it. The late Father Lockhart edited for some years "Catholic Opinion" a penny paper giving extracts from the Catholic press at home and abroad. After his death it was amalgamated with "The Catholic Times". A remarkable development in connexion with the popular Press is that directed by Mr. Charles Diamond, for some time a member of the Irish Parliamentary party, who started (1884) "The Irish Tribune" in Newcastle-on-Tyne. Shortly after, he purchased two other Catholic papers, the Glasgow "Observer" and the Preston "Catholic News", which were in difficulties for want of capital. He then formed the idea of working several papers from a common centre, much of the matter being common to all, but each appearing under a local title and having several columns of special matter of local interest. He now issues "The Catholic Herald" from London, as the centre of the organization, and thirty-two other local weekly papers in various towns of England, Wales, and Scotland. He also produces on the same system ten different parish magazines and "The Catholic Home Journal", with which the old "Lamp" has been amalgamated.

There are a considerable number of minor Catholic monthlies, mostly founded in recent years to advocate and promote special objects. The "Annals of the Propagation of the Faith" and "illustrated Catholic Missions" specialize on the news of the mission field. "Catholic Book Notes", a monthly issued by the Catholic Truth Society and edited by Mr. James Britten, is an admirable record of current literature and a model of scholarly and thoroughly honest reviewing. "The Second Spring", edited by Father Philip Fletcher, is a record of the work of the Ransom League for the conversion of England. "The Crucible" is a monthly review of social work for Catholic women. There are a number of devotional magazines issued by various religious orders, the most widely circulated of which is the "Messenger of the Sacred Heart", edited by the Jesuits. There are also several college magazines, some of which produce work of a high literary standard. It might be a gain if there were more concentration and fewer publications with larger circulation. Many of these have a comparatively small circle of readers; even the most widely circulated Catholic publication in England has an issue that falls far below that of its more powerful non-Catholic competitors. The result is that the scale of pay in Catholic journalism is below the ordinary press standards, and many Catholic writers in working for the Catholic Press are making a continual sacrifice; but the standard of work produced has steadily risen, and the Catholic Press in England today, with all its deficiencies and difficulties, is doing most useful work and exercises an ever growing influence.

The foregoing article is based on personal knowledge and on information kindly supplied by the editors of various publications. The following may be consulted: Lucas, The Life of Frederick Lucas, M. P. (London, 1886); Snead-Cox, Life of Cardinal Vaughan (London, 1910); Gasquet, Lord Acton and His Circle (London, 1906); Ward, Life and Times of Cardinal Wiseman (London, 1897); Idem, W. G. Ward and the Oxford Movement (London, 1889); Idem, W. G. Ward and the Catholic Revival (London, 1893).

A. Hilliard Atteridge

France.—The first periodical published in France was the "Gazette de France", founded in May, 1631, by the physician Théophraste Renaudot. It first appeared weekly, in four pages; in 1632 it had eight pages divided into two parts, one called the "Gazette", the other "Nouvelles ordinaires de divers endroits". It soon had a monthly supplement, entitled "Relations des nouvelles du monde reçues dans tout le mois", and then additional pages called "Extraordinaires". From 1652 to 1665 the "Muse Historique", edited by Loret, related in verse the happenings of each week. The "Mercure Galant", founded in 1672 by Donneau de Visé, was a literary and political journal which in 1724 became the "Mercurede France". In 1701, in opposition to the "Nouvelles de la République des Lettres", which the philosopher Bayle edited from Holland, appeared a publication called "Mémoires pour servir à 1'histoire des sciences et des beaux arts, recueillis par l'ordre de S. A. Mgr. le prince souverain de Dombes". It was edited by the Jesuits and is known in history as the "Journal de Trévoux", and was maintained until the suppression of the Society of Jesus. The "Année Littéraire", edited by Fréron (1754-76), was a formidable opponent of the philosophes, and especially of Voltaire, whose doctrines it combatted. It was published every ten days. An Anglo-French paper, the "Courrierde Londres", was founded in London in 1776. It appeared twice a week, and was very influential in developing the Revolutionary spirit. The first French daily was founded in 1777 and was called the "Journal de Paris ou la Poste du soir". The "Gazettede France" became a daily in 1792.

At the beginning of the eighteenth century twenty journals were printed in Paris, and at the outbreak of the Revolution this number had been trebled. Between May, 1789, and May, 1793, about a thousand periodicals saw the light. The most important organ of the Royalist opposition was called the "Actes des Apôtres", to which such writers as Rivarol, Bergasse, and Montlosier contributed under the editorship of Peltier. Under the Directory forty journals suspected of Royalism were suppressed and their editors deported. The Consulate would tolerate only thirteen political dailies, and the First Empire only four. The "Journal des Débats", owing to the idea of its founders, the Bertin brothers, of uniting with it a literary feuilleton written by the critic Geoffroy, took first rank under the Empire. Geoffroy's influence was important from a religious point of view, for in his feuilletons he voluntarily treated all the philosophical questions, and carried on a most intelligent campaign against Voltaireanism.

Under the Restoration Catholicism was defended by the "Gazette de France", the "Quotidienne" the "Mémorial religieux", the "Défenseur", the "Catholique", the "Correspondant", the "Mémorial", and the "Conservateur". The last-named was one of the most important; Châteaubriand, Bonald, Lammenais, and the Cardinal de La Luzerne were among its contributors. But even then the divisions among Catholics weakened the influence of their Press. Under the Restoration the Voltairean spirit had in the Press of the Left a representative who was very formidable to religious ideas namely the pamphleteer Paul-Louis Courrier. The Gallican spirit was represented in the "Drapeau Blanc" by the Comte de Montlosier, while the Monarchist journal, the "Constitutionnel", in order to retain a certain clientele, systematically published, several times a week, absurd and calumniating tales concerning the clergy. The systematic Anticlerical Press in France dates from the period of the Restoration, and at the same time a large section of the Monarchist press was hostile to the Church. In his book on the "Congregation" M. Geoffroy de Grandmaison has drawn up a list of eighteen anticlerical articles published by the "Constitutionnel" in the single month of September, 1826.

Under the Monarchy of July the first noteworthy incident was the publication of the "Avenir" (see Lamennais. The Legitimist Press, of Catholic tendencies, offered a vigorous opposition to the Monarchy of July, the chief organs being the "Quotidienne" (see Laurentie) and the old "Gazette", of which the Abbé de Genonde was long the principal editor. Crétineau-Joly issued a provincial journal, the "Gazette du Dauphiné", a fearless instrument of Catholic and Legitimist propaganda. The first really serious attempt at Catholic journalism belongs to this period. On Sunday, 3 Nov., 1833, appeared the first number of the "Univers religieux, politique, scientifique et littéraire". Its motto was: "Unity in what is certain, liberty in what is doubtful, charity, truth, and impartiality in all." It was founded by the Abbé Migne. Offsetting the "Ami de la Religion" and the "Journal des villes et des campagnes", which were of Gallican tendencies, the "Univers", with which the "Tribune", founded by Bailly, was soon merged, represented the most distinctly Roman tendency. Montalembert became associated with the "Univers" in 1835; Louis Veuillot contributed to it his first article in 1839. The "Univers", as the centre of the Catholic campaigns for liberty of instruction, assured a widespread circulation to the claims of the bishops and the speeches of Montalembert and Lacordaire. The "Opinion Publique", founded in 1848 by Alfred Nettement, was a Royalist Catholic journal, which was assured a literary reputation by the contributions of Barbey d'Aurevilly and Armand de Pontmartin. In the same year, at the instance of Ozanam and the Abbé Maret, Lacordaire founded the "Ere Nouvelle", which within three months received 3200 subscriptions, chiefly among the younger clergy, but which did not last long.

Under the Second Empire several very serious discussions occupied the attention of the Catholic Press: viz., the use of the pagan classics in secondary studies (see Gaume); the controversy aroused by the baptism of the Jewish child Mortara, of Bologna, who had been baptized during a serious illness by a Christian servant without the knowledge of his parents, and subsequently reared as a Christian at the command of the Pontifical Government; and the discussions concerning the Roman question. In the course of the discussions on the last-named topic the "Univers" was suppressed by an imperial decree of 29 Jan., 1860, as being guilty of having "compromised public order, the independence of the State, the authority and the dignity of religion". It reappeared 15 April, 1867, and played a very important part during the years preceding the Vatican Council. The "Français", founded 1 April, 1868, by Augustin Cochin and Mgr Dupanloup, received contributions from the Duc de Broglie, M. Thureau-Dangin (at present permanent secretary of the French Academy), and the future minister Buffet, and was constantly engaged in controversy with the "Univers".

The law of 29 July, 1881, definitely established the complete freedom of the press, and submitted to juries formed of simple citizens the political suits brought by officials against newspapers. The law of 1893 against Anarchist abuses was a restriction of the absolute liberty of the Press, but this law is seldom enforced. The characteristic fact of the history of the Press under the Third Republic is the development of five-centime journals, inaugurated as early as 1836 by the foundation of the "Presse" under the auspices of Emile de Girardin.

At the present time the two Catholic journals of Paris are the "Univers" and the "Croix". For the former, see France. The "Croix" is published by the Maison de la Bonne Presse, which originated in the foundation in 1873 of the "Pèlerin", a bulletin of societies and an organ of pilgrimages, which in 1867 became an illustrated journal, amusing and sometimes satirical; its present circulation is 300,000. In 1880 a monthly review, the "Croix", was founded, which became a daily in June, 1883, after the second penitential crusade to the Holy Places organized by the Assumptionists. After the Associations Law the Maison de la Bonne Presse was purchased in 1900 by M. Paul Féron-Vrau; it employs a staff of about 600 persons. For its great journal, the "Croix", it has throughout the country more than 10,000 committees and nearly 50,000 promoters. It has more direct subscriptions than any Parisian journal, and its circulation places it fourth in rank. It costs one sou (five centimes), and since 1 Jan., 1907, has had six large pages. For purposes of propaganda there is a smaller paper issued daily, which is delivered in quantities to the clergy for 8 or 9 centimes weekly. The "Croix du Dimanche", appearing weekly, besides the news of the week, gives agricultural information in a supplement called the "Laboureur". The "Croix illustrée" has appeared since 24 Dec., 1900, and soon reached a circulation of 50,000 copies. The Ligue de l'Ave Maria founded Oct., 1888, under the inspiration of Admiral Guicquel des Touches, has had a monthly, the "Petit Journal bleu", since 1897, with a circulation of over 100,000. Its direct subscription price is only 25 centimes yearly, and a number of copies for propaganda may be secured for a half-centime per copy.

The Maison de la Bonne Presse also publishes the "Action Catholique" (founded 1899), a monthly review; the "Chronique de la Bonne Presse", a weekly, founded 25 April, 1900, to give information concerning the movement of ideas in the Press; the "Conférences", a semi-monthly review which supplies accounts of conferences; the "Fascinateur", which gives notes on photographic slides and views for Catholic conferences; the "Cosmos", a popular scientific review, founded by the Abbé Moigno in 1852; the "Contemporains", founded in 1892, which each week gives the biography of some celebrated person; "Echos d'Orient", founded in 1896 and devoted to Oriental and Byzantine questions; "Questions Actuelles", a weekly, founded in 1887, which publishes all recent documents bearing on political and religious questions; the "Revue d'Organization et de Défense Religieuse", founded in 1908, a semi-monthly review, which studies religious questions from a legal standpoint; the "Mois Littéraire et Pittoresque", a popular review founded in 1899; the "Vies des Saints", founded in 1880; "Nöel", for children, founded in 1895; and two reviews devoted to the two capitals of Christendom: "Rome", founded Dec., 1903; and "Jérusalem", founded July, 1904. In a single year 350,000 letters reach the Maison de la Bonne Presse.

Another Parisian Catholic daily is the "Démocratie", founded by M. Sangnier, former president of the "Sillon". The first number appeared a few days previous to the Encyclical of Pius X on the "Sillon" (Aug., 1910), and the publication has continued with the authority of Cardinal Merry del Val. The "Libre Parole", an anti-Semitic journal founded in 1891 by M. Edouard Drumont, has since 1910 been marked by a Catholic tendency owing to the collaboration of several members of the Association Catholique de la Jeunesse Française. At Saint-Maixent (Deux-Sèvres) has been founded the Maison de la Bonne Presse de l'Ouest, which publishes parochial bulletins and almanacs. The circulation of the bulletins equalled (1908) nearly 100,000 monthly copies for 300 parishes, that of yearly almanacs nearly 200,000 copies for more than 800 parishes.

By means of fourteen combinations the "Croix" of Paris is transformed into a local journal, partly general in character, but always retaining its title of the "Croix". Under the title of "Libert pour tous" the Maison de la Bonne Presse de l'Ouest publishes a four-page journal; two pages forming the common section figure in all the local journals which wish to borrow them, the other two form the special section and vary according to locality. In August, 1905, M. Paul Féron-Vrau founded the "Presse Régionale", a society for the creation or purchase in each diocese of a number of Catholic journals. At present this society owns the "Expressde Lyon", the "Nouvellistede Bretagne" at Rennes, the "République de l'Isère" at Grenoble, the "Journal d'Amiens", the "Express de l'Ouest" at Nantes, the "Eclair de l'Est" at Nancy, and the "Eclair Comtois" at Besançon.

The "Nouvellistes", which are journals with Royalist tendencies, are all Catholic. Bordeaux, Rennes, and Rouen have such publications. The best known is the "Nouvellistede Lyon", noted for its political news. In the north the Catholics have numerous local journals; the Lille "Dépêche", the "Journalde Roubaix", and the "Croix du Nord" have together about 170,000 subscribers. The "Onset-Eclair" has a wide circulation in Catholic Brittany. The departments of the South have no Catholic journal capable of combating seriously with the "Dépêchede Toulouse", a radical anticlerical journal and one of the most powerful political organs in France, The organization of the "Presse pour tous", founded in 1903 by Mme Taine, widow of the celebrated philosopher, collects subscriptions for the distribution of good papers among study circles or shops having many customers.

The Catholics of France founded in 1905 the "Agence de la Presse nouvelle", a telegraphic agency for Catholic news. It supplied the news for 1908 to about one hundred papers. There is also a religious and social information-bureau, the object of which is to centralize the religious news of various countries, and which as early as 1908 had correspondents in forty-two dioceses. The most important French Catholic review is the "Correspondant", issued on the 10th and 25th of every month. It was at first (March 1829) a semi-weekly paper. Its founders were Carné Cazalès, and Augustin de Meaux, and its motto was Canning's words: "Civil and religious liberty throughout the world". Its object was to reconcile Catholicism and modern ideas. During the Monarchy of July it underwent various vicissitudes. In 1853 Montalembert wished to build it up in order to offset the influence of Louis Veuillot and the "Univers" and he secured the co-operation of Albert de Broglie, Falloux, and Dupanloup. Its frequent praise of English parliamentary institutions aroused the suspicions of the empire. The "Correspondant" was at one with the "Univers" in defending the temporal power of the pope, and also felt at times the harshness of the imperial police. During the Vatican Council there was sharp conflict between the "Univers", which was for Infallibility, and the "Correspondant", which was against it. Under the Third Republic the "Correspondant" was successively edited by MM. Léon Lavedan, Etienne Lamy of the French Academy, and Etienne Trogau, and endeavoured to show, according to the terms of its programme of 1829, that Catholicism "still holds within its fruitful breast the wherewithal to satisfy all the needs, wishes, and hopes of humanity". The "Bulletin de la Semaine", published since 1905, gives weekly a number of documents and articles of present interest on religious questions. Founded by M. Imbart de La Tour, this paper, while not concerning itself with dogmatic questions, recalls in certain respects, by the spirit of its religious policy, the tendency of the "Correspondant" during the pontificate of Pius IX.

In 1856 the Jesuits Charles Daniel and Jean Gagarin founded the "Etudes de théologie, de philosophic et d'histoire", with the aim of furthering Russia's return to the Catholic Church. This soon became a semimonthly, dealing with all important religious questions and entitled "Etudes religieuses, historiques et littéraires, publiées par des Pères de lan Compagnie de Jésus". Consequent on the decrees of 1880 against congregations it was suspended, but resumed publication in 1888. In 1910 was founded the "Recherrches", wherein the Fathers of the Society of Jesus treat the most interesting problems of religions knowledge. The Assumptionists own the "Revue Augustinienne"; the Dominicans the "Revue Thomiste" (1893), and the "Revue de la Jeunesse" (1909), published in Belgium. Since 1892 the Dominicans of Jerusalem have owned the "Revue Biblique". The Institut Catholique of Paris has a bulletin; many of the professors of the Catholic University of Lyons contribute to the "Université Catholique" of that city. The Catholic University of Angers has the "Revue des Facultés Catholiques de l'Ouest"; the Institut Catholique of Toulouse the "Bulletin d'histoire et littérature reigieuse". There are two Catholic philosophical reviews: the "Revue de Philosophie", founded in 1900 by M. Peillaube, in connexion with the school of philosophy which is striving for a compromise between Thomism and contemporary results in physiology and psychology; and the "Annales de philosophie chrétienne", founded in 1828 by Augustin Bonnetty. The chief editors of the latter are MM. Laberthonnière and Maurice Blondel, and its motto the saying of St. Augustine: "Let us seek as those who would find, and find as those who would still seek".

The "Revue des Questions Historiques", founded in 1866, does great credit to Catholic learning. Its present editor is M. Jean Guiraud, professor at the University of Besançon. Since 1907 the French Benedictines who have emigrated to Belgium have created the "Revue Mabillon", an important review of Benedictine history. The "Revue d'histoire de l'Eglisede France" (Analecta Gallicana) was founded in 1910. The two chief reviews for the clergy are the "Ami du clergé", published at Langres since 1878, and the "Revue du Clergé Français", published at Paris since 1894. The "Revue pratique d'Apologétique", founded in 1905, is edited by Mgr Baudrillart, rector of the Paris Institut Catholique. A characteristic of recent years is the issue of political and social bulletins published by various female Catholic sodalities and intended for Catholic women. One of the chief reviews of the Catholic social movement is the "Chronique socialede France" (formerly "Chronique du Sud Est") the organ of the group which organized the Semaines sociales. A powerful movement of Catholic social journalism is due to the bureaux of the Action populaire organized at Reims (see France). The periodical yellow pamphlets issued by the Action Populaire between 1903 and 1911 have reached the number of 236. Besides its annual "Guides sociaux" it publishes a theoretical review of social studies, founded in 1876 by the organization of Catholic workmen as the "Association Catholique", now called the "Mouvement social, revue catholique internationale". It issues a popular social review called the "Revue verte", or "Revue de l'Action populaire". Finally, the Action populaire publishes "Brochures périodiques d'Action reigieuse", which are unquestionably the most interesting sources of information with regard to the undertakings of the Church of France since its separation from the State.

