Charter ’89 for Preservation of the Bulgarian Nature Heritage

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Charter ’89 for Preservation of the Bulgarian Nature Heritage
by Lyubomir Ivanov


CHARTER ’89

FOR PRESERVATION OF THE BULGARIAN NATURE HERITAGE

(adapted English version)

ECO-GLASNOST
P.O. Box 99, Sofia 1309

Sofia, 1989





Preamble[edit]


Bulgaria is a country of remarkable nature heritage. Due to its
geographical diversity, population’s moderate density and uneven
distribution, as well as the relatively early beginning of conservation,
many valuable nature areas can still be found there. Some of them
are unequalled elsewhere in Europe and properly belong to the world
nature heritage. At the same time, the country’s socio-economic
development goes along with insensitive and often shortsighted
attitude toward nature; together with the incompleteness of the
present conservation area network, this puts in jeopardy the future of
Bulgaria’s nature heritage.


1.  Development of National Conservation Area Network[edit]


(1)  In order to preserve the entire variety of representative ecosystems and
faunistic complexes, species-formation centres and rare and threatened
species, as well as protect characteristic landscapes, it is crucial to provide
adequate structure of the conservation area network in all biogeographical
regions of Bulgaria and the adjacent Black Sea aquatory.

(2)  It is necessary to create new and expand existing nature reserves and
national parks, so as to preserve viable populations of species, allow for
continuation of the evolution process, preserve the natural interface and
environment-formation capability of all biogeographical regions. A high
proportion of the existing conservation areas are of insufficient size, which
fails to guarantee stability and survival of their genetic fund.

(3)  Through a programme to be worked out by the Bulgarian Academy of
Sciences, to complete the network of national parks by 1993 and that of
nature reserves by 1996. Simultaneously to develop the network of regional
parks, protected landscapes and protected areas, so that by 2005 the
conservation areas cover at least 15 per cent of the national territory.

(4)  Conservation areas of all types should reach in perspective
(approximately by 2015) 25 per cent of this country’s total area.


2.  Key Territories[edit]


It is crucial for the formation of an adequate national network of
protected ecosystems and landscapes to:

(1)  Set up the proposed Central Balkan National Park.

(2)  Set up a national park and considerably extend the present fragmentary
nature reserve network in the Western Rhodopes Mountains.

(3)  Create a biosphere reserve on Mount Vitosha to incorporate the existing
nature reserves Bistrishko Branishte and Torfeno Branishte, as well as the
prohibited catchment areas south of Cherni Vrah Peak.

(4)  Further expand the nature reserve network in Rila Mountain and Pirin
Mountain.

(5)  Merge the three existing nature reserves in Ropotamo National Park.

(6)  Set up regional parks in the following mountains: Eastern Rhodopes;
Strandzha, including the seashore south of the town of Ahtopol; Western
Rhodopes; Plana and Lozenska Planina; Sredna Gora; Osogovska Planina;
Vrachanska Planina including the Iskar Gorge; Iztochna Stara Planina
(Eastern Balkan Mountains); Shipchenska Planina; as well as the Kraishte
Highlands.

(7)  Set up the protected landscapes Severno Chernomorie (Northern Black
Sea Coast) and Yuzhno Chernomorie (Southern Black Sea Coast).


3.  Conservation Areas as Open Systems[edit]


(1)  Conservation areas are integral parts of the respective regions and ought
to function within the framework of regional sustainable development
programmes, so that the local communities could benefit directly from them.

(2)  Although being the best preserved fragments of Bulgaria’s nature,
conservation areas cannot exist as isolated islands of ecological prosperity.
Their fragile environmental balance could hardly be maintained without
ecologized human activity in the rest of the country and scaling intervention
in devastated regions where the environment is unable to self-recover.

(3)  Conservation areas are exposed to transmitted air, water and soil
pollution, anthropogenic changes in the microclimate, as well as noise
pollution and visual intrusion. Therefore, the struggle for nature heritage
preservation is inseparable from the struggle for sound environment.


4.  Hot Issues[edit]


Bulgaria’s nature, not excluding conservation areas, is subject to
systematic onslaught on behalf of narrow-minded interests. What is
needed now is not just to oppose such practices, but to fight also for
elimination of their consequences accumulated during the last few
decades, in order to undermine the fait accompli tactics. For this
purpose, it is urgently necessary to:

(1)  Take under protection the remaining undeveloped patches of the
Bulgarian Black Sea Coast; ban any further developments in the one-
hundred-meter coastal strip.