Tavernier, Du journalisme, son histoire, son rôle politique et religieux (Paris, 19020; Guide d'Action Religieuse, published by the Action populaire of Reims (1908).

Georges Goyau

Germany.—The Catholic periodical press of Germany is a product of the nineteenth century. It is only within the last forty years that it has become important by its circulation and its ability. A number of Catholic journals are, however, much older. The oldest, the "Augsburg Postzeitung", was founded in 1695, and five others were established in the eighteenth century. Of those which were founded in the early part of the nineteenth century the most important is the "Westfälischer Merkur", established at Münster in 1822, which at first, it is true, had a Liberal tendency. Until 1848 Catholic journalism did not prosper. In this reactionary period the severe censorship of the government authorities was a drawback to the Press in general; Catholic journals were viewed in an even less friendly spirit than the others. In Würtemberg and Hesse no Catholic journals were allowed to be published. Up to the second and third decades of the nineteenth century, on the other hand, the Catholics themselves seemed to be in a condition of intellectual torpor. For the most part, the clergy were under the influence of Protestantism and the prevailing philosophy of the times. Cultured society, the Catholic no less than the Protestant, was under the influence of the "all-embracing religion of humanity", which diluted Christianity.

The "Theologische Zeitschrift" of Bamberg, edited by J. J. Batz and Father Brenner, may be regarded as the oldest periodical, but its existence lasted only from 1809 to 1814. It was followed by the "Katholische Literaturzeitung", first edited by Father K. Felder, then by Kaspar Anton von Mastiaux, who was succeeded by Friedrich von Kerz and Anton von Besnard (1810-36). The oldest of the periodicals still in existence is the "Tübinger Theologische Quartalschrift", founded in 1819, which has always had a high reputation on account of its genuinely scholarly spirit. Among its editors have been Hirscher, Möhler, Kuhn, Hefele, Welte, Linsemaun, Funke, and Schanz, names of the highest repute in the history of theology. In 1821 the "Katholik" was founded by Andreas Räss and Nikolaus Weis, afterwards Bishops of Strasburg and Speyer respectively. The purpose was stated to be "to offer the necessary opposition to the attacks, partly open, partly concealed, against the Church, by orthodox articles on the doctrines of faith and morals, Church history and liturgy, the training of children, devotional exercises by the people, and all that belongs to the Catholic Faith". The chief collaborator in 1824-26 was the great publicist Joseph von Görres, but the responsible editors were G. Scheiblein and Fr. L. Br. Liebermann. In 1827, Weis again became the chief editor. He was followed by Franz Xaver Dieringer (1841-43); Franz Sausen (1844-49); Johann Baptist Heinrich and Christoph Moufang (1850-90); Michael Raich (1891-1906); Joseph Becker and Joseph Selbst (from 1907). Since the appearance of the new Scholasticism the "Katholik" has been its exponent.

The Catholic movement was greatly aided by the arrest in 1837 of the Archbishops of Cologne and Posen-Gnesen, von Droste-Vischering and von Dunin. Connected with this is the founding of the "Historisch-politische Blätter", by Georg Phillips and Guido Görres in 1838. This periodical contended against false theories of the state, ecclesiastical Liberalism, and the writing of history from a Protestant point of view. Distinguished publicists such as Joseph Görres, father of Guido, and the converted jurist Karl Ernst Jarek collaborated on the journal and gained for it a lasting influence. Up to 1871 it Was the most prominent journalistic organ of the Catholics. Its position in politics was that of Greater Germany. After the death of Görres (1852) the chief editor was Edmund Jörg; the assistant editor from 1858 up to Jörg's death in 1901 was Franz Binder. From 1903 Binder and Georg Jochner have shared the editorial responsibility. Other periodicals were only short-lived, as the Hermesian "Zeitschrift für Philosophie und katholische Theologie" that existed from 1833 to 1852; the "Jahrbücher für Theologie und christliche Philosophie" (1834-47), edited by the theological faculty of Giessen; the "Zeitschrift für Theologie", edited at Freiburg in 1839-49; the "Archiv für theologische Literatur", edited by Döllinger, Haneberg, etc., from 1842 to 1843; the "Katholische Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft und Kunst", edited by Dieringer 1844-46, and the continuation of this periodical, the "Katholische Vierteljahrsschrift für Wissenschaft und Kunst", 1847-49. In addition there were various church weeklies.

The year 1848 and the political and religious emancipations which it brought were of much importance for Catholic life and the Catholic press. The freedom of the Press enabled the journals to express public opinion. From this time on each important periodical became the advocate of some definite political idea. Moreover, another result of 1848 was freedom of association, of which the Catholics at once made use to the largest possible extent. An increase in the circulation of the journals already existing and the founding of new ones was very materially aided by the Catholic societies. A rich Catholic life arose and came into public notice with unexpected power. Thus in the years directly succeeding 1848 a large number of new periodicals appeared. Among them were, to mention only the more important, the "Echo der Gegenwart" of Aachen; the "Rheinische Volkshalle" of Cologne, which, from 2 Oct., 1849, took. the name of "Deutsche Volkshalle"; the "Mainzer Journal", edited by Franz Sausen: the "Deutsches Volksblatt" of Stuttgart; the "Niederrheinische Vplkszeitung" of Krefeld; in 1849 the "Westfälisches Volksblatt" of Paderborn; in 1852 the "Münsterische Anzeiger"; in 1853 the "Rheinischen Volksblätter" of Cologne; in 1854 the "Neue Augsburger Zeitung"; in 1856 the "Bayrischer Kurier" of Munich. In addition the conference of bishops held at Würzburg (November, 1848) expressed the wish that there should be founded in all dioceses Sunday papers containing edifying and instructive matter. Of such journals the one that attained the most importance was the "Frankfurter katholisches Kirchenblatt". The most important journals during the fifth decade of the nineteenth century were the "Deutsche Volkshalle" of Cologne, the "Mainzer Journal" and the "Deutsches Volksblatt". The "Deutsche Volkshalle" was suppressed 10 July, 1855, because its attitude towards the Government had not been friendly. Its place was taken by a journal planned on a large scale, the "Deutschland" of Frankfort, founded in 1855 by the city parish priest and well-known writer, Beda Weber. After two years it ceased, not from lack of vitality, but on account of bad financial management. The "Kölnische Blätter", issued from 1 April, 1860, by J. P. Bachem of Cologne, had a more fortunate fate. From 1 Jan., 1869, this well-edited paper bore the name of "Kölnische Volkszeitung". Further, during the sixties appeared the "Freiburger Bote" (1865); the "Fränkische Volksblatt" of Würzburg (1867); the "Essener Volkszeitung" (1868); the "Osanbrücker Volkszeitung" (1868); and the"Schlesische Volkszeitung" (1869).

In 1862 the "Literarischer Handweiser" was founded at Münster by Franz Hülskamp and Hermann Rump, to give information concerning the latest literary publications. From 1876, after Rump's death, Hülskamp edited it alone; from 1904 it has been edited by Edmund Niesert. The "Chilianeum", a general review for "learning, art, and life" was founded at Würzburg and edited by J. B. Stamminger; the review had excellent collaborators, but lived only from 1862 to 1869. During the sixties there was also established the organ of the German Jesuits, the "Stimmen aus Maria-Laach", which originally (from 1865) appeared at irregular intervals as pamphlets on burning questions of Catholic principles. It was called into existence by the storm against the Syllabus and the Encyclical of 8 Dec., 1864. From 1871 it has been issued regularly and has included within the scope of its observation all important questions and events. Its circle of collaborators includes the most noted German Jesuits, as Alexander Baumgartner (now deceased), Stephan Beissel, Viktor Cathrein, Franz Ehrle, Wilhelm Kreiten (now deceased), Angustin Lehmkuhl, Christian and Tilmann Peach, etc. In 1866 the excellent "Theologisches Literaturblatt" of Bonn was founded, but after 1870 it became an organ of the Old Catholics.

The Kulturkampf now broke out, which consolidated the Catholics, and impressed on them most powerfully the necessity of a press of their own. Consequently the larger number of Catholic periodicals have appeared from the seventies on. Simultaneous with the occurrence of the Kulturkampf was the founding of the Centre Party (Dec., 1870). Since then a Catholic paper and a paper that is the organ of the Centre Party are with very few exceptions identical. The exciting years of the ecclesiastico-political struggle small papers particularly, such as the "Kaplanspresse" (curate's press), shot up like mushrooms. On 1 Jan., 1871 the "Germania" newspaper appeared at Berlin, as the new and most important organ of the Centre Party; it was founded as a company by members of the Catholic societies of Berlin with the active and praiseworthy aid of the embassy councillor Friedrich Kehler (died 1901). Up to 1878 Paul Majunke (died 1899) wrote for it articles that were exceedingly sharp and contentious in tone. He was followed as editor up to 1881 by the learned and more moderate Dr. Adolf Franz, who was succeeded by Theodor Stahl, Dr. Eduard Marcour, and, from 1894, Hermann ten Brink. Besides the "Germania" and the "Kölnische Volkszeitung", which latter has been edited from 1876 by Dr. Herman Cardauns with great skill and intelligence, there are important provincial periodicals that maintain Catholic interests. Of these should be mentioned: the "Deutsche Reichszeitung" founded at Bonn in 1872; the "Düsseldorfer Volksblatt", that developed greatly under the editorial guidance of Dr. Eduard Hüsgen; the "Niederrheinische Volkszeitung" of Krefeld; the "Essener Volkszeitung"; the "Trierische Landeszeitung", founded in 1873 by the energetic chaplain Georg Friedrich Dasbach (died 1907); the "Westfälischer Merkur" of Münster, edited by J. Hoffmann and Chaplain Karl Böddinghaus; the "Tremonia" of Dortmund, founded in 1875; the "Münsterischer Anzeiger"; the "Westfälisches Volksblatt" of Paderborn; the Schlesische Volkszeitung" of Breslau edited by Dr. Arthur Hager, one of the "most dashing champions of the Centre Party"; the "Deutsches Volksblatt" of Stuttgart; the "Mainzer Journal"; the "Badischer Beobachter"; the "Augsburger Postzeitung"; the "Bayerischer Kurier" of Munich. The editors had to make great personal sacrifices, for the legal actions against them for violations of the press laws the confiscations, fines, and imprisonments were almost endless. It must be acknowledged that there were some editorial elements whose speech and method of fighting did no honour to their cause. Among the weekly papers the "Katholisches Volksblatt" of Mainz had a large circulation (35,000), and great influence in Southern Germany; the "Schwarzes Blatt" was published at Berlin as a paper of general scope for the common people.

It was in the era of the Kulturkampf (1875) that the first large illustrated family periodical "Der Deutsche Hausschatz" was founded at Ratisbon; it had a large circulation and was edited 1875-88 by Venanz Müller; 1888-98 by Heinrich Keiter; at present by Dr. Otto Denk. A new literary journal was also established in 1875 by the secular priest J. Köhler under the name of the "Literarische Rundschau für das katholische Deutschland". From this time on the Catholic Press has steadily grown. The number of political newspapers and eeclesiastico-political Sunday papers was: in 1880, 186; in 1890, 272; in 1900; 419; in 1908, 500. In Prussia alone the Catholic periodicals numbered in 1870, 49; in 1880, 109; in 1890, 149; in 1900, 270. The number of Catholic periodicals appearing in Germany in 1890 was 143. Since this date the number has more than doubled.

The present condition of the Catholic Press is as follows:

(1) Daily political newspapers 278; political newspapers appearing four times weekly, 14; three times weekly, 134; twice weekly, 83; once weekly, 64; in addition there are 19, the time of appearance of which is unknown, making altogether 592. In regard to the extent of the circulation of these newspapers, statements as to the issue have been given by the publishers of 338 of them. The total issue of all for one number amounts to 1,938,434. The issue printed by the remaining 254 can be averaged as 1500 for each number, altogether as 381,000. According to this all the political newspapers taken together issue a total edition of 2,319,434 for one number. In 1880 the number of subscribers to the Catholic papers was estimated at 596,000; in 1890 Keiter estimated it at over 1,000,000. The growth, therefore, was very large. Unfortunately, a comparison with the Protestant Press cannot be made because comprehensive statistics are lacking, and because there is some uncertainty as to just what would be meant by a "Protestant newspaper". Yet it may be accepted that the Catholic Press would equal it in the number of its organs and subscribers.

An important Catholic newspaper is the "Kölnische Volkszeitung", which appears three times daily; the editor-in-chief from 1907 is Dr. Karl Hoeber, the publisher J. P. Bachem of Cologne; circulation 26,500 copies. Its quiet, dignified, conciliatory tone, combined with firmness of principle, has gained for it the respect of all, especially the cultured circles, and its influence extends far beyond the limits of Germany. The "Germania" is next to it in reputation; the editor-in-chief of the "Germania" is Hermann ten Brink, the publisher. Financially it is less favourably situated than the Cologne journal, because being published in a Protestant city, it lacks advertisements. In 1882 its circulation was 7000 copies; its present circulation is unknown, but it is probably from 12,000 to 14,000. The other newspapers previously mentioned in speaking of the Kulturkampf have also prospered and developed, with the possible exception of the "Westfälischer Merkur", which has declined somewhat. The one with the largest number of subscribers is the "Essener Volkszeitung" (54,500).

(2) There are published in the German Empire over 300 Catholic periodicals, which have about 5,000,000 subscribers. Among these are: (a) General reviews, 8. The most important, finest in tone contents, and artistic execution is the monthly "Hochland", founded in 1903 and edited by Karl Muth; the publisher is J. Kösel of Munich, and an edition contains 10,000 copies. The list of collaborators contains the names of Bäumker, Cardauns, Finke, Grauert, von Handel-Mazzetti, von Hertling, Kiefi, Mausbach, Pastor, Schanz (now deceased), Schell (now deceased), Schönbach, Spahn, Streitberg, Willmann. The monthly called "Der Aar", founded in 1910, seeks to compete with the "Hochland", but falls a little below the other; the editor is Dr. Otto Denk, the publisher is Pustet at Ratisbon. The semi-monthly "Die Historisch-politische Blätter", published by Riedel at Munich, edition 3000 copies, and the "Stimmen aus Maria-Laach", published ten times a year by Herder at Freiburg, edition 5200 copies, are carried on, on the same lines as heretofore. The "Allgemeine Rundschau", a semi-monthly edited and published by Dr. Armin Kausen at Munich, devotes itself to the living questions of political and religious life. It specially combats immorality in life and art.

(b) Theological reviews, 10, diocesan and parochial papers, about 20. A description has already been given of the "Theologische Quartalschrift", published by Laupp at Tübingen, edition 630 copies; and the "Katholik", published by Kirchheim at Mainz, edition 800 copies. A good periodical for theological literature is the "Theologische Revue", edited by Prof. Diekamp, published by Aschendorff at Münster, edition 950 copies. (c) Family and religious-popular periodicals, 90. The subscription list of the oldest and highest in repute of this class, the "Deutsche Hausschatz", has declined; it is published by Pustet at Ratisbon, and its edition in 1900 was 38,000 copies; in 1908, 28,000; the number of copies forming an edition at present is unknown. Large circulations are enjoyed by: the "Stadt Gottes", edited by the Society of the Word of God, at Steyl, edition 140,000 copies; the "Christliche Familie", edited by Dr. Jos. Burg, published by Fredebeul and Koenen at Essen, edition 150,000 copies; the "Katholisches Sonntagsblatt" of Stuttgart, edition 75,000 copies.

(d) Legal, national, and socio-economic, 6; among these is the "Archiv für katholisches Kirchenrecht", founded by Ernst von Moy in 1857, edited later by Friedrich H. Vering, and at present by Franz Heiner, published by Kirchheim at Mainz.

(e) Scientific periodicals, 3. The most important of these is "Natur und Offenbarung", edited by Dr. Forch, published by Aschendorff at Münster, edition 900 copies;

(f) Philosophical periodicals, 2;

(g) Educational periodicals, 34;

(h) Historical periodicals, 10. Among these one of general importance is the "Historisches Jahrbuch der Görresgesellschaft", founded in 1880. Its former editors are: Hüffer, Hermann Grauert, Joseph Weiss; its present editor is Max Jansen; it is published by Herder at Munich, edition about 750 copies.

(i) Periodicals for historical art, 6. Among these are the two illustrated monthlies "Zeitschrift für christliche Kunst", edited by Prof. Dr. Schnütgen, published by Schwann at Düsseldorf, edition 900 copies; and "Die christliche Kunst", edited by J. Staudhamer, published by the Society for Christian Art of Munich, edition 6400 copies;

(j) Periodicals for church music, 8.

(k) Literary journals, 18. Among these are the "Literarischer Haudweiser", published by Theissing at Münster, and the "Literarische Rundschau für das katholische Deutschland", edited by Prof. Joseph Sauer, published by Herder at Freiburg;

(l) Missionary periodicals, 14;

(m) Periodicals for children and youth, 21;

(n) Periodicals issued by Catholic associations, 24.

Up to the present time the growth of the Catholic Press of Germany has been both rapid and steady. As the Catholics in Germany number about 21,000,000, there is room for an increase in the sales of these periodicals, and their circulation will probably grow still larger. On the other hand an increase in the number of organs is less necessary and desirable. The effort should rather be made to overcome the decided disparity between quantity and quality. There are, perhaps, no more than a dozen Catholic dailies which have a really high value. Most of the others limit themselves to a systematic use of correspondence, the collection of notices, and polemics that are not always very skilful; they are also, in part, so monotonous that they can only be enjoyed by an unassuming circle of readers. The relatively small subscription lists of the really important journals and the undue number of small periodicals show that the cultivated classes satisfy their need of reading in part with non-Catholic periodicals. The case is the same with the family papers. An issue of 10,000 copies is very small for so excellent a review as "Hochland". The satisfaction expressed in each succeeding edition of Keiter's "Handbuch der katholischen Presse" over the growth of the Catholic press refers only to quantity. In regard to quality there is little choice.

Klemens Löffler

Holland.—Towards the end of the eighteenth century the grinding oppression, under which the Catholic Faith in the Northern Netherlands had laboured so long, began to grow less marked, and the Catholics, upon whose printing-presses the Government had always kept a vigilant eye, now ventured to assert themselves more in public life and even to issue periodicals in order to proclaim and uphold their religious principles. The first attempt was on a most modest scale and appeared under the title of "Kerkelijke Bibliotheek" (6 vols., 1794-96), followed by the "Mengelingen voor Roomsch-Catholijken" (5 vols., 1807-14), edited by Prof. J. Schrant, Rev. J. W. A. Muller, and Prof. J. H. Lexius. But the man who inspired Catholic periodical literature with life and vigour and brought it to comparative perfection was Joachim George le Sage ten Broek (died 1847), a convert from Protestantism (1806) and known in Holland as the "Father of the Roman Catholic Press". In 1818 he founded "De Godsdienstvriend" (102 vols., 1818-69), containing articles of local interest, recent ecclesiastical intelligence, and especially moderate polemics against Protestant and Liberal pretensions, by which he united the efforts of the Catholics in their struggle for emancipation. Assisted by his adopted son, Josué Witz, Le Sage displayed a great and wonderful energy not only in his books, but also in several serials, edited by him or at least with his collaboration, viz., the works of the "R. Cath. Maatschappy" (1821-2), suppressed in 1823, the "R. Kath. Bibliotheek" (6 vols., 1821-6), the "Godsdienstige en zedekundige mengelingen" (1824-8), the "Bijdragen totde Godsdienstvriend" (2 vols., 1824-7), "De Ultramontaan" (5 vols., 1826-30) with its sequels, "De Morgenstar" (2 vols., 1831-2) and "De Morgenstar der toekernst" (7 vols., 1832-5), finally, "De Correspondent" (3 vols., 1833-4) continued later by Josué Witz in the "Catholijke Nederlandsche Stemmen" (22 vols., 1835-56), appearing under the title of "Kerkelijke Courant" from 1857 till 1873. Besides this in 1844 Witz started a popular magazine, "Uitspanningslectuur" (40 vols., 1844-52). In the mean time other serials were published in the Catholic interest, viz., "Minerva" (6 vols., 1818-20), continued in "De Katholijke" (3 vols., 1822-4), "Katholikon" (3 vols., 1828-30), "De Christelijke Mentor" (2 vols., 1828-9), "Magazijn voor R.-Katholieken" (9 vols., 1835-45), and "Godsdienstig, geschied-en letterkundig Tijdschrift" (2 vols., 1838-39), but none of these survived. A new generation of Catholic writers soon arose, by whom the struggle for emancipation was continued on a more scientific basis.

In 1842 F. J. van Vree, later Bishop of Haarlem. Th. Borret, C. Broere, J. F. Leesberg, and others founded the best and oldest of the periodicals still existing, "De Katholiek" (138 vols., 1842-1910). This periodical in the course of time introduced many new features which have increased its usefulness, the most important being the admission of lengthier articles contributed by prominent Catholic scholars. A fresh impetus in the field of art and literature was given by Jos. Alberdingk Thijm's "Dietsche Warande" (27 vols., 1855-90) and his more popular "Volksalmanak" (50 vols., 1852-1901), the later issues being entitled "Jaarboekje" (7 vols., 1902-08) and finally consolidated with the "Annuarium der Apologetische Vereeniging Petrus Canisius" (2 vols., 1909-10). Under Thijm's direction two eminent writers were formed: Dr. H.J. Schaepman, poet and politician, and Dr. W. Nuijens, the historian, who, having jointly founded the "Kath. Nederl. Brochurenvereeniging" (27 brochures, 1869-70), transformed it later into the more scientific monthly "Onze Wachter" (23 vols., 1874-85), combined with "De Wachter" (6 vols., 1871-3), afterwards named "De Katholiek" in 1885. Meanwhile "De Wachter" (12 vols., 1874-85), more especially devoted to studies of Dante, continued to exist under the editorship of J. Bohl and was finally merged in "De wetenschappelijke Nederlander" in which the Rev. J. Brouwers published many interesting Essays (8 vols., 1881-90). Recently "De Katholiek" has found powerful competitors in "Van onzen tijd" (at first a monthly, 15 vols., 1900-10; then a weekly, 1 vol., 1910-1911) and in the "Annalen der vereeniging tot het bevorderen van de beoefening der wetenschap onder de katholicken in Nederland" (2 vols., 1907-10), which contain articles of a most scholarly character. In this country as elsewhere the Jesuits have edited a periodical of their own, the valuable "Studiën. Tijdschrift voor godsdienst, wetenschap, letteren" (74 vols., 1868-1910), while in "De katholieke missiën" (35 vols., 1876-1910) they have kept up a lively interest in the foreign missions, towards which Holland has always been so generous. In the field of purely historical research there are the "Bijdragen voor de geschiedenis van het bisdom van Haarlem" (33 vols., 1873-1910) and the "Archief voor heb aarbsbisdom Utrecht" (36 vols., 1875-1910), which together with the historical contributions appearing in the other periodicals fully answer the existing interest; it was this that led to the early collapse of the "Geschiedkundige Bladen" (4 vols., 1905-6). No better fate awaited the only periodical on ecclesiastical art, "Het Gildeboek" (3 vols., 1873-81; "Verslagen", 11 vols., 1886-90) edited by Mgr van Henkelum, dean of St. Bernulph's Guild, but its work is still carried on in part by the Belgian-Dutch review "Sint Lucas" (2 vols., 1908-10). "De katholieke Gids" (20 vols., 1889-1908), a monthly, the contents of which were never of any great moment, met a similar fate; as did the weekly "Stemmen onzer Eeuw" (1905-06), while the only educational paper "Opvoeding en Onderwijs" (2 vols., 1908-10), recently founded, seems already to be on the wane. Among the apologetic papers there are some that deserve special mention: "Het Dompertje van den onden Valentijn" (32 vols., 1867-1900), succeeded by "Het nieuwe Dompertje" (4 vols., 1901-4), and "Het Dompertje" (6 vols., 1905-10), the works of the "Willibrordusvereeniging" (180 brochures, 1896-1910), the series "Geloof en Wetenschap" (36 booklets, 1904-10) as well as the publications issued by the "Apologetische vereeniging Petrus Canisius" (some 40 booklets, 1906-10). Among the apologetic journals may also be reckoned "Boekenschouw" (5 vols., 1906-10; formerly called "Lectuur", 2 vols., 1904-5), a critical book review. The "Central Office for Social Action" at Leiden issues no fewer than four periodicals under the chief editorship of P. J. Aalberse: the excellent "Katholiek sociaal Weekblad" (9 vols., 1902-10), the "Volksbibliotheek" (25 numbers, 1905-10), the "Politieke en Sociale studiën", at first two separate serials, now united (3 and 5 vols., 1906-10), and the "Volkstijdschrift" (27 numbers, 1909-10). Sobriëtas (4 vols., 1907-10) is the chief organ of the Catholic temperance movement.

In addition Holland possesses a flourishing exclusively theological monthly, "Nederlandsche Katholieke stemmen" (10 vols., 1901-10), which is a continuation of an older ecclesiastical paper of the same name (22 vols., 1879-1900). The "Sint-Gregoriusblad" (35 vols., 1876-1910) is devoted to church music, while the "Koorbode" (5 vols., 1906-10) upholds the modern movements. The Catholic university students have their "Annuarium der R. Kath. studenten" (8 vols., 1902-10), and recently they started a weekly paper "Roomsch Studenten-blad" (1 vol., 1910-1). Finally Catholic ladies have the Belgian-Dutch magazine, "De Lelie" (2 vols., 1909-10). Besides those already mentioned there are some fifty other periodicals some of which supply entertaining literature, such as the "Katholieke Illustratie" (44 vols., 1867-1910) and the "Leesbibliotheek voor christelijke huisgezinnen" (56 vols., 1856-1910), while others, mostly published for the benefit of the foreign missions, are of a devotional character. Mention must be made of the annual Catholic directories of Holland. The first of these was the "Almanach du clergé catholique" (7 vols., 1822-29), issued when Holland and Belgium were politically united. Then came the "R.-Kath. Jaarboek" (9 vols., 1835-44), succeeded by "Kerkelijk Nederland" (10 vols., 1847-56), together with the interesting "Handboekje voor de zaken der R.-Kath. eeredienst" (by J. C. Willemse, 32 vols., 1847-80), while the statistics of more modern times and the present day and all desirable information can be found carefully arranged in the "Pius-almanak" (36 vols., 1875-1910), which had a temporary rival in "Onze Pius-almanak" (6 vols., 1900-05).

Among the journals the three most prominent dailies are: "De Tijd", started by the Rev. J. A. Smits, J. W. Cramer, and P. van Cranenburgh in 1846, which is considered the chief leader and representative of public opinion amongst Catholics; the more militant "De Maasbode", founded in 1868, and the democratic "Het Centrum", begun in 1884. All these Dutch papers and periodicals are irreproachably orthodox. As to the circulation the dailies enjoy, no figures are available. But "De Voorhoede", a weekly paper established in 1907, is known to have an edition of 25,000 copies. In all, Holland has 15 Catholic dailies, of which only "De Maasbode" issues a morning and an evening edition (since 1909). In addition to these there are 31 papers published more than once a week, with 76 weeklies and some 70 monthlies.

Bonav. Kruitwagen

India.—See India.

Ireland.—Owing to the ferocity of the penal laws, such a thing as Catholic periodical literature was impossible in Ireland during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It was not until 1793 that any notable relaxation was made in the disabilities under which Irish Catholics laboured, and the only form of literature, even in the first quarter of the nineteenth century, was polemical. The sporadic pamphlets issued by the leaders of the Catholic Committee, especially in regard to the Veto question and the Quarantotti rescript, can scarcely be regarded as periodical literature, nor yet the able series of "Letters of Hierophilus" (1820-23) by Bishop Doyle. After Catholic Emancipation (1829), Irish Catholics began to use the power of the press. In 1834 the "Catholic Penny Magazine" was started as a weekly, published by Caldwell of Dublin. The first number was issued in February, 1834, and the last in December, 1835. A new era opened with the foundation of the "Dublin Review" in May, 1836, a journal Irish in more than name, its founders being Dr. Nicholas Wiseman and Daniel O'Connell. Twice subsequently O'Connell made a personal appeal on its behalf. The first editor, to whom Cardinal Wiseman gives the original credit of the project, was W. Michael Quin. In a short time it came under the control of W. Henry R. Bagshawe, but he was rather subeditor with ample authority under Dr. Wiseman. The history of the "Review" belongs to the English section of this article, but Ireland can claim a great share in this arduous enterprise. At least one-half, often much more, of the literary matter of the original series was produced in Ireland; and Irish topics, political, social, educational, or literary, constituted a large part of the contents. Dr. C. W. Russell of Maynooth was the chief support of Dr. Wiseman who, writing in January, 1846, calls him editor. When Dr. W. G. Ward became proprietor, the editorial work was done by another Irishman, John Cashel Hoey. An Irish editor of a later date was Mgr Moyes. A number of influential Ulster Catholics established the Belfast "Vindicator", in 1839, with Charles Gavan Duffy as editor, whose successor in 1842 was Kevin T. Buggy. This, though an able weekly, ceased soon after 1844. In 1840, a magazine, entitled "The Catholic Luminary", was established in Dublin, which appeared every alternate Saturday, was managed by a committee of priests and laymen, the subscription price being eight shillings yearly, and lasted from 20 June to 19 December, 1840. Its successor was the "Catholic Magazine", published by James Duffy in 1847, a monthly journal devoted to national literature, arts, antiquities, etc. Although ably conducted by Denis Florence MacCarthy, Richard D. Williams, and Father Kenyon, it declined in 1848, owing to political excitement, and ceased publication in the following December. A weekly paper, entitled "Catholic Advocate", was issued in 1851, but only one number was published. James Duffy ventured on another monthly, called "Duffy's Fireside Magazine", which ran from 1851-54. He also published a weekly magazine "The Catholic Guardian", devoted to national and religious literature, but it ceased after forty-three numbers, the last issue being dated 20 Nov., 1852. Frederick Lucas, a convert from Quakerism, had founded the "Tablet", the first number of which appeared 16 May, 1840. After some years he came to know Irishmen like Gavan Duffy and John O'Hagan; and, as he was dissatisfied with the support given by English Catholics he transferred the "Tablet" to Dublin at the end of 1849. After his death (1855) it was transferred back to London. The "Catholic Layman", a monthly polemical magazine, price one shilling, ran from 1852 to 1854. The "Catholic University Gazette", a weekly paper under the auspices of Cardinal Newman, had a brief existence from June, 1854, until the end of August, 1855. Its price was but one penny. Another weekly, the "Irish Catholic Magazine", edited by W. J. O'Neill Daunt, ran from January to August, 1856. The "Harp", edited by M. J. McCann, was issued in 1859. It was an excellent Catholic monthly, but had a sporadic existence under varying titles, and finally disappeared in February, 1864. Among its contributors were Canon O'Hanlon, Dr. R. D. Joyce, Dr. Sigerson, Dr. Campion, and John Walsh. McCann, still remembered as the author of the song "O'Donnell Abu", died in London in 1883. In July, 1860, James Duffy founded the "Hibernian Magazine", edited by Martin Haverty, a distinguished alumnus of the Irish College, Rome. It was a monthly, price eight pence, and ran for two years. The contributors included Father C.P. Meehan, Prof. Kavanagh, D. F. MacCarthy, Dr. O'Donovan, William Carleton, D'Arcy Magee, and W. J. Fitzpatrick, and the articles were all signed. It ceased after two years, but a second series was started in 1862, with Father Meehan as editor, which extended to six volumes and ended in June, 1865. A higher-class magazine was "Atlantis" the official literary organ of the Catholic University of which four volumes appeared between the years 1859 and 1861, the contributors being Cardinal Newman, O'Curry, John O'Hagan, and others. In 1870 Father Robert Kelly, S.J., founded the "Monitor", a small penny monthly, mainly as a temperance organ. Its success was so great that he issued it in an enlarged form as the "Illustrated Monitor" in 1873. Father Kelly died 15 June, 1876, but the publication was continued by the publisher, Joseph Dollard. It steadily declined in 1877, and came to an abrupt end in 1878. In June, 1906, Mgr O'Riordan edited a really high-class quarterly, the "Seven Hills Magazine", published by Duffy of Dublin, but it also ceased with the issue of September, 1908. In regard to existing periodicals, there is no distinctively Catholic daily paper in Ireland, but the "Freeman's Journal" is frankly Catholic in tone, and gives prominence to Catholic topics. As to the weeklies, there is but one, the "Irish Catholic", founded by T. D. Sullivan in 1888. Its first editor was Robert Donovan (now professor in the National University), who after five weeks was replaced by W. F. Dennehy in August of the same year. It may be described as a Conservative-National organ, supporting the Irish hierarchy in their corporate decisions on all religious and political matters. In 1890 at the time of the Parnell "split", it loyally stood by the bishops. In 1891, the "Nation" was merged into the "Irish Catholic" and in 1897 it became a daily. Though the "Daily Nation" ceased in 1900, the "Irish Catholic" continued as a weekly, with Mr. Dennehy as editor and publisher. It remains unconnected with any of the existing political parties, but is markedly opposed to any union with British Liberalism and Radicalism. The paper has a circulation throughout Great Britain, America and the colonies. Among monthlies the "Irish Ecclesiastical Record" can claim premier place. Founded in March, 1864, by Cardinal Cullen, who appointed Rev. Dr. Conroy and Rev. Dr. Moran as editors, it was to be a link between Ireland and Rome, and its policy was expressed in its motto: "Ut Christiani, ita et Romani sitis". In 1871, both of the editors were raised to the episcopate, Dr. Conroy to Ardagh, and Dr. Moran (now Cardinal Primate of Australia) to Ossory. Dr. Verdon and Dr. Tynan edited it for over four years, and Dr. Walsh took charge of it for the last six months of 1876, when it was allowed to lapse. A third series was started in 1880, with Dr. Carr (now Archbishop of Melbourne) as editor, and published from Maynooth College. Dr. Healy (now Archbishop of Tuam) was editor from 1883 to 1884, after whom came Dr. Browne (Bishop of Cloyne), who worked zealously for ten years. In 1894, Rev. Canon Hogan became editor. A mere glance at the twenty-nine volumes of the "Record" is sufficient to vindicate its long existence, and the list of contributors includes some of the greatest names in theology, liturgy, canon law, Church history, Scripture, etc. The "Irish Monthly", founded in July, 1873, can boast the longest continuous existence of any Irish Catholic magazine, and, moreover, it enjoys the unique distinction of having had but one editor in thirty-eight years, namely Rev. Matthew Russell, S.J. It is not too much to say that Father Russell's personality has been the secret of the popularity of this magazine, and the list of contributors includes Lady Fullerton, Sir C. Gavan Duffy, Judge O'Hagan, Aubrey de Vere, D. F. MacCarthy, Rev. Dr. Russell, Rev. Dr. O'Reilly, S.J., Rev. Ignatius Ryder, Father Bridgett, C.SS.R., Mother Raphael Drane, Lady Gilbert (Rose Mulholland), Rev. T. A. Finlay, S.J., Archbishop Healy, Rev. D. Bearne, S.J., and a host of others. Among the writers discovered by the "Irish Monthly" are: Oscar Wilde, "M. E. Francis", Lady Gilbert, Katherine Tynan, Hilaire Belloc, Alice Furlong, and Francis Wynne, author of "Whisper Intended for lay readers, it is always bright, readable, and healthy. The "New Ireland Review", founded March, 1894, is a purely literary monthly, the successor of the short-lived "Lyceum", founded and edited by Rev. T. A. Finlay, S.J., in 1890. Its contributors included the most distinguished clerical and lay writers, and it continued as a powerful Catholic organ, with special reference to history and economics — under the able editorship of Father Finlay — until it ceased with the February number, 1911. "The Irish Rosary", founded in April, 1897, as a small magazine, edited by the Irish Dominicans, was enlarged to eighty pages in 1901, and its scope widened. Father Ambrose Coleman, O.P., who became editor in 1903, added a certain journalistic tone to it, thus making it bright and up-to-date. The present editor is Father Finnbar Ryan, O.P. Among its contributors are many able Dominican writers, well-known laymen like Professor Stockley, Dr. Fitzpatrick R F. O'Connor, Shane Leslie, Jane Martyn, S. M. Lyne, Sister Gertrude, and Nora O'Mahony. The only quarterly is the "Irish Theological Quarterly", founded in January, 1906, by six Maynooth professors, one of whom (Dr. McKenna) has since become Bishop of Clogher. Ably conducted, it keeps thoroughly abreast of all theological and Scriptural matters.

Power, Irish Literary Enquirer (London, 1867); Flood, Irish Catholic Periodicals (MS.); Casartelli in Dublin Review (April, 1896).

W. H. Grattan-Flood

Italy.—Without going back to the Acta Diurna, Acta Senatus, or Acta publica, existing in Rome in Cæsar's time, the modern newspaper had its birth in Venice. From the first years of the sixteenth century we learn of journals issued in that city every two or three days, sometimes even daily, under the surveillance of the Government. These sheets, called Avvisi, for the most part in manuscript, were distributed among the governors of provinces and the ambassadors to foreign courts; they were later read in public, and sold after the reading for a gazzetta (14.6 gazzettas = 1 lira), hence the name "gazette". At first these journals had an official character; but in 1538, during the Turkish War, their publication was entrusted to private enterprise, though they continued to be supervised by the Government. Under these new auspices journalism was carried on without serious competition up to the first decades of the eighteenth century.