(2)  Remove all facilities and infrastructure from the territory and the buffer
zones of the coastal nature reserves and national parks Baltata, Zlatni
Pyasatsi, Kamchia and Ropotamo.

(3)  Close the game preserves ‘Mazalat’ and ‘Rila’, which cater for the top
elite, while interfering with conservation of nature.

(4)  Stop all works on catching Rila’s waters. Added to previous water
catchments for the ‘Belmeken-Sestrimo; hydroelectric facility, this scheme
threatens the ecosystem of Rila Mountain and considerably depreciates the
planned Rila National Park.

(5)  Abandon the controversial project of diverting waters from Mesta River
(called Nestos in Greece) to the basin of Maritsa River (respectively
Evros / Merich in Greece / Turkey) for irrigation purposes.

(6)  Dismantle the newly developed facilities and infrastructure in Pirin
National Park, inconsistent with its status of a World Heritage Site; rule out
any further projects for ‘development’ of Pirin Mountain.

(7)  Dismantle all facilities ;ocated in Bistrishko Branishte Biosphere Reserve
on Mount Vitosha, including the ski-piste ‘Vitoshko Lale’ and its ski-lift.

(8)  Bring in accordance with the international standards Vitosha National
Park, doyen on the Balkans. Stop any reconstruction and modernization
there, leaving the existing out-of-place facilities (s.a. hotels and resting
houses) to decay. Cancel the new regulation plan of Mount Vitosha, which
conceives numerous further developments: roads, lifts, accommodation etc.
Cease the grazing practices recently resumed in Northern Vitosha.

(9)  Take action to preserve the aboriginal domestic fauna. A number of
aboriginal breeds have already disappeared, others have become rare.


5.  The High Bulgarian Mountains[edit]


The problem of nature conservation in Rila, Pirin and Vitosha
Mountains is highly sensitive and of wider world dimension for two
reasons. First, together with the Western Rhodopes and certain
parts of Stara Planina (Balkan Mountains), these are the last sizeable,
relatively undisturbed nature areas in Bulgaria, possessing biological
diversity unparalleled on the rest of the continent. On the other
hand, these regions face drastic irreversible changes within the next
5-10 years.


6.  The Wetlands[edit]


It is well known that wetlands play a special role in preserving the
natural genofund. However, human activities have reduced their
total area in this country twentyfold during the last century. A
national action programme for preservation of the existing and
partial reconstruction of destroyed wetlands is needed to reverse this
unfavourable tendency. In particular, such a programme should:

(1)  Help save the so called ‘longoz’ forests along the lower courses of the
Black Sea rivers Batova Reka, Kamchia, Ropotamo and Veleka. This
extremely rare European dense forest, a moderate-zone analogue to the
tropical rainforest, is threatened by the anthropogenic factor.

(2)  Give appropriate conservation status to the river islands in major
Bulgarian rivers s.a. Danube and Maritsa.

(3)  Put under protection gravel-pit and other small artificial lakes, which are
gene pools of rare aquatic flora and fauna species.


7.  Factors for Preservation of the Bulgarian Nature Heritage[edit]


The preservation of Bulgaria’s nature heritage requires new ecological
consciousness and culture on behalf of all social strata, to find its
expression in:

(1)  Efficient long-term governmental policies on nature resources and
environment, based on scientific foundation, employing the experience of
ecologically advanced countries and subject to public control; only the latter
could guarantee the formation and practical implementation of such policies.

(2)  Upgrading the authority and independence of the state Committee for
Environmental Protection, which should become directly responsible to the
National Assembly.

(3)  Development of a diversified network of independent environmentalist
groups and organizations, as well as active commitment of other non-
governmental organizations to nature conservation.

(4)  Implementation of particular projects jointly with the WWF, the IUCN
and other international and national organizations. Such projects of world
significance may provide for assessment of the present condition and
complex measures for preserving the nature of the Western Rhodopes, the
high Bulgarian mountains Rila, Pirin and Vitosha, as well as the Black Sea
‘longoz’ forests, to be financed through debt-for-nature swaps and fund
raising among Bulgarian institutions and individuals.

(5)  Joint inter-Balkan projects for preservation of the nature heritage in
border areas.

(6)  Active participation in preserving the nature heritage in other countries,
the World Ocean and the Antarctic.




Reference map





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Facsimile of Charter ’89[edit]




Charter '89   (p. 1)
Charter '89   (p. 2)
Charter '89   (p. 3)
Charter '89   (p. 4)
This work is in the public domain worldwide because it has been so released by the copyright holder.