It was natural that the example of Venice should be imitated elsewhere, but in Italy its functions were mainly confined to pandering to a scandal-loving public. In Rome this was carried to such a degree that in 1578 Gregory XIII issued a Bull of excommunication against the journalists who propagated the true and false scandals of society and the court. After Venice came Florence, where they printed Notizie or Gazzetta. In Rome the first permanent journal was "Il Diario de Roma", begun in 1716 during the war against the Turks in Hungary, printed by Luca and Giovanni Cracas, hence its familiar name "Il Cracas". After 1718 it was published twice a week, with a supplement. At the end of the eighteenth century, the subscription was 24 paoli (12 lira) per annum. Towards the middle of the eighteenth century a more intense journalistic life became manifest in Venice. In 1760 another journal, the "Gazzetta Veneta" appeared, edited by Gaspere Gozzi, who in the succeeding year founded a literary review called the "Osservatore Veneto". The directorship of the "Gazzetta Veneta" was then assumed by the priest Chiari; this paper survived until 1798, though its title was changed a number of times.

The following papers also deserve mention: the "Diario Veneto" (1765); the "Gazzetta" with subtitle "Notizie del mondo" (1769); the 'Novellista Veneto" (1775, daily); "Avvisi Pubblicide Venezia" (1785); the "Gazzetta delle Gazzette" (1786), the only one that also treated of political questions; the "Nuovo Postiglione" (1789). From 1768 to 1791 the "Gazzetta Fiorentina" was circulated at Florence. Besides the foregoing, a number of scientific and literary journals made their appearance. The first of these is the "Giornale dei letterati", founded in Rome by the learned Benedetto Bocchini (1650-1700). In 1718 the "Giornale dei letterati d'Italia" of Apostolo Zeno appeared at Venice, where also in the same year Pavini translated from the French the "Mercurio Storico". To these was added in 1724 the "Gran Giornale d'Europa", later the "Foglio per le Donne", the "Influssi" of Pasiello, the "Diario" of Cristoforo Zane (1735), and the "Giornale enciclopedico" (1777-87). The "Osservatore" of Gozzi, already mentioned, belongs to this category. The most famous literary journal of this epoch was the "Frusta" of Barretti at Turin, which unceasingly attacked the decadent literature of the times. Other literary and educational periodicals were: the "Analisi ragionata dei libri nuovi", published in Naples, later changed its title to "Giornale letterario" (1793-99). We may mention also the raccolte (collections) of various works and dissertations, which were published in a number of cities. Such was the "Raccolta Milanese", the "Opuscoli" of Calogerà at Pisa, the "Simbole" by Gori, even the "Saggi", etc. of the various academies in the cities of Italy. Beginning with 1710, Cracas printed a species of almanac, the "Notizie per l'anno"; while the Roman "Calendario" was the precursor of the "Gerarchia Cattolica" of today.

With the French Revolution, other papers were founded throughout Italy to advocate the new regime. In Venice in 1797 was printed the "Monitore lombardo-veneto-traspadano"; the "Libero Veneto"; the "Italiano rigenerato"; and the "Raccolta delle carte pubbliche". When Venice became Austrian, these journals disappeared, and the former "Gazzetta Urbana" became the "Gazzetta Veneta privilegiata" (1799). The "Diarlo di Roma" was discontinued from the close of 1798 until October of the succeeding year, again from 1808 to 1814, and from this last date continued up to the middle of the century. During the first French occupation the "Monitore di Roma" was published in Rome; the "Gazzetta Romana", founded in 1808 and edited in two languages, was followed in 1809 by the "Giornale del Campidoglio", and in 1812 by the "Giornale politico del dipartamento di Roma", containing treatises on antiquities and the results of excavations, and other items of interest. Mention may also be made of the "Giornale patriotico della Repubblica Napolitana".

The prerevolutionary journals were all Catholic. In the Reign of Terror the publication of Catholic journals became impossible. During the time of the Restoration the government in Italy held the censorship of the press in regard to all questions of political import; but journals were free to exert themselves in behalf of Catholicism. Foreign books, however; were circulated, propagating the political, social, and religious maxims of the Revolution. Thus the need of a conservative Catholic press made itself felt. The first to appear upon the field was in 1831, the "Voce della Verità" of Modena, founded under the auspices of Duke Francis V, and under the directorship of Antonio Parenti and Professor Bartolommeo Veratti. These journals continued to appear only until 1841. In this year Ballerini found the "Amico Cattolico" at Milan. The Revolution of 1848 (although signalized by the founding at Rome of the "Pallade" and the satirical paper "Don Pirlone"; at Piacenza, the "Eridano", representing the Provisional Government, the "Tribuno" representing the Opposition), made the necessity of good papers very urgent. On the return of Pius IX the "Giornale di Roma" was founded at Rome (1850-65), to which was added an evening paper, the "Osservatore Romano", which, when the "Giornale" was suspended, became the organ of the Pontificial Government. At Turin the "Armonia" was founded in 1849, which fought strenuously for the cause of the Church. The "Unità Cattolica" appeared in 1862, directed by Margotti, and the "Armonia" was transferred to Florence; at Genoa the "Eco d'Italia" was established in 1849, an illustrated daily paper, still published under the name of "Liguria del Popolo". At Locarno, Canton of Ticino, Switzerland, the "Credente Cattolico" appeared in 1856; in the same year the "Osservatore Bolognese", at Bologna founded by Fangarezzi, Casoni, Acquaderni, etc., afterwards suppressed in 1859 by the provisional Government; in Florence the "Contemporaneo" (1857), founded by Stefano San Pol; in Naples, beginning in 1860, was published the "Omnibus", directed by Vincenzo Torello. After the annexation of a large part of Italy to Sardinia, when the influence of a Catholic Press was urgently needed, its freedom was continually hampered by all sorts of petty vexations. Papers that had been suppressed reappeared under other names. This persecution is explained either by the sectarian spirit of those in power, or by the impression then prevailing that the Catholic party was the declared enemy of the new Government. Thus there appeared at Bologna in 1861 the "Eco delle Romagne", substituted for the "Osservatore Bolognese", which in turn was suppressed in 1863 and succeeded by the "Patriotto Cattolico", followed again by the "Conservatore". (1868), and by the "Unione" (1878). A similar fate befell the "Osservatore Lombardo" of Brescia (1862-63). The "Difensore" of Modena was similarly treated and suppressed in 1867; and the year following Mgr Balan founded the "Diritto Cattolico", still published. In Florence the "Contemporaneo" succeeded to the "Corriere Toscano". In Venice the "Veneto Cattolico" appeared in 1866, and in 1867 assumed the name of "Difesa", which still survives. The "Osservatore Cattolico" was founded at Milan in 1864, and was entrusted to the editorship of Don Albertario. This journal undertook the refutation of the Rosminian doctrines, and was a faithful advocate of the papal policy. At this period religious papers were founded in other cities of Italy: the "Libertà", at Locarno (1866); the "Voce Cattolica" (1866); the "Gazzetta di Mondovì" (1868); the "Libertà Cattolica" of Naples (1867); the "Sicilia Cattolica" of Palermo (1868); the "Genio Cattolico" of Reggio Emilia (1869).

Meanwhile Pius IX felt the need at Rome of a politico-religious organ for the support of his own programme, for the refutation of pernicious doctrines, and to serve as a medium of official communication to the Catholic world. This was realized by the foundation of the "Correspondancede Rome", and the "Acta Sanctæ Sedis" (1865). The chief principles of the "Correspondance" were the support of the Holy See and opposition to the Liberal Catholics and Opportunists. In 1870 this paper was moved to Geneva by Mgr Mermillod, where it altered its title to "Correspondance de Genéve". It then became an instrument of Blome in his vigorous campaign against Bismarck, especially during the Kulturkampf. This paper supported the intransigent party favoured by the pope, though it failed to obtain the sympathy of Cardinal Antonelli. At the death of Pius IX the condition of Catholic journals was very favourable. They were perhaps inferior to the papers of their opponents in form, but were unrivalled as to the ability of their writers and the vigour and intelligence of their polemics. Among these the "Unità Cattolica" was especially distinguished.

The year 1870 beheld a revival of governmental and sectarian opposition to Catholic journals, which, however, increased in number despite the hostility manifested toward them. This was particularly the case with those papers of periodical issue. Thus in Rome in this year was founded the "Voce della Verità" (which ceased in 1904); the "Eco del Litorale" at Gorizia; the "Amico del Popolo", at Lucca (1872); the "Discussione", at Naples (1873); the "Verona Fedele", at Verona; the "Cittadino", at Genoa (1873); at Turin the "Corriere Nazionale" (1873), which in 1894 was fused with the "Italia Reale", and was founded after the transfer to Florence of the "Unità Cattolica"; at Venice the "Berico" (1876); at Udine the "Cittadino Italiano" (1878); at Perugia the "Paese" (1876); at Treviso the "Vita del Popolo", etc.

Leo XIII also realized the need of a papal journal through which he could communicate with the foreign press, and he consequently created the "Journal de Rome"; this paper did not fulfil his expectations, so it was succeeded by the "Moniteur de Rome" (1881-95). The most prominent developments of Italian journalism of the last few years are the union of the "Osservatore Cattolico" of Milan with the "Lega Lombarda" (founded in 1884), which two papers were fused as the "Unione". Another event in Italian journalism was the foundation of the "Momento" at Turin, and the alliance formed by the "Corriere d'Italia" (1905, originally called "Giornale di Roma") with the "Avvenire d'Italia" of Bologna and with the "Corriere della Sicilia" (Palermo). The "Correspondance de Rome", founded in 1907 with the title "Corrispondenza Romana", has a scope similar to the paper of the same name under Pius IX. Like its prototype, though not official in character, it is an echo of the Vatican.

Before we consult the actual statistics of the Catholic press of Italy it may be well to survey the history of that class of Catholic periodicals which comprises literature and erudition to the exclusion of politics. Among these periodicals, we may mention first the "Giornale arcadico" of Rome (1819-68), revived in 1888 with the title "Arcadia", and in 1898 reassuming its former title. Then came the "Tiberino" (1833); the "Album" (1834), illustrated and treating largely of the biographies of contemporaneous men; the "Rivista" (1831), devoted to the theatre; the "Giornale Ecclesiastico" (1825), a periodical devoted to canon law, in 1835 issued again as the "Annali delle scienze religiose", directed by Mgr Antonio de Luca and recognized as the organ of the Academy of the Catholic Religion. In 1865 de Rossi founded the "Bullettino di Archeologia Cristiana", reappearing as the "Nuovo Bullettino" etc. In Modena, to the labours of Veratti already mentioned were added the "Memorie di Religione"; the "Opuscoli religiosi, letterari e morali"; the "Strenne filologiche"; in 1858 he founded there a collection of "Letture amene ed oneste". Under the title of "Letture Cattoliche" and similar titles, periodicals existed in various cities, Padua, Naples, Genoa, Turin (this last founded by Don Bosco), etc.

Among the periodicals of an earlier date we must cite the "Giornale scientifico letterario" and the "Rivista di scienze, lettere e arti". Strictly religious periodicals, such as "Settimane Religiose", etc. were printed in many cities, often for the benefit of some sanctuary or in behalf of some pious work. The "Donna e la Famiglia" (Genoa, 1862), which had a fashion supplement; the "Consigliere delle Famiglie" (Genoa, 1879); the "Missione del la Donna" (Sciacca, 1875), were published for circulation in families. At the present time we should name especially the "Pro Familia" (Bergamo, splendidly illustrated). In many cities (Turin, Genoa, Massa Carrara, etc.) papers were published for workmen; others were devoted especially to the peasants. For education and the cause of Christian schools, were founded the "Scuola, Italiana Moderna" (Milan, 1893) and the "Vittorino da Feltre" (Feltre, 1890). The "Museo delle Missioni Cattoliche" (Turin, 1857); the "Missioni cattoliche" (Milan); the "Missioni francescane in Palestina" (Rome); the "Oriente Serafico" (Assisi, 1889); "Gerusalemme" (Genoa, 1877) and other bulletins of this kind indicate their subject-matter by their titles. With the periodical "La Scienza e la Fede" Sanseverino, the celebrated philosopher of Naples, assisted by Signoriello and by d'Amelio, carried on a propaganda for the philosophy and theology of St. Thomas.

The periodical "Scienza Italiana", founded in 1814 by the Jesuit Cornoldi and the physician Venturini, had a similar scope. After the encyclical "Æterni Patris" various other periodicals of this kind appeared, such as the "Eco di S. Tommaso d'Aquino" (Parma, 1879); "Divus Thomas" (Piacenza, 1880); the "Favilla" (Palermo); finally the "Rivista Neo-tomistica" was founded at Florence (1910). The "Catechista Cattolico" (Piacenza, 1877), and the "Risveglio del catechismo" (Chieri, 1893), the "Predicatore Cattolico" (Giarre), the "Poliantea oratoria" (Caltagirone, 1881), the "Crisostomo" (Rome) express their subjects in their titles, as also the "Monitore Liturgico" (Macerata, 1888), the "Ephemerides liturgicæ" (Rome, 1887), the "Rassegna Gregoriana" (Rome), the "Scuola Veneta di Musica Sacra" of Tebaldini etc. The "Bessarione" (1897) is devoted to Oriental Christian studies. The "Scuola Cattolica" founded by Cardinal Parocchi (1878), embraces all branches of theology and discipline. For social studies made after the encyclical "Rerum Novarum" in 1892, Benigni founded the "Rassegna sociale" (Perugia, afterwards Genoa); and in the next year Mgr Talamo began the "Rivista internazionale di scienze sociali", etc. In 1898 Murri founded a periodical of social studies, the "Cultura sociale", which deviated into forbidden tendencies of thought. Historical periodicals are: "Rivista storica" of Pavia (now at Saronne); the "Muratori" (Pubblicazione di testi per la storia d'Italia); the "Rivista storica benedettina"; the "Archivum franciscanum historicum" (Rome); the "Miscellanea francescana" of Mgr Faloci Pulignani (Foligno, 1887); the "Miscellanea di Storia Ecclesiastica e studi ausiliari" (Rome, 1904-07), and the "Rivista storico-critica delle scienze teologiche" (Rome, 1905), recently condemned by the Holy Office. Among the existing scientific and literary reviews the oldest and most widely-circulated is the "Civiltà Cattolica", conducted by priests of the Society of Jesus, forming a community by themselves and directly subject to the general. This was founded in 1850 under the auspices of Pius IX. Among the founders and early writers Bresciani, Curci, Brunengo, Taparelli, Cornoldi, Liberatore, etc. won distinction. Mention must be made of "Acta Apostolicæ Sedis", the official bulletin of the Holy See, founded by motu proprio in 1908, in which are published the Bulls, Constitutions, Encyclicals, and other acts of the pope, together with the Decrees of the Roman Congregations. Several periodicals of the same kind are and have been published in Rome, such as the "Nuntius Romanus" (1882-1904), the "Analecta Ecclesiastica" (1893), the "Acta Pontificia", etc., besides the "Acta S. Sedis" already mentioned. The "Monitore Ecclesiastico", founded in Conversano by Mgr Gennari, afterwards cardinal, not only gives the more important pontifical news, but treats pf moral theology and canon law, and publishes decisions concerning ecclesiastical matters." The "Nuova Rivista delle Riviste" of Macerata gives a digest of important articles appearing in national and foreign periodicals upon matters of interest to the clergy. Finally it is necessary to note satirical and humorous periodicals. Among these the "Vespra" of Florence and the "Frusta" of Rome were well-known for a time but ceased on account of the frequent actions for damages brought against them. With these may be classed the "Follia" of Naples, the "Mulo" of Bologna, and the "Bastone" of Rome. The above statistics have been largely gathered from the "Annuario Ecclesiastico" which undertakes to register all Catholic papers published throughout Italy. This registration, however, is neither complete nor exact, some existing periodicals being omitted, whilst others that have stopped publication are still on the list. Moreover the "Annuario Ecclesiastico" does not inform us whether the journal is a daily or a weekly. This being the case, it is well to note that a number of so-called daily journals appear at the most only three times a week. Of such there were three published at Rome and two published at Turin and Genoa. Besides the above mentioned there are 101 political and social journals issued several times a month; 81 religious periodicals appearing once or twice a month; five periodicals of general erudition; and five devoted to philosophical and theological studies, in which class might be included the "Rivista Rosminiana"; and ten reviews consecrated to canon law. This last enumeration comprises a few bulletins of episcopal courts. Apart from the foregoing there are also two reviews devoted to preaching; six to missionary interests; three to education; and one to social studies. Other periodicals may be counted among Catholic ones by the notably Catholic character of their managers: such as the "Rivista di Matematiche", etc., founded by Tartellini, then professor in the University of Rome; now edited by Cardinal Maffi. Among the political and social reviews it must be observed that two tendencies existed, one decidedly liberal, and the other absolutely papal. The first dealt with the "Roman Question" as obsolete. It advocated a larger individual liberty and independence from the particular views of the Holy See and the episcopate in politics and social matters. The reviews taking this liberal attitude never failed however to profess their allegiance and obedience to authority. On the other hand there existed the papal press, which might be characterized by its perfect submission to and advocacy of the prevailing opinions of the Vatican and the episcopate. To this last class belong: the "Riscossa" of Braganse (Mgr Scotton); the "Unità Cattolica" (Florence); the "Italia Reale" (Turin); the "Liguria" (Genoa); the "Difesa" (Venice); the "Osservatore Romano" (Rome); the "Libertà" (Naples); the "Correspondance de Rome", and some other small sheets.

With regard to the geographical distribution of the Catholic press, there is an enormous disproportion between the north and the south. Southern Italy (Naples and Palermo) has only two daily papers. But even in the North there are large cities without a daily Catholic publication, e.g., Padua and Ancona, while Ravenna and Rimini have not even a weekly one. The need of weekly journals is naturally felt still more in Southern Italy.

Ferrandina, Censimento della stampa Cattolica (Asti, 1893); Giacchi, Il giornalismo in Italia (Rome, 1883); Casoni, Cinquant' anni di giornalismo (Bologna, 1907); Chiaudano, Il giornalismo cattolico (Turin, 1910); Santelena, Giornali veneziani nel settecento (Venice, 1908); Chierici, Il quinto potere a Roma; storia dei giornali e giornalisti romani (Romani, 1905); Rovito, Dizionario dei letterati e giornalisti italiani contemporanei (Naples, 1907); della Casa, I Nostri (Treviso, 1903), lives of illustrious Catholic pressmen.

U. Benigni

Mexico.—Colonial Period.—During the administration of the viceroy Baltasar de Zuñiga Guzmán de Sotomayor, Marqués de Valero, the first newspaper, supervised by J. Ignacio María de Castorena y Ursúa (precentor of the Cathedral of Mexico and afterwards Bishop of Yucatán), was published in Mexico, January, 1722, with the heading "Gaceta de México y Noticias de Nueva España que se imprimirán Cada mes y comienzan desde primero de Enero de 1722" (Gazette of Mexico and notices of New Spain which will be published every month, and which will begin the first of January, 1722). Later the name was changed to "Florilegio Historial de México etc.", and in June of this year the enterprise was abandoned. In the numbers published, the news items were arranged according to the principal cities of the colony. With the second issue brief notices of the books being published in Mexico and Spain were added and also accounts of important events in Lower California and the principal cities of Europe. In January, 1728, the second publications the "Compendio de Noticias Mexicanas", edited by J. Francisco Sahagún de Arévalo Ladrön de Guevara, appeared. This continued in circulation until November, 1739, when it was succeeded by the "Mercuriode Mexico", edited by the same person. The "Mercurio" was issued monthly and in the same form as the "Gaceta" and "Florilegio". Among its news items were, accounts of religious festivals, autos de fé, competitions for the university faculties, European events, shipping news at the port of Vera Cruz, and news from the Philippines, China, and even Morocco. When there was an abundance of news a fortnightly issue appeared. The desire to keep readers informed on the most important events connected with the Spanish Monarchy, e.g., the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples, is evident. In 1742 the "Mercurio" discontinued publication and no paper existed until 1784, when the new "Gaceta de México", edited by M. A. Valdés, appeared and continued without interruption until 1809. It was issued bi-monthly, modelled more or less on the gazettes of 1722 and 1728; it indicated the price of bread and meat in the City of Mexico and published officially and integrally the royal orders. To Ignacio Bartolache and the Rev. José Antonio Alzate, well-known Mexican writers of the eighteenth century, is due the honour of having issued the first scientific publications. The former published (1772) the "Mercurio Volante", which was short-lived; it was characterized as a newspaper giving curious and important notices upon various matters bearing on physics and medicine ("con noticias curiosas é importantes sobre varios asuntos de Física y Medicina"). Alzate began (1768) the "Diario Literario de México"; this was suppressed, but reappeared on 26 October under the title of "Asuntos, Varios Sobre Ciencias y Artes". After eleven numbers were published it was again suppressed, only to reappear (1787) under the title of "Observaciones sobre Física, Historia Natural y Artes Utiles", fourteen numbers of which were issued. In January; 1788, the famous "Gaceta de Literatura" appeared and was issued monthly, though with some irregularity, until 1799. This publication was a literary and scientific review; all subjects were examined and discussed by the learned priest-editor. Here might be read with benefit articles on medicine, botany, mineralogy, Mexican archæology, architecture, philosophy, ethnology, jurisprudence, physics, astronomy, topography, etc. The files are a veritable encyclopedia, and the number and variety of the subjects treated, as well as the scholarly manner in which they are handled, are evident proof of Father Alzate's remarkable erudition. On 1 October, 1805, Jacobo Villaurrutia, established the "Diario de México", the first daily paper published in the colony; it was issued every day, including holidays, until 1816. Among its contributors were Navarette, Sánchez* de Tagle, Barguera, Anastasio Ochoa, and Lacunza y Burazábal. The "Gaceta del Gobierno de México", founded in 1810, was the official organ of the viceregal Government until 1821.

Period of the War of Independence.—The first newspaper devoted to the cause of independence was the "El Despertador Méxicano", edited by Francisco Severo Maldonado. It was begun on 20 December, 1810, but did not last long. The second newspaper controlled by the insurgents was the "Ilustrador Nacional". The editor, Dr. José María Cos, made the type from wood and mixed indigo for the printing ink. When he was able to procure metal type, he continued to publish his newspaper under the title "El Ilustrador Americano". It lasted from May, 1812, until April, 1813. The viceregal Government and the ecclesiastical authorities rigidly prohibited it. The latter obliged the faithful to give up their copies, and denounced those who retained any. The third newspaper, "El Correo Americano del Sur", appeared in February, 1813. The priest, José María Morelos, after conquering Oaxaca and organizing his government, established it and confided the editing first to J. M. de Herrera, formerly parish priest of Huamustitlán, and afterwards to the lawyer, Carlos M. Bustamante. The paper was issued every Thursday until 27 May of the same year. Upon the proclamation of the freedom of the press, two newspapers, "El Juguetillo" and "El Pensador Méxicano", edited respectively by C. M. Bustamante and Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi, appeared; they fearlessly attacked the abuses of the viceregal Government. The "Juguetillo" published only six numbers, and both were suppressed by the Viceroy Venegas in December, 1812. Lizardi was imprisoned, but was liberated shortly afterwards, and continued the publication of his paper, eliminating, however, its offensive tone. Bustamante escaped imprisonment and published two more numbers of the "Juguetillo", the last in 1821. Among other newspapers published during this period may be mentioned: "Clamores de la Fidelidad Americana", published in Yucatán by José Matías Quintana, for which he was imprisoned; the "Boletín Militar", published by General Mina from the printing press which he carried with his expedition; the army of Iturbide published several sheets "El Méxicano Independiente", "Ejército Imperial de las Tres Garantías", "Diario Político Militar Méxicano". The "Centinela contra Seductores" was an anti-insurgent paper, issued towards the end of 1810; the "Especulador Patriotico" (1810-11), a weekly dedicated to the Viceroy Venegas. J. M. Wenceslas Sánchez* de la Barquera issued several interesting papers, including "Semanario económico de noticias curiosas y eruditas sobre Agricultura y demás Artes y Oficios" (1808-10); "El Correo de los Niños" (1813), the first juvenile paper published in Mexico; and "El Amigo de los Hombres" (1815). The "Noticioso General" (1815-22), the largest newspaper of the colony, published official documents and news of all kinds. At first it was issued every fortnight, but afterwards it appeared on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday.

After the War of Independence.—When the Independence of Mexico was established newspapers were multiplied. Some approved, others condemned, the new regime, according to the policies adopted by the new Government. Carlos María Bustamante published (1821-26) thirty numbers of "La Avispade Chilpancingo", attacking the Iturbide administration. In 1822 were published "El Sol" and "El Correo de la Federación", organs respectively of the Freemasons of the Scottish (centralistic), and York (federalistic), Rite. The Liberals controlled two important publications, "El Siglo XIX" and "El Monitor Republicano". Gómez Pedraza, Otero, Payno, de la Rosa, Zarco Vigil, and others contributed to the first, and to the second, which was even more radical in its ideas, Florencio Castillo, Valente, Baz, Mateos etc., and Castelar as Spanish correspondent. The Conservatives published "La Sociedad" (edited by José M. Roa Barcena) and "La Cruz" (edited by Ignacio Aguilar y Marocho). The first number of "La Cruz" appeared on 1 Nov., 1855; its heading states that "it is an exclusively religious paper, founded ex-professo to diffuse orthodox doctrines, and to defend and vindicate them against the prevalent errors". In its prologue it sums up the situation of that time, deplores the attacks on the Church, and the satires against the clergy; it urges the faithful to prepare themselves for the struggle in defence of religion. The paper had four divisions; the first explained the teachings of the Church on points which circumstances deemed it most opportune to treat; the second refuted all errors advanced against this teaching; the third published short essays on religious subjects; the fourth gave accounts of all notable events, in the Republic and in other countries, that had a bearing on the special object of the publication. Unfortunately this weekly lasted only until 29 July, 1858. Its battles against the Liberals were sharp and brilliant, and its contributors gave striking examples of their learning and profound adhesion to the teaching of the Church. During the civil wars the Press in many instances, particularly during the heated discussions that characterized the period prior to the Constitution of 1857, deserted its office of peacemaker and seemed to have for its only object the arousing of political enmities. And it was not without danger that a journalistic career was followed in those days. The "Veracruzano" of 7 October, 1862, referring to the overthrow of the Government of Miramón and the capture of the capital of Mexico by Juárez (1 Jan., 1861), announced the assassination of Vicente Segura, editor of "Diarode Avisos" and political antagonist of the victorious party, declaring that "in this truly significant manner demagogism fulfilled the first of the guarantees of the system of Liberalism, freedom of the press". Notwithstanding the risks involved in the expression of animus in connexion with this crime, several publications endeavoured to stem the torrent of pernicious ideas which had been loosed. The editor of the "Pajaro Verde" had to close his establishment; and the principal contributor to "El Amigo del Pueblo" was imprisoned. A Spaniards, suspected of circulating pamphlets, was, without proof of any sort, thrown into prison. His printing-press was confiscated, and later he was exiled.

During the Empire of Maximilian.—Four papers, the "Diario del impeno", "L'Ere Nouvelle", "La Razón" and "L'Estafette", supported more or less openly the Imperial Government, may be mentioned. In their attitude towards religion (favourable or unfavourable, according to the dictates of the members of the imperial cabinet) they lacked the freedom and independence which make a paper the representative of the sentiments of the people. Some independent journals ("La Sociedad") were also issued, and from time to time published articles which called the attention of the Imperial Government to their columns.

The Present Time.—After the fall of the empire and especially since the presidential tenure of office of General Porfirio Diaz, the Catholic Press has enjoyed a little more freedom. With the exception of the local papers published in the various states, which did not cease to work for the cause ("El Amigo de la Verdas" of Pueblo and others), the first newspaper to continue the traditions of the Catholic journalists of other days was "La Voz de Mexico" (1870-4900). It counted many distinguished writers on its staff, and, as a paper which had never been aught but loyal to the cause it had espoused, it earned the respect and good will of everyone. Shortly before it ceased publication, "El Pais" (now in its twelfth year, and an active defender of Catholic interests) was founded. "El Nacional", another Catholic paper, published for a number of years, rendered good service to the Catholic cause. On 1 July, 1883, Victoriano Agueros founded "El Tiempo", which is undoubtedly the most important of all political daily papers of the republic supporting Catholic interests. In two years its circulation increased from 1000 to 6000 copies. By the vigour with which it attacked the errors of the government of Manuel González* it won great popularity, but this attitude won persecution for the editor and contributors, who were several times imprisoned. In 1887 the editorial office was closed and publication suspended for eleven days. But today the paper defends its ideals as undauntedly as before. The literary edition (begun in 1883), published every Sunday and to which many notable writers, including Ipandro Arcático (Arcadian name of the Bishop of S. Luis Potosi), Joaquín García Icazbalceta, J. María Roa Barcena, José Sebastián Segura, and others contributed, gave prominence to the work of many native authors, which would otherwise have remained unpublished. Its columns have always been open to the discussion of all questions contributing to the progress and aggrandizement of Mexico. An illustrated Sunday edition, "El Tiempo Ilustrado", has also been added to the publications connected with "El Tiempo". Among the illustrated monthly reviews may be mentioned "El Mensajero del Corazón de Jesús", which has received much favourable notice. The principal organ of the Liberal party, "El Liberal", has the largest circulation of any newspaper in the Republic.

León, Bibliografia mexicana del siglo XVIII (Mexico. 1902-7); Obregón, México viejo: La prensa colonial (Mexico, 1900); Alzate, Gaceta de Literatura (4 vols., Puebla, 1831); México á través de Los siglos, 5 vols.; Icalbalzeta, Biographía de D. C. M. Bustamante (Mexico, 1853); Ramos y Duarte, Diccionario de curiosidades históricas (Mexico, 1899); Le Mexique au début du XX siècle (2 vols., Paris, 1905); México, su evolución social (3 vols., Mexico, 1901); Colección de la Crus (7 vols.); Lefevre, Hist. de l'intervention française au Mexique (Brussels and London, 1869);Arrangoiz, México desde 1808 hasta 1867 (Madrid, 1872); García Cubas, El Libro de mis recuerdos (Mexico, 1904); Figueroa Domenech, Guía general descriptiva de la República Méxicana (Mexico, 1889); Cavo, Los tres siglos de México (Jalapa, 1870).

Camillus Crevelli


POLAND,—There was a period of slow development from 1831 to 1864, and a period of progress from 1864 to the present day. During the first period there were published at Warsaw 5 daily papers, 14 weeklies, and 1 monthly periodical; in Galicia, 3 daily papers, 3 semi-weeklies, and 3 weeklies; in the Grand Duchy of Posen, 1 daily paper; in Austrian Silesia, 1 weekly. Several of these that appeared before 1863 are still published. The Polish Press reflects the political conditions of the countries that have annexed the territory of Poland. In Galicia (Austria) it is entirely free; in Russia it is subject to a severe censorship, which is also the case in Germany.

One of the oldest publications in Galicia is the "Czas" (Time), daily, the organ of the Conservative party, and well edited from the literary as well as from the political point of view. Its publication began in 1848. In 1866 there appeared the "Przeglhd polski" (Polish Review), which had from its beginning the collaboration of Count Stanislas Tarnowski and Stanislas Koimian. It remains the most important historical and literary periodical of Poland. The "Czas" and the "Przeglild polski" have always maintained a strictly Catholic character. In 1867 Julius Starkla and Thaddeus Romanowicz established at Lemberg the "Dziennik Literacki" (Literary Journal), which had a short life; John Dobrzafiski founded the "Gazeta Narodowa" (National Gazette), to which was united in 1869 the "Dziennik Polski" (Polish Journal). In 1871 Rev. Edward Podolski established the "Przegltd lwowski" (Lemberg Review), which strenuously defended Catholic interests during its existence. In the same city there appeared the "Gazeta Lwowska" (Lemberg Gazette), the organ of the imperial viceroy in Galicia. In 1884 the Polish Jesuits began at Cracow the publication of the "Przeglild powszechny" (Universal Review), a periodical still published, and which has rendered important services to the Catholic cause from the scientific and literary points of view. In the same city there was published from 1881 to 1886 the "Przeglgd literacki i artystyczny" (Literary and Artistic Review). In 1894 in the whole of Austria there were published 126 Polish periodicals and daily papers, of which 65 appeared at Lemberg and 29 at Cracow. At Lemberg the daily papers were the "Dziennik polski", the "Gazeta lwowska", the "Gazeta narodowa", the "Kurjer Lwowski", and the "Przeglitd". There were two Catholic weeklies, the "Gazeta katolicka" and the "Tygodnik katolicki". At the present time the Catholic Press is chiefly represented by the "Gazeta koscielna" (Ecclesiastical Gazette), a small semi-weekly, poor in doctrine and immersed in politics. From the scientific standpoint the most important periodical is the "Kwaltarnik hystoryczny" (Trimonthly historical periodical), which began publication in 1886, and the numbers of which constitute a valuable collection of historical works. No less important are the "Pamietniki literacki" (Literary Monuments), the "Ateneum polskie", the "Kosmos" (the organ of the society of naturalists of Lemberg), and the "Nasz kraj". In 1911 there appeared the only philosophical periodical of Galicia, the "Ruch filozoficzny" (Philosophical Movement).

At Cracow, besides the "Czas", there are the "Nowa Reforma" and the "Glos narodu" (Voice of the People), an organ of the clergy and of the militant Catholic party. The Socialists publish there the "Naprzod" (Forward), the official organ of their party, and the monthly periodical "Krytyka". In recent years there has been established the "Swiat Slowianski" (Slav World), the organ of the Slav club of Cracow, containing valuable information relating to the various Slav countries. The Academy of Sciences of Cracow publishes a "Bulletin international", monthly; and the "Rozprawy" (Dissertations) of mathematics, physics, and biology. Daily papers and periodicals are published also in the other Galician cities of Tarnow, Rzeszowo, Sambor, Stanislaw, Jaroslaw, and Przemysl.

One of the oldest Polish daily papers existing in Prussia is the "Dziennik poznafiski" (Posen Journal), established in 1859. From 1845 to 1865 there appeared the "Przeghtd poznai ski", an ardent defender of Catholicism, edited by Rev. John Koimian; in 1860 Rev. John Prusinowski published the "Tygodnik katolicki" (Illustrated Week). In 1865 Louis Rzepecki began the publication of the scientific periodical "O6wiata" (Culture), which, however, had only a short life, and was followed by the "Przeglad Wielkopolski" (Review of Great Poland), edited by Emilius Kierski. In 1870 Edmond Callier founded the "Tygodnik Wielkopolski", to which the best Polish writers contributed. The "Kurjer Poznafiski", established by Theodor Zychlil ski in 1872, also acquired great importance. In 1894 there were published in Prussia and in the Grand duchy of Posen the following daily papers: the "Dziennik poznafiski", the "Goniec wielkopolski", the "Kurjer poznafiski", the "Orgdownik" (Advocate), and the "Wielkopolanin". The "Przeglad poznafiski" resumed its publications under the direction of Wladislaw Rabski, while other daily papers were published at Danzig, Thorn, Pelplin, and Allenstein. In 1909, under the direction of Wladislaw Hozakowski, rector of the seminary of Posen, there was published the "Unitas", a monthly periodical for the clergy, well edited from the theological standpoint.

In 1841 the publication of the "Biblioteka Warszawska", a monthly periodical dedicated especially to literature, began in Russian Poland. Its excellence is still maintained. In 1904 there were published in Warsaw 9 dailies, 33 weeklies, 7 fortnightlies, and 5 monthly periodicals. At the present time there are published in Warsaw the "Dzien" (Day); the "Dziennik powszechny" (Universal Journal); the "Glos Warszawski" (Voice of Warsaw); "Glos poranny" (Voice of Morning); the "Kurjer polski"; "Kurjer Warszawski"; "Nowa Gazeta"; "Przegli d poranny"; "Widomokci Codzienne" (Daily News); "Slovo" (Word), a Nationalist paper that has great influence; and the "Warszawska Gazeta". Other dailies are published at Lublin, Kieff ("Dziennik kijowski"), at Vilna ("Kurjer litewski" and "Goniec Wilenski"), at Lodz, and at St. Petersburg. Among the periodicals, besides the "Biblioteka Warszawska", mention should be made of the "Biesiada literacka" (Literary Banquet), splendidly illustrated; the "Kultura", hostile to Catholicism; the "Przegl4d filozoficzny" (Philosophical Review), a quarterly publication; the "Przeglild historyczny" (Historical Review), scientific, twice monthly; the "Swiat" (World), an illustrated weekly; and the "Tygodnik illustrowane". The Catholic press until two years ago was represented by the "Przeglgd katolicki", of Warsaw, a publication of very little value theologically, and dedicated more to politics. This paper was the one most read by the clergy. Count Roger Lubiefiski established the "Wiara" (Faith), a weekly devoted to ecclesiastical news; and these two publications are now united into one. A scientifically important periodical, the "Kwartalnik teologiczny", lasted only a few years. At the present time, of the daily papers or periodicals for the clergy, or having a strictly Catholic program, those most read are: the "Polakkatolik"; the "Myg katolicka", of Censtochowa and the "Atheneum kaptanskie", of the seminary of Wloslawek, a monthly scientific publication.

In Russia the Lithuanians publish at Vilna the "Litwa" (Lithuania) in defense of their nationality; while the Jews publish at Warsaw the "Izraelita", a weekly. The "Przewodnik bibliograficzny" (Bibliographical Guide) of Cracow, a monthly publication, and the "Przegltd bibliograficzny" of Przemysl are bibliographical periodicals which mention all Polish writings that appear, of all writings that concern Poland, and of the writings that are published in the principal Polish reviews. The number of scientific periodicals devoted to medicine, veterinary surgery, pharmaceutics, architecture, the fine arts, heraldry, archaeology, and philology? etc., is about 100, which is proof of the intense scientific work of the Poles, who, notwithstanding their difficult political conditions, cooperate with much ardor in modern scientific movements. The Mariavites have a special organ, "Maryawita"; and their "Wiadomooci" appears twice each week. At Warsaw there is published the tri-monthly periodical "Mygl niepolegta" (Independent Thought), full of vulgar calumnies and accusations against Catholicism.

In 1864 Polish fugitives established the "Ojczyna" (Native Land) at Leipzig, the "Przyszlom" (The Future) at Paris, and the "Przegltd powszechny" at Dresden. At Chicago, U.S.A., the chief center of Polish emigration, are published the "Dziennik chicagoski", the "Dzieńświęty" (Holy Day), the "Gazeta katolicka", the "Gazeta polska", the "Nowe Źycie" (New Life), the "Sztandar", "Tygodnik naukowo-powieśiowy", "Wiara i oczyna", "Zgoda", and "Ziarno", a musical publication. Other papers are published at Milwaukee, Buffalo, New York, Detroit, Philadelphia, Winona, Cleveland, Toledo, Baltimore, Pittsburg, Stevens Point, Manitowoc, Mohanoy City, and Wilkes-Barre. Brazil also has a Polish publication.

Aurelio Palmieri.


Portugal—An ephemeral news-sheet appeared in 1625, and a monthly gazette relating the progress of the War of Independence commenced in 1641, but Portuguese periodical literature really begins with the "Gazeta de Lisboa", founded by Jose Freire de Monterroyo Mascarenhas, which lasted from 1715 until 1760. Until the end of the eighteenth century any differences of opinion in matters of faith which might exist were not discussed in print, but, notwithstanding the censorship, French ideas began to filter into Portugal, and early in the nineteenth century the press began to be divided between Liberal and Absolutist; the former advocating radical changes in State and Church, the latter defending Absolutism in politics, and Catholic orthodoxy. In 1798 appeared the "Mercurio" to combat the French Revolution, and this was followed by other anti-French journals, among them the "Observador Portuguez". On the Liberal side came the "Investigador Portuguez" in 1811 and the "Portuguez" in 1814, both published in London, from which city the Liberal exiles directed their assaults on the old regime. These attacks were met by the "Expectador Portuguez". The Revolution of 1820 gave a great stimulus to journalism, and the "Diario do Governo" began to be issued in that year. At first the Liberal papers were rather anti-Absolutist than anti-Catholic, but the Civil War led to the formation of two political camps, and Liberalism in politics came to mean Liberalism in religion. The activity of Free-masonry and the unprogressive ideas of the Absolutists were the causes. As early as 1823 the "Archivo da Religiao Christa" was founded "to combat error and impiety", but the papers of this period were devoted almost entirely to politics, all being very violent. Among those which argued for a constitution, the "Portuguez", directed by Garrett, showed the greatest literary skill. The year 1827 saw the issue of an avowedly anti-clerical print, while the defense of Throne and Altar was carried on by the redoubtable Father Jose Agostinho de Macedo (q.v.) in the "Besta Esfolada" (Flayed Beast) and many other periodicals of a most bellicose character. From 1829 to 1833 the "Defensor dos Jesuitas" was issued to defend the Society, which fell with the other orders when the Liberals triumphed and Dom Miguel lost his throne.

The constitutional monarchy had an anti-clerical character from the first and most of the papers took on the same tone. A Catholic Press became an absolute necessity, but as its supporters were mostly Miguelists, it was too political, and never exercised much religious influence over the nation. "The Peninsula", organ of the Miguelist exiles, supported the Catholic Absolutist cause until 1872, and the "Nagao", of the same party, still exists. From 1840 to 1892 the chief Radical paper was the "Revolucao de Septembro". The purely religious organs included the "Annaes da Propagagao da Fe" (1838); the "Cruz", an Oporto weekly; and the "Atalaia Catholica", printed at Braga; but the other Catholic papers had a short life, though the "Bern Publico" (Public Weal) lasted from 1859 to 1877. In 1863 came the "Boletim do Clero e do Professorado", a pedagogic paper, in 1866 the "Uniao Catholica", a religious and literary weekly, and in 1871 the "Fe" The "Palavra" of Oporto was founded in 1872, and in 1874 the "Mensageiro do Coracao de Jesus", the monthly organ of the Apostleship of Prayer, which in 1881 slightly changed its title. In 1883 was founded the "Instituipoes Christas", a fortnightly religious and scientific review, which, however, ceased in 1893; in 1885 the "Clero Portuguez", a weekly ecclesiastical review; and in 1889 the "Voz do Evangelho", a monthly. While the Catholic papers lacked support, the secular press was expanding rapidly, and developed a more and more irreligious, or at least indifferentist, character. This is even more true of the Republican papers. It would take too much space even to name the principal secular newspapers, but it is enough to say that they favored the subjection of Church to State and defended the laws of Aguiar ("Kill-friars") which suppressed the religious orders. This attitude has become more marked since the Revolution, nearly all the Monarchical papers having ceased publication, or passed over to the Republicans, who are mostly anti-Catholic.

The present Catholic Press consists of the following papers: Dailies.—The "Palavra", with a circulation of 12,000 and the "Correio do Norte", with 6,000, both at Oporto. The "Portugal" of Lisbon had a circulation of 11,500, but ceased when the Republic was proclaimed. The circulation of the irreligious "Seculo" and "Mundo" is no doubt greater than that of the three Catholic dailies combined. Weeklies.—The publishing house, "Veritas", at Guarda, prints a paper which appears under distinct titles in various provincial towns. Lisbon has the "Bern Publico", Guimaraes the "Restauracao", Oporto the "Ensino", and Vizeu the "Revista Catholica". Monthlies.—The "Novo Mensageiro do Coracao de Jesus", published by the Jesuits, ceased when the Society was expelled in October, 1910; the "Voz de Santos Antonio", a Franciscan print, had already been suspended by order of the Holy See for its Modernism, and the only existing review of importance is the "Rosario", issued by the Irish Dominicans at Lisbon.

If the Catholic Press limits itself in future to religious and social action, and lays aside the old methods in which it identified religion with the monarchy, it may regain some influence over those who have not altogether lost Christian sentiments. For some years before the Revolution it was too political and fought the enemies of the Church with their own arms.

Edgar Prestage.


Scotland.—No Catholic periodical of any kind seems to have made its appearance in Scotland until after the Emancipation Act of 1829. Three years subsequent to the passing of that act, namely in April, 1832, James Smith, an Edinburgh solicitor, and father of William Smith (Archbishop of St. Andrews and Edinburgh, 1885-92), started a monthly journal called the "Edinburgh Catholic Magazine", editing it himself. The publication was suspended with the number of November, 1833, but was resumed in February, 1837. In April, 1838, however, Mr. Smith having removed to England, the word "Edinburgh" was dropped from the title of the magazine, which continued to be published in London until the end of 1842. More than fifty years later another monthly magazine, the "Scottish Catholic Monthly", was established and edited by Goldie Wilson. It existed for three years, from October, 1893, until December, 1896. The Benedictines of Fort Augustus founded and conducted a magazine called "St. Andrew's Cross", from August, 1902, to November, 1903, as a quarterly, and from January, 1904, to December, 1905, as a monthly, after which it was discontinued. The French Premonstratensian Canons, who made a foundation in the Diocese of Galloway in 1889, and remained there for a few years, published for a short time, at irregular intervals, a periodical called the "Liberator", which was something of a literary curiosity, being written in English by French fathers whose acquaintance with that language was very rudimentary. A quarterly magazine, called "Guth na-Bliadhna" (the "Voice of the Year"), was started in 1904 by the Hon. R. Erskine, a convert to Catholicism, who still (1911) edits it. The articles, which are of Catholic and general interest, are nearly all written in the Gaelic language. A little monthly, called the "Catholic Parish Magazine", is printed in Glasgow, and is localized (with parochial news) for a number of missions in Glasgow and Galloway.

No Catholic daily paper has ever been published in Scotland, although the possibility of successfully conducting such a paper, in Glasgow, has been more than once under consideration. Of weekly papers the first issued seems to have been the "Glasgow Free Press", which came into Catholic hands about 1850, and was published, under various editors, for several years. The "Northern Times" was started in opposition to this, but only survived about eighteen months. The "Irish Exile", another weekly, was started in 1884, and ran for about eighteen months. Finally, in 1885, the "Glasgow Observer" came into existence, and is now, with its affiliated papers, printed for circulation in Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Dundee, and Lanarkshire, the only Catholic weekly published in Scotland. The Glasgow "Star", which was started in 1895, and was conducted for some years in the interest of the publicans, in opposition to the temperance policy of the "Observer", was finally (in 1908) acquired by the latter paper, which now issues it mid-weekly.

D. O. Hunter-Blair.


Spain.—The periodical Press in Spain began to exist early in the history of that country. The "Enciclopedia Hispano-Americana", in the article "periodismo", mentions news publications as early as the time of Charles V; and "El Mundo de los periodicos", of 1898-99 (p. 945), gives 1661 as the date when the first periodical appeared in Spain. The publication of this kind of literature continued to develop in succeeding years until it reached a maxi-mum in 1762, when fourteen periodicals were published; the number then diminished until, in 1780, it had sunk to two, increasing once more to fourteen in 1786. The publications of this period treated of political, commercial, and literary matters, though such a periodical as the "Apologista Universal", believed to have been edited by Fray Pedro de Centeno, denounced abuses and refuted errors.

The Catholic Press as we now have it did not exist until a later period, when the attacks of gallicizing Liberals and Voltaireans upon the Catholic Religion roused Catholics to defend the traditional doctrines. The liberty of the Press decreed by the Cortes of Cadiz, in 1812, resulted in a remarkable ebullition among Liberal writers, and in 1814 the number of periodicals amounted to twenty-three, while Father Alvarado, the Dominican, wrote his famous articles, under the title "Cartas de un filosofo rancio" (Letters of a Soured Philosopher), against the new doctrines which the French Revolutionists had planted in Spain, and the nascent Liberal Press were striving to popularize. At this time, too (1813-15), Fray Agustin de Castro, the Hieronymite, edited "La Atalya de la Mancha" (The Watch-Tower of La Mancha). On April 25, 1815, a decree of Ferdinand VII prohibited the publication of any periodical except "La Gaceta" and "El Diario de Madrid". But when the Constitution of 1820 proclaimed the liberty of the Press, the number of Liberal periodicals rose to sixty-five. Mesonero Romanos, in his "Recollections of a Septuagenarian" (Madrid, 1880), p. 453, speaking of this era in Spanish history, uses the expression: "the indiscreet attempt made by the political press in the turbulent constitutional period of 1820-23". No Catholic periodicals were published at this time, since, as the same author tells us (p. 232), "The Serviles and Absolutists maintained a complete silence as the only means of avoiding the attacks of the journalists". It must be borne in mind that the Catholics of that time were, as a general rule, Absolutists. In 1823 the king was again absolute, and once more he silenced the Press, which declined for a number of years, until the triumph of Liberalism during the regency of Dona Cristina gave it new life. The number of periodicals reached forty in 1837, and constantly increased thereafter.

Among the Catholic periodicals which appeared during the reign of Isabella II, may be mentioned the Carlist publications, "El Catolico" and "La Esperanza", the latter founded by Pedro de la Hoz. "El Pensamiento de la nacion" was edited by the famous philosopher Balmez, who had begun his career as a journalist with "La Civilizacion", published at Barcelona, in collaboration with Ferrer y Subirana, before leaving him to found "Sociedad". Navarro Villoslada was the editor of "El Pensamiento Espanol", and such distinguished writers as Gabino Tejado, Juan M. Orti y Lara, and Suarez Bravo were among its contributors. Candido Nocedal founded "La Constancia", a short-lived publication, in which the distinguished Catholic journalist and writer Ramon Nocedal made his first efforts. All these periodicals disappeared during the period of the Revolution. After the Revolution, and when the Carlist War had been brought to a conclusion, Candido Nocedal, having, with other moderate members of the Isabel list Party, joined the Carlists, founded "El Siglo Futuro" in 1874. Vicente de la Hoz, son of the former editor of "La Esperanza", founded "La Fe", and Suarez Bravo "El Fenix", which lasted only two years. Alejandro Pidal revived "La Espana Catelica", which had existed before the Revolution. At Seville there appeared "El Diario de Sevilla", which will always be associated with the name of that illustrious writer Padre Francisco Mateos Gago. Upon the death of Candido Nocedal, who had been the leader of the Carlist Party since the end of the Civil War, differences arose between his son Ramer' and the other chiefs of that party, which gave rise to the "Burgos Manifesto" of 1888. The Carlists separated from the Integrists, who were led by Ramon Nocedal. That same year, 1888, saw the first appearance of "El Correo Espanol", now (1910) the organ of Don Jaime's party. In 1897 "El Universo" was founded by Juan M. Orti, who, a few years earlier, had left the Intergist Party.

Forty-eight Catholic dailies are now published in Spain. They may be grouped as Integrist, Jaimist, and Independent. The first and second of these groups represent the two Traditionalist parties; the third is formed of those journals which maintain Catholic doctrines without adhering to any political party. Of the forty-eight, eleven are Integrist, eleven Jaimist, and the remainder Independent. The most important are "El Siglo Futuro", Integrist, founded in 1874, now edited by Manuel Senante, a member of the Cortes; "El Correo Espanol", Jaimist, founded in 1888, owned by the Duke of Madrid, edited by Rafael Morales; "El Universo", founded in 1899, owned by the Junta Social de Accion Catolica, edited by Rufino Blanco (these three published at Madrid); "La Gaceta del Norte", founded in 1901, published at Bilbao, edited by Jose Becerra. The number of copies printed by these papers naturally varies with circumstances; it is safe to say, however, that on an average "El Siglo Futuro" prints 7000 copies; "El Correo Espanol", 18,000; "El Universo", 14,000; "La Gaceta del Norte", 12,000. Against this the anti-Catholic dailies publish: "El Pais", Socialist Republican, 18,000 copies; "El Heraldo de Madrid", 70,000; "El Liberal", 40,000. The Moderate periodicals—e.g., "A. B.C.", "La Correspondencia de Espana", and "La Epoca", the organ of the Conservative Party—have a large number of readers.

The other Catholic periodicals are: 2 tri-monthly; 7 bi-weekly; 63 weekly; 5 published every ten days; 9 semi-monthly; 9 monthly. Of these 11 are Catholic-social; 9 Lutegrist; 19 Jaimist; the rest Independent. The illustrated papers worthy of mention among them are "La Lectura Dominical" (Sunday Reading), organ of the Apostolate of the Press, "El Iris de Paz", conducted by the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, at Madrid; "La Hormiga de Oro" (The Golden Ant), Catholic illustrated, Barcelona; "La Revista Popular", edited by Felix Saeda y Salvany, Barcelona. There are twenty-four semi-monthly and seventy-four monthly reviews published in Spain; twenty-eight of them deal with social questions, one is devoted to Spanish Sacred Music, four deal with ecclesiastical sciences in general, while the remainder handle religious and literary topics. About twelve of these are illustrated, the principal being: "La Ciudad de Dios", founded in 1881, a semi-monthly review conducted by the Augustinian Fathers of the Escorial, and including among its notable contributors the late Padre Camara, formerly Bishop of Salamanca; "Razón y Fe", founded in 1901, a monthly review published by the Jesuit Fathers at Madrid; "Revista de Estudios Franciscanos", founded 1907, published by the Capuchin Fathers at Sarria (Barcelona), and including among its most noteworthy contributors Padre Francisco Esplugas; "La Ciencia Tomista", bi-weekly, founded in March, 1910, published by the Dominican Fathers; "El Mensajero del Corazon de Jesus" (Messenger of the Sacred Heart), a monthly review, founded in 1869 by Father de la Ramiere, and now edited by Padre Remigio Vilarino. (Padre Coloma, S.J., a member of the Academy of the Language, and celebrated as a novelist, has published in "El Mensajero" his most notable works.) "Revista Catolica de Cuestiones Sociales", founded in 1895, at Madrid, organ of the general association of the "Dames de la buena prensa", edited by Jose Ignacio de Molina. "Revista Social Hispano-Americana", founded in 1902, semi-monthly publication of the "Action Popular", Barcelona.

It is difficult to say anything with certainty as to the future of the Catholic Press in Spain, though there is reasonable ground for a hopeful view. The one thing evident is that, within the last few years, the number of Catholic publications in this country has considerably increased, and that an active propaganda is in progress in favor of the Catholic Press. Many Catholics, it seems, are awakening from their lethargy and are beginning to realize the necessity of using every possible means to counteract the pernicious effect of the evil press. The "Asociación de la Buena Prensa", organized with the approval of Cardinal Spinola, Archbishop of Seville, has already (1910) held two conferences. A Catholic agency has been formed to supply news to Catholic periodicals, and some of the new periodicals, such as "La Gaceta del Norte", give much information and are equipped with excellent typographic facilities.

Enrique Jiménez.


Switzerland.—The history of Swiss journalism goes back to the beginning of the seventeenth century, the first Swiss newspaper being issued at Basle in 1610. It is significant that the early newspapers of Switzerland, which was at that time only nominally free, hardly discussed political matters excepting those of foreign countries and this was the case until well into the eighteenth century. The censorship exercised at that time was so strict that it did not seem advisable to raise questions concerning home politics. Even in the middle of the eighteenth century, writers of objectionable articles were bluntly notified to give up writing for newspapers. The political newspaper did not appear until at the close of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century, when the freedom of the Press was gradually allowed. This freedom, however, for a long time existed chiefly in the Protestant cantons. Catholic journalism in the present sense is a recent growth, and does not extend farther back than the third decade of the last century, when the first Catholic newspapers appeared at Lucerne and St. Gall. The reasons for this were partly of a political and partly of an economic character. Switzerland is a federation of twenty-five cantons, each of which up to 1848 was absolutely sovereign and up to 1874 was practically sovereign. Even now the cantons possess many of the rights of sovereignty, though not as many as the States of the American Union. Hence the political Press has mainly a cantonal or local character, dealing with the interests of the sub-divisions of a small state.

All the Catholic cantons are relatively small, some of them not having more than 20,000 or 30,000 inhabitants. Moreover, the population is mostly rural. Except Lucerne and Fribourg, they do not contain important cities, and, finally, the Catholic party for many years totally misjudged the importance and influence of the political Press in general, and let itself be outstripped by their opponents. The first strong impulse to the founding of a Catholic Press was given by the civil war of 1847, called the war of the Sonderbund; the war ended with the defeat of the seven Catholic cantons, which placed them largely at the mercy of a violent Liberalism. This was still more the case in the cantons made up of Catholic and Protestant districts. The Catholic Press grew very rapidly during the sixth decade of the past century and still more so during the Swiss Kulturkampf of the seventies. More recently a large emigration of Catholics into Protestant cantons led to the founding of Catholic newspapers in these cantons. Switzerland has now a Catholic Press in the Catholic cantons, in those where Catholics and Protestants are on a parity, and in the Protestant cantons.

The statistics are as follows: In 1911 Switzerland had 399 political newspapers, of which 64 were Catholic. Of these Catholic papers, 1 is issued 7 times a week, 10 are issued 6 times weekly, 1 is issued 5 times weekly, 3 appear 4 times weekly, 22 appear 3 times, 13 appear twice weekly, and 14 once a week. 50 are published in German, 9 in French, 4 in Italian, and 1 in Rhaeto-Romanic. The number of copies issued at an edition are, taken altogether, as follows: the 4 daily papers, including 1 issued 5 times weekly, have a circulation of 52,000 copies; 3 that appear 4 times weekly, 8000 copies; 22 appearing 3 times weekly, 57,000; 13 appearing twice weekly, 30,000; 14 appearing once a week, 60,000. Thus the 64 Catholic papers have a total circulation of 207,000. The Canton of Aargau has 6; Appenzell Outer Rhodes, none; Appenzell Inner Rhodes, 1; half-canton of Basel-Stadt, 1; half-canton of Basel-Land, none; Berne, 3; Fribourg, 4; St. Gall, 12; Geneva, 1; Glarus, 1; Grisons, 3; Lucerne, 5; Neuchatel, none; Schaffhausen, 1; Schwyz, 5; Solothurn, 3; Ticcino, 3; Thurgau, 1; half-canton of Nidwald, 1; half-canton of Obwald, 1; Uri, 1; Vaud, none; Valais, 5; Zug, 1; Zurich, 4. The Catholic cantons have 28 Catholic papers, including 3 dailies, the cantons having parity, 27, including 5 dailies; the Protestant cantons, 9, including 4 dailies and 1 appearing 5 times weekly.

Although the Catholic Press of Switzerland has grown enormously in the last thirty years, and need not fear comparison with that of other countries, even entirely Catholic, yet the result is much less satisfactory and even disappointing if we compare the Catholic with the anti-Catholic press. According to the census of 1910 Switzerland has in round numbers 3,700,000 inhabitants. Of these about 1,500,000 are Catholics. From this we should deduct the liberal Catholics, a fairly large element, and the foreign work-men, Italian men and women, journeymen-mechanics, servants, etc., that are only temporary residents. Consequently only about 1,200,000 Catholics can be taken into consideration for the present purpose. We shall compare only the dailies. A comparison between the weekly papers would not yield a much better result, as is evident from the fact that there are only 64 Catholic political papers to counterbalance 399 non-Catholic, and for 269 non-Catholic weeklies that appear 1 to 4 times weekly there are only 53 Catholic ones. The daily non-Catholic Press of Switzerland includes 67 newspapers; of these 44 are extreme Liberal, that is, hostile to the Church and in part disposed to renew the Kulturkampf; 3 of these appear twice a day, total circulation, 244,000; 7 Liberal-Conservative, Protestant in faith, and generally friendly to Catholics, total circulation 46,000; 10 Social-Democratic and belonging to the Democratic party of the Left, partly hostile to Catholics but not inclined to carry on a Kulturkampf, total circulation 54,000; 7 politically indifferent, total circulation 164,000. Taken altogether, as before said, 67 papers with a total circulation of 508,000, opposed to which are 12 Catholic dailies, one of which appears 5 times weekly, with a total circulation of 52,000. In proportion to the population there should be at least 20 with a circulation of 150,000. The total circulation of all the 64 Catholic Swiss papers is 207,000 copies, not the half of the total circulation of the non-Catholic dailies, and the total circulation of the extreme Liberal dailies alone is much larger than the total circulation of all the Catholic papers taken together. It should be further added that up to now the Catholic Press contains no paper of two daily editions, and that the best non-Catholic newspapers exceed the Catholic ones in copiousness of matter, etc. It is also worthy of notice that the Catholic daily with the largest circulation, the "Vaterland", has about 11,000 subscribers among Catholics, while among the 63,000 subscribers to the politically and ecclesiastically indifferent "Zürcher Tagesanzeiger", there are about 20,000 Catholics. Again, it is not a Catholic weekly that has the largest circulation among Catholics, but it is the rather Liberally inclined "Schweiz. Wochenzeitung" of Zurich. Yet the Catholic party is the second in strength in Switzerland.

But the Liberal and Protestant parties are socially and economically in a far better position, they control the larger part of the cities, while the majority of the Catholic population represents the country and mountain districts, which have less need of a daily paper. On the other hand, the daily Press of the Social Democratic party and of the Democratic party of the Left have a total circulation of 54,000, although they draw their readers almost entirely from the lower classes of the population. However, the Swiss Catholic Press is earnest, courageous, and on the whole is able and efficient, and exerts a greater influence than is the case with the greater part of the Liberal Press. The principal Catholic newspapers of Switzerland are: the "Vaterland", founded at Lucerne in 1873; the "Neuen-Zarcher Nachrichten", established at Zurich in 1904; the "Ostschweiz", in 1874 at St. Gall; the "Basler Volksblatt", in 1873 at Basle; and the "Liberte", in 1865 at Fribourg. Among the pioneers, now deceased, of the Catholic Press of Switzerland special mention should be made of: Bishop Augustinus Egger, Landamman Baumgartner, and Joseph Gmur of St. Gall, Schultheiss von Segesser of Lucerne, Landamman Hanggi of Solothurn, the episcopal commissary von Ah, and Landamman Th. Wirz of Obwald, Msgr. Jurt of Basle, and Canon Schorderet of Fribourg. Among Catholic periodicals the following should be mentioned: "Die schweiz. Kirchenzeitung", of Lucerne, a theological review that has a high reputation among the German clergy also: the "Schweiz. Rundschau", issued at Stans, a Catholic scientific and literary review; the "Schweiz. sozialpolit. Blatter", of Fribourg; the "Alte and Neue Welt", of Einsiedeln, an illustrated Catholic family paper, which has a large circulation also in Germany and Austria; the "Zukunft", of Einsiedeln, a Catholic review for the Swiss associations for young men; various religious Sunday papers for the people; an illustrated supplement for Catholic newspapers; a large number of Catholic calendars, as well as the organs of Catholic societies, etc. The five papers for Catholic workmen and working women have been included among the political newspapers.

Georg Baumberger.


The United States.—According to "The Official Catholic Directory" for 1911, there are 321 Catholic periodicals published in the United States. Of these about two-thirds, or 201, are printed in English, 51 in German, 24 in French, 24 in Polish, 7 in Bohemian, 5 in Italian, 2 in Slavonic, 2 in Magyar, 2 in Dutch, 1 in Croatian, 1 in Spanish, 1 in an Indian dialect. These make up 13 dailies, 115 weeklies, 128 monthlies, 29 quarterlies, 2 bi-weeklies, 5 semi-weeklies, 4 semi-monthlies, 9 bi-monthlies, and 16 annuals. Of the dailies 7 are French, 4 Polish, 2 German, and 1 Bohemian; none is English. The French Canadians of Maine, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island support seven dailies, eleven weeklies, one semi-weekly, one monthly, and a quarterly, all of which are printed in French. From 1809 to 1911 some 550 Catholic periodicals were started in the United States, but only five of those published during the first half of the nineteenth century survive. Several attempts have been made to establish a news association of Catholic papers, notably at Cincinnati, in May, 1890, but nothing practical came of these efforts.

According to localities the Catholic publications are divided up as follows: Alabama, 2; Arizona, 1; Arkansas, 1; California, 9; Colorado, 2; Connecticut, 5; Delaware, 4; District of Columbia, 7; Illinois, 30; Indiana, 14; Iowa, 8; Kansas, 4; Kentucky, 5; Louisiana, 2; Maine, 2; Maryland, 10; Massachusetts, 15; Michigan, 11; Minnesota, 7; Missouri, 15; Montana, 1; Nebraska, 2; New Hampshire, 1; New Jersey, 4; New Mexico, 1; New York, 61; North Carolina, 2; Ohio, 23; Oregon, 7; Pennsylvania, 29; Rhode Island, 1; South Carolina, 2; Tennessee, 2; Texas, 6; Utah, 1; Washington, 2; West Virginia, 1; Wisconsin, 21.

Many publications advocating Irish interests are, and have been, edited by Catholics and addressed to a Catholic constituency, but they are secular political enterprises, and are not to be properly enumerated under the head of religious publications (see Irish, The, in Countries Other Than Ireland.—I. IN THE UNITED STATES).

Newspapers.—The first Catholic newspaper printed in the United States was due to the enterprise of Father Gabriel Richard, of Detroit, Michigan. In 1808 he visited Baltimore, and while there bought a printing press and a font of type which he sent over the mountains to Detroit (then a frontier town) and set up in the house of one Jacques Lasselle, in the suburb of Springwells. On this press, the lever of which is still preserved in the museum of the Michigan Historical Society, he printed, on August 31, 1809, the first issue of "The Michigan Essay, or Impartial Observer", containing sixteen columns and a half in English, and one column and a half in French, on miscellaneous topics. There is no local news included in its contents and only one advertisement, that of St. Anne's school, Detroit. The imprint says the paper was printed and published by James M. Miller, but under the direction of Father Richard. It was to appear every Thursday; only one issue, however, was made, and of this but five copies are extant. The next journalistic effort was in New York, where Thomas O'Connor, father of the jurist Charles O'Connor (q.v.), began, December 10, 1810, a weekly called the "Shamrock, or Hibernian Chronicle", which ceased publication August 17, 1817. It was revived as a monthly called "The Globe" in 1819 and lasted a year. His pen, says his son, "was ever directed in vindicating the fame of Ireland, the honor of our United American States, or the truth and purity of his cherished mother the Apostolic Church". Although these two papers were not distinctively religious journals, they were Catholic in tone and teaching, as might be expected from their Catholic direction.

Bishop England of Charleston (see John England) follows, in 1822, with his "United States Catholic Miscellany". "The writer would add", says the bishop, in a history of his diocese which he published while on a visit to Dublin, in 1832, "that during upwards of ten years he and his associates have, at a very serious pecuniary loss, not to mention immense labor, published a weekly paper, `The United States Catholic Miscellany', in which the cause of Ireland at home and Irishmen abroad, and of the Catholic religion through the world, has been defended to the best of their ability. This paper is published every week on a large sheet of eight pages containing twenty-four pages of letter press, in the city of Charleston." Its publication ceased in 1861, as a result of the War of Secession. One of the bishop's most efficient assistants in this enterprise was his sister Johanna, a woman of fine culture and much mental vigor, who has never received proper credit for all the variety of solid work she did on the paper. With the second quarter of the nineteenth century came the great influx of Catholic immigrants and a consequent development of the Catholic Press. The pioneer journal of this era was "The Truth Teller", the first number of which appeared in New York, on April 2, 1825, with the imprint of W. E. Andrews & Co., which was continued on the first six issues of the paper. William Eusebius Andrews (q.v.) was the English publisher who was so active in England, during Bishop Milner's time, and his connection with the New York venture is now explainable only as he was then printing a "Truth Teller" in London. In the issue of October 19, 1825, William Denman (q.v.) and George Pardow are given as the proprietors of the New York "Truth Teller", and so continued until January 2, 1830, when Pardow sold his interest to Denman, and the latter remained its sole proprietor until March 31, 1855, when he disposed of it to the owners of the "Irish American", who shortly after merged it in that paper.

Denman, in the early days of the "Truth Teller", had the assistance, as contributors, of the Rev. Dr. John Power, rector of St. Peter's Church, the Rev. Thomas Levins, a former Jesuit and a man of ripe learning and ability, Dr. William James MacNeven (q.v.), the Rev. Joseph A. Schneller, the Rev. Felix Varela, and Thomas O'Connor, but the paper becoming tainted with trusteeism (see Trustee System), and opposing Bishop Dubois, a rival, the "Weekly Register and Catholic Diary" was started on October 5, 1833, by Fathers Schneller and Levins. It lasted three years, and was succeeded, in 1839, by the "Catholic Register", which, the next year, was combined with the "Freeman's Journal", then a year old. The editors at first were James W. and John E. White, nephews of Gerald Griffin, the Irish novelist. Eugene Casserly (q.v.) and John T. Devereux succeeded them, and in 1842 Bishop Hughes took the paper to keep it alive, and made his secretary, the Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley (afterwards Archbishop of Baltimore), its editor. In 1848 the bishop offered to give the paper to Orestes A. Brownson (q.v.), but soon after sold it to James Alphonsus McMaster (q.v.), the latter borrowing the money for its purchase from George Hecker, a brother of the Rev. Isaac Thomas Hecker (q.v.), founder of the Paulists. McMaster continued as its editor and proprietor until his death, December 29, 1886. In 1861, because of its violent State's Rights editorials, it was suppressed by the Government, and did not resume publication until April 19, 1862. Maurice Francis Egan was editor of the paper for two years after McMaster's death and in 1894 the Rev. Dr. Louis A. Lambert (b. at Allenport, Pennsylvania, February 11, 1835; d. at Newfoundland, New Jersey, September 25, 1910) took the position and so continued until his death.

New York City was, during the first half of the nineteenth century, the leader in Catholic journalism. The pioneer papers devoted their space mainly to controversial articles explanatory of the truths of the Faith, and in defense of the teachings of the Church in answer to attack and calumny. The assaults of the Native American and Know nothing periods also largely engaged their attention. In this they were assisted by a number of journals not strictly religious, but political and social, edited by Catholics, and for a numerous constituency Irish by birth or descent. Of these the oldest, "The Irish American", founded August 12, 1849, by Patrick Lynch (b. at Kilkenny, Ireland, 1811; d. in Brooklyn, New York, May, 1857); edited from 1857 until 1906 by his stepson Patrick J. Meehan (b. at Limerick, Ireland, July 17, 1831; d. Jersey City, New Jersey, April 20, 1906), with the "Catholic Telegraph" of Cincinnati (founded 1831), "Pilot" of Boston (1837), "Freeman's Journal" of New York (1840), and "Catholic" of Pittsburg (1846), alone survive in 1911, of the many Catholic papers in existence in the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century. In October, 1848, Thomas D'Arcy McGee began in New York a paper called "The Nation" which lasted until June, 1850, its end being hastened by McGee's violent controversy with Bishop Hughes. Another venture of his, "The American Celt", completed in June, 1857, had a peripatetic existence of four years—in Boston, Buffalo, and New York—when it was purchased by D. & J. Sadlier and made over into a new paper, "The Tablet", the first 'number of which appeared on June 5 of that year, with Bernard Doran Killian as its editor. His successors in that position, until the paper died in 1893, included Dr. J. V. Huntington, William Denman, Mrs. M. A. Sadlier, Dr. Henry J. Anderson, O. A. Brownson, Lawrence Kehoe, and D. P. Conyngham. Archbishop Hughes started, in 1859, as his personal organ, "The Metropolitan Record", which ceased publication in 1873. During all this time John Mullaly was its editor.

In 1872 "The Catholic Review", a paper combining the ideals of progressive modern journalism under the direction of a man who had had practical newspaper training was begun by Patrick V. Hickey (b. in Dublin, Ireland, February 14, 1846; d. in Brooklyn, New York, February 21, 1889). For a time it met with success as a high-class weekly, and, to meet the demand for a cheap popular paper, Hickey printed also, in 1888, "The Catholic American" and the "Illustrated Catholic American". After his death, the Rev. J. Talbot Smith edited "The Review", which ceased to exist in 1899. Mr. Herman Ridder founded "The Catholic News" in 1886, and it is notable that the historian Dr. John Gilmary Shea closed his long and splendid career as its editor, February 22, 1892. The "News" attained a very large and widespread circulation as a medium of entertaining and instructive reading matter for the masses under the business management of Henry Ridder and the editorial direction of Michael J. Madigan.

Several attempts have been made to establish a paper in the Diocese of Brooklyn, notably the "Catholic Examiner", in 1882, and the "Leader", in 1884. Both were short lived. In June, 1908, the "Tablet" was started. In February, 1909, it was made a diocesan organ and purchased by a company made up of diocesan priests. Albany had a "Catholic Pioneer" in 1853, followed by several other ventures with brief existences. The "Catholic Sun" of Syracuse, in 1892, succeeded the "Catholic Reflector" of the early sixties and the equally short lived "Vindicator" and "Sentinel". The "Sun" is also circulated as the "Catholic Chronicle" in Albany and the "Catholic Light" in Scranton, Penn. The Newark, New Jersey, "Monitor" was begun in September, 1906. Buffalo, New York, also had several experiences, beginning with D'Arcy McGee's "American Celt", in 1852, and culminating in the "Catholic Union and Times", the "Union" starting in 1872, and being combined later with the "Times", founded in 1877 by the Rev. Louis A. Lambert, at Waterloo. For most of the years of its progress the editor was the Rev. Patrick Cronin (b. in Ireland, 1835; d. at North Tonawanda, New York, December 12, 1905), a forceful and able writer and a recognized leader among the Irish-American element in the United States.

The Catholic papers of Philadelphia start with the Hogan schism (see Henry Conwell), the "Catholic Herald and Weekly Register" being issued November 30, 1822, by E. F. Crozet to support the rebellious priest. To offset its influence and assist Bishop Conwell, the "Catholic Advocate and Irishman's Journal" was started February 22, 1823. In August, 1822, the "Erin", a national paper, was first issued. These were followed in 1833 by the "Catholic Herald", which had a stormy existence under the editorial management of a convert, Henry Major, who was a professor in the diocesan seminary. Disappointed in his ambition, Major relapsed to Episcopalianism, though he repented in his last illness. He was a bitter antagonist of Orestes A. Brownson in the controversies that were carried on during the fifties by the editors of the Catholic publications of that period. Another "Catholic Herald" was issued June 22, 1872, by Marc F. Vallette, and had a brief existence. The "Catholic Standard", started June 6, 1866, was suspended February 20, 1867, but resumed publication on June 22 of the same year. Its first editor was the Rev. Dr. James Keogh; others were Mark Wilcox, George D. Wolf, and F. T. Furey. In 1874 Hardy & Mahony became its publishers, and December 7, 1895, it combined (under the title of "Catholic Standard and Times") with the "Catholic Times", a rival which had the Rev. Louis A. Lambert as editor, and the first number of which was dated December 3, 1892. Its news, editorials, and correspondence are regarded as authoritative, and frequently quoted by the secular Press. A monthly, the "Irish Catholic Benevolent Union Journal", with Martin I. J. Griffin as editor, began in March, 1873; had its title changed in March, 1894, to "Griffin's Journal", and suspended in July, 1900.

Bishop Michael O'Connor, of Pittsburg, founded (March 16, 1844) "The Pittsburg Catholic". Its manager and proprietor was J. F. Boylan, with whom was associated a printer named Jacob Porter, a convert. On June 30, 1847, Porter and Henry McNaughton bought the paper with which Porter retained his connection until 1889. He died in his eighty-third year, January 14, 1908. An early editor was the Rev. Hugh P. Gallagher, president of the Pittsburg seminary, born in County Donegal, Ireland, in 1815, and ordained priest in 1840. In 1852 he went to San Francisco, where he started the "Catholic Standard" the following year. He died there in 1883. The "Catholic Observer" of Pittsburg dates from 1899. The "Emerald Vindicator" began at Pittsburg, May, 1882, moved to Norfolk, Virginia, in August, 1888, suspended in July, 1889. During the seventies, under Bishop Mullen's patronage the "Lake Shore Visitor" was published at Erie, Pennsylvania, for several years.

Bishop Fenwick, feeling that a journalistic organ was needed in Boston, started "The Jesuit, or Catholic Sentinel", the first number of which was dated September 5, 1829. "The rapid increase and respectability of Roman Catholics in Boston and throughout the New England States", says the prospectus, "loudly calls for the publication of a Newspaper, in which the Doctrine of the Holy Catholic Church, ever the same, from the Apostolic Age down to our time, may be truly explained, and moderately, but firmly defended." Objection having been made that the name "The Jesuit" was prejudicial to the increase of circulation. Bishop Fenwick, after four months, allowed the title to be changed to "The Catholic Intelligencer", but in a short time went back to the original style. This did not improve conditions, and, on December 27, 1834, another title, "The Irish and Catholic Sentinel", was announced; during 1835, however, the paper was called "The Literary and Catholic Sentinel", and on January 2, 1836, evolved into "The Boston Pilot", a name subsequently changed to "The Pilot". The first editors were George Pepper and Dr. J. S. Bartlett, and the printers aid publishers Patrick Donahoe and Henry L. Devereux. Patrick Donahoe (q.v.), who became connected with "The Pilot", in 1835, by the withdrawal of Devereux, assumed the ownership of the enterprise, which in the course of a few years grew into a most important paper of national circulation and influence, advocating Catholic and Irish interests. The editors under whose direction this success was attained were Thomas D'Arcy Mc-Gee, the Rev. J. P. Roddan, the Rev. Joseph M. Finotti (q.v.), John Boyle O'Reilly, James J. Roche, and Katherine E. Conway. Over the pen name of "Laffan", Michael Hennessy, of the editorial staff of the New York daily "Times" (b. at Thomastown, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland, September 8, 1833; d. in Brooklyn, New York, July 23, 1892), contributed for years weekly articles on Catholic and Irish historical and genealogical topics that had a very wide popularity. The Rev. John P. Roddan was a Boston priest educated at the Propaganda, Rome, and on his return home made pastor at Quincy, Mass., where, in addition to his pastoral duties, he edited "The Pilot". He was a friend of Orestes A. Brownson, and wrote many articles for his "Review". Boyle O'Reilly's connection with "The Pilot" began about 1870, and continued till his death in 1890. On the failure of Patrick Donahoe's bank and publishing house in 1876, Archbishop Williams came to his rescue and purchased a three-fourths interest in "The Pilot" for the benefit of the depositors in the bank. O'Reilly held the other fourth, and was given the business as well as the editorial management. In 1890 the venerable Patrick Donahoe, who had bravely gone to work to rehabilitate his fortunes, was able to buy back "The Pilot" and resumed its management, which he held until his death, March 18, 1891. In June, 1908, Archbishop O'Connell bought "The Pilot" from the Donahoe family and made it the official diocesan organ of the diocese and a distinctively Catholic journal.

When Orestes A. Brownson became a Catholic he attended the church in East Boston of which the Rev. Nicholas O'Brien was pastor. Father O'Brien in 1847 persuaded Brownson to join him in the publication of "The Catholic Observer". He soon proved his unfitness for the management of the paper, which suspended after two years' existence. In 1888 a number of priests organized a corporation which began the publication of "The Sacred Heart Review". Under the direction of Msgr. John O'Brien it attained a great reputation for enterprise and literary merit. Another Boston paper, "The Republic", was started in 1881 by Patrick Maguire, but more as a political, than a strictly Catholic organ. In Connecticut Bishop Fenwick was even earlier with his journalistic venture than he was in Boston, for the "Catholic Press" was begun in Hartford, on July 11, 1829. In its office he started the first Sunday school, July 19, 1829, and there, too, Mass was offered up for the few Catholics composing the pioneer colony. The "Press" did not long survive, and its successor did not arrive until 1876, when the "Connecticut Catholic" was begun. Twelve years later Bishop Tierney purchased this paper and made it, as the "Catholic Transcript", official diocesan property, with the Rev. T. S. Duggan as editor. In Rhode Island the Providence "Visitor" dates from 1877.

The "Catholic Mirror" was established at Baltimore in 1849, and, as an expression of Southern opinion and the diocesan organ, had, in its early years, considerable influence. After the War, however, its prestige waned, and, in spite of several efforts to keep it alive, it suspended in 1908. Kentucky's first Catholic paper, the "Catholic Advocate", was founded in 1835 by Ben. J. Webb, then foreman printer of the Louisville "Journal", encouraged in the scheme by the Rev. Dr. Reynolds and the Rev. Dr. Martin J. Spalding. It took the place of the "Minerva", a monthly magazine, founded in 1834, and edited by the faculty of St. Joseph's College, Bardstown. In the old "Advocate" many of the most valuable papers written by Bishop Spalding first appeared. In May, 1858, it was succeeded by the "Catholic Guardian", started in Louisville by the members of the local Particular Council of the St. Vincent de Paul Society, which had a fair success, but was forced to suspend by the Civil War in July, 1862, The "Catholic Advocate" was revived later as the "Central Catholic Advocate", and in 1896 the "Midland Review" was started to rival it. There was not room for both so the new absorbed the old journal; but, in spite of the fact that the publication was high-class, it died after a checkered existence of five years. Its editor was a versatile writer of both poetry and prose, Charles J. O'Malley, who left the "Angelus" magazine of Cincinnati to edit the Louisville paper. When he found that his field there was too limited for any practical success, he took the editorial management. of the "Catholic Sun" of Syracuse, N. Y., whence he went to Chicago to take charge of the "New World", in which position he died March 26, 1910. He was born in Kentucky February 9, 1857. In the period before the Civil War, the "Advocate" and the Baltimore "Mirror" were important and influential factors in Catholic affairs. The Louisville "Catholic Record", a diocesan organ, dates from 1878.

Other Southern papers are the New Orleans "Morning Star", established in 1867, and of which two poets, the Rev. Abram J. Ryan and James R. Randall, were at times editors; "The Southern Catholic", begun in 1874 at Memphis, Tenn., suspended, and followed by the "Catholic Journal". In Missouri "The Shepherd of the Valley" started at St. Louis in 1832 with a convert, R. A. Bakewell, as its editor. It suspended in 1838, was revived in 1851, and lasted three years longer. Bakewell, who died in 1909, created much trouble by his editorials, which were used for years as anti-Catholic ammunition by the Native American and know nothing politicians. It was the time of O'Connell's Irish agitation for repeal of the union with England, and the Revolutionary movement of 1848, and he also antagonized the Irish-American element. Although the Catholic constituency, to which their publications appealed, was mainly Irish, many of these convert editors went out of their way to offend Irish susceptibilities. Bakewell's denunciations of Thomas Francis Meagher, John Mitchell, the Rev. Dr. Cahill, and other popular Irishmen enraged "my Irish constituents", he tells Brownson, in a letter dated January 7, 1853. Brownson, in an article in his "Review" of July, 1854, on Native-Americanism raised a storm by the manner in which he referred to the Irish element. After it was printed, Father Hecker, founder of the Paulists, wrote to him: "The Irish prelates and priests have become mighty tender on the point of Nationality. Your dose on Native-Americanism has operated on them and operated powerfully, and especially at the West. They felt sore, and let me add also weak from its effects... The truth is, I fear, that there may before long come a collision on this point in our Church. The American element is increasing steadily in numerical strength, and will in time predominate; and at the present moment, on account of the state of the public mind, has great moral weight, and this in itself must excite unpleasant feelings on the other side." The "Western Watchman" of St. Louis, Missouri, edited and controlled by the Rev. D. S. Phelan, may be called the last of the old style personal organs, and has been running a strenuous course since 1865. In 1846 a predecessor, the "Catholic News Letter", began an existence of three years, and in 1878 a stock company was formed which combined an existing weekly, the "Catholic World", until then published in Illinois, with the "Church Progress" as a rival to the "Watchman". For several years Conde B. Pallen held the position of editor of the "Progress".

The Cincinnati "Catholic Telegraph", established in 1831, now the oldest surviving Catholic publication of the United States, enjoyed during the early years of Bishop Purcell's administration a national reputation under the editorial direction of his brother, the Rev. Edmund Purcell, the Rev. S. H. Rosencrantz, and the Rev. J. F. Callaghan. Bishop Gilmour, of Cleveland, was a strong advocate of the value of a Catholic paper, and, beginning in 1874, spent a considerable amount of money, time, and personal effort in trying to establish the "Catholic Universe" in his cathedral city. Manly Tello was the editor during its early years. The "Catholic Columbian" of Columbus started in 1875, and the "Record" of Toledo in 1905.

The best known and most widely circulated Western publication is the "Ave Maria", a scholarly literary weekly, founded by Father Sorin of the Congregation of the Holy Cross, at Notre Dame, Indiana, in 1865. For the first issues the editor was Father Gillespie, C.S.C., and his sister, the well known Mother Mary St. Angela Gillespie (see Maria Gillespie), was a frequent auxiliary. In 1874 the Rev. Daniel E. Hudson, C.S.C., took charge. An early venture in Chicago was the "Western Tablet", in 1852, under the editorial direction of a convert, M. L. Linton. Another editor was James A. Mulligan, more famous as the colonel of the 23rd Illinois volunteers of the Civil War (the Western Irish Brigade). He was born at Utica, New York, June 25, 1830, and went to Chicago in 1836. He studied law before becoming an editor. His heroic defense of Lexington, Ky., in September, 1861, where, with 2800 men, he withstood an army of 22,000, made him a popular hero. He died, July 26, 1864, from wounds received two days before at the battle of Kern town, Va. The "Western Tablet" did not survive, and it had several ill starred successors until the "New World" appeared in 1892. Three years later the "Western Catholic" was printed at Quincy, Ill. The "Michigan Catholic" of Detroit dates from 1872. In October, 1869, the "Star of Bethlehem" was established as a monthly at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, by the St. Louis Brothers. Two years later they sold the paper to the "Catholic Vindicator", which had been established in November, 1870, at Monroe, Wis., by Dr. D. W. Nolan and the Rev. John Casey. The "Catholic Vindicator" and "Star of Bethlehem" were consolidated, and established in Milwaukee, November, 1871. In November, 1878, Edward A. Bray and the Rev. G. L. Willard, having purchased the "Catholic Vindicator" from Dr. D. W. Nolan, changed the name to the "Catholic Citizen". In 1880 H. J. Desmond undertook its editorial management.

Other Western papers are the "Catholic Tribune", Dubuque, Iowa (1899); "Intermountain Catholic", Salt Lake City, Utah (1899); the "Catholic Bulletin", St. Paul, Minn. (1911); "True Voice", Omaha, Neb. (1903); "Catholic Register", Kansas City, Mo. (1899); "Catholic Sentinel", Portland, Oregon (1870). In San Francisco, Cal., the "Monitor" is one of the veterans dating as far back as 1852. Later enterprises are the "Leader" of the same city (1902); the "Catholic Herald" of Sacramento (1908); and "Tidings" of Los Angeles (1895).

Magazines and Periodicals.—The first Catholic magazine was the "Metropolitan, or Catholic Monthly Magazine" issued at Baltimore, Md., January, 1830. It lived a year. Another "Metropolitan" began in February, 1853, but also failed to make a permanent impression. In January, 1842, the "Religious Cabinet", a monthly, edited by Rev. Dr. Charles J. White and Rev. James Dolan, was started in Baltimore. After a year its title was changed to the "United States Catholic Magazine", which lasted until 1847. The Rev. Dr. White and Dr. J. V. Huntington were its most noted editors, and the contributors included Archbishop M. J. Spalding, Bishop Michael O'Connor, the Rev. Dr. C. C. Pise, and B. N. Campbell. In New York the "Catholic Expositor". edited by the Rev. Dr. Charles C. Pise and the Rev. Felix Varela, lasted three years (1842-44). Father Varela was also instrumental in the publication in New York, by C. H. Gottsberger, of the "Young Catholic's Magazine" in March, 1838; it was suspended in February 1840. The "National Catholic Register", a monthly, the first issue of which appeared at Philadelphia, in January, 1844, did not last long.

When Father Hecker started the "Catholic World", in 1865, its editor for the first five years was John Rose Greene Hassard (q.v.), and the publisher Lawrence Kehoe (b. in Co. Wexford, Ireland, July 24, 1832; d. in Brooklyn, New York, February 20, 1890). To the latter was due much of the early success of the magazine and of the Catholic Publication Society. Under the patronage of the Christian Brothers the "De La Salle Monthly" was begun in 1867. Its name was later changed to the "Manhattan Monthly" and the Irish patriot and poet John Savage was for a time its editor. The "Young Crusader" of Boston (1868), "Catholic Record", Philadelphia (1871), "Central Magazine", St. Louis (1872), "Donahoe's Magazine", Boston (1878), follow in the list of failures. The "Rosary Magazine," begun by the Dominicans in New York, in 1891, was transferred to Somerset, Ohio. The Sisters of Mercy have published, since 1908, at Manchester, New Hampshire, "The Magnificat". In April, 1866, the Rev. B. Sestini, S.J., founded the "Messenger of the Sacred Heart" at Georgetown, D.C.; thence it was moved to Woodstock, Md., next to Philadelphia, and finally to New York, in 1893. Later, in 1907, the "Messenger of the Sacred Heart" was devoted entirely to the interests of the Confraternity of the Sacred Heart, and the "Messenger", a separate magazine of general literary character, was issued. The latter publication, in April, 1910, was changed to a weekly review, "America", which, by authority of the General of the Society of Jesus, was made the joint work of the provincials of the Society in North America. It took immediate rank as an exponent of Catholic opinion with a national scope and circulation. The Rev. John J. Wynne, S.J., was its founder and first editor-in-chief. The Catholic University, Washington, publishes two magazines, the "Catholic University Bulletin" and the "Catholic Educational Review" (1911), and nearly all the Catholic colleges and the academies have monthlies edited and compiled by the students.

For historical work Philadelphia has two quarterly magazines, "American Catholic Historical Researches" and "Records of the American Catholic Historical Society". New York has one, "Historical Records and Studies", of the United States Catholic Historical Society. When the reading circle movement began, Warren E. Mosher (b. at Albany, N. Y., 1860; d. at New Rochelle, N. Y., March 22, 1906), who was one of the founders of the Catholic Summer School, started the "Catholic Reading Circle review". This title was later changed to "Mosher's Magazine", but the periodical did not survive its founder. The "Catholic Fortnightly Review", of Techny, Ill., edited by Arthur Preuss, and the "St. John's Quarterly", of Syracuse, N. Y., edited by the Rev. Dr. J. F. Mullany, are personal organs of the editors. "Benziger's Magazine", New York, 1898, and "Extension", Chicago, 1907, are illustrated monthlies. The "Ecclesiastical Review", Philadelphia (1889), supplies a varied and interesting quantity of professional information for the clergy. An attempt was made to offer from the same office in "The Dolphin", a similarly important publication for the laity, but it failed to attract the necessary support. Another failure, for a like reason, was made in New York in the "New York Review, a journal of Ancient Faith and Modern Thought", issued bi-monthly from St. Joseph's Seminary, Dunwoodie, June, 1905—May-June, 1908.

The first quarterly review established in the United States was the "American Review of History and Politics", founded by a Catholic, Robert Walsh, at Philadelphia, and of which two volumes were published (1811-12). Walsh was born at Baltimore, Md., in 1784, and educated at Georgetown College. He was a man of great literary ability, and died United States consul at Paris, February 7, 1859. The first and most important Catholic quarterly was "Brownson's Quarterly Review", which Orestes A. Brownson began in January, 1844, at Boston (moved to New York, 1855), after his conversion. He suspended its publication in 1864 "because he was unwilling", he said, "to continue a periodical which had not the full confidence of the Catholic hierarchy". It was revived in 1873, and finally ceased publication in October, 1875, with the statement: "I discontinue the Review solely on account of my precarious health and the failure of my eyes." The first number of the "American Catholic Quarterly Review" was issued at Philadelphia, in January, 1876, and the Rev. James Andrew Corcoran (q.v.), George D. Wolf, and Archbishop Patrick John Ryan are notable as its editors. The "Globe Review", of Philadelphia, edited by the erratic William Henry Thorne, had a short career of violent iconoclastic character.

Special Organs.—The fraternal organizations have their special organs—as, for example, the "National Hibernian" (Washington, 1900), of the Ancient Order of Hibernians—which devote their pages to the interests of the social organizations which they represent. The German Catholic Press, led by two influential dailies, has made much more substantial and practical progress than its English contemporaries. Prominent among the editors who contributed to these achievements were Dr. Maximilian Oertel (q.v.) and Edward Frederic Reinhold Preuss (b. at Konigsberg, Germany, July 10, 1834; d. at St. Louis, Missouri, July, 1904). There are sixty-nine Polish papers printed in the United States, twenty odd being thoroughly Catholic, and the others ranging from neutrality to violent anti-clericalism. Of the nine dailies four are distinctively Catholic. The oldest paper is the "Gazeta Katolicka", founded by Father Barzynski. He also founded, in 1889, the "Dziennik Chicagoski" (Chicago Daily News), the controlling interest in which is owned by the Resurrectionist Fathers. There are eighteen Polish papers printed in Chicago, four of them dailies, and of the eighteen seven are Catholic. The Bohemians have a number of prosperous periodicals including 1 daily, 1 semi-weekly, 2 weeklies, and 1 monthly and 1 bimonthly. (See also Bohemians in the United States; French Catholics in the United States; Germans in the United States.—The Press; Italians in the United States. Religious Organizations; Poles in the United States.)

Thomas F. Meehan.