Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1993/Chapter 15

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Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1993
drafted by the Multiparty Negotiating Forum and enacted by the Parliament of South Africa
Chapter 15: General and Transitional Provisions

Chapter 15

General and Transitional Provisions


Continuation of existing laws

229. Subject to this Constitution, all laws which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution were in force in any area which forms part of the national territory, shall continue in force in such area, subject to any repeal or amendment of such laws by a competent authority.


Repeal of laws

230. (1) The laws mentioned in Schedule 7 are hereby repealed to the extent set out in the third column of the said Schedule.

(2) Notwithstanding the repeal of sections 13 and 101(2) of the previous Constitution, any pension which, but for such repeal, would have been payable shall continue to be payable as if such repeal had not been effected.

Continuation of international agreements and status of international law

231. (1) All rights and obligations under international agreements which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution were vested in or binding on the Republic within the meaning of the previous Constitution, shall be vested in or binding on the Republic under this Constitution, unless provided otherwise by an Act of Parliament.

(2) Parliament shall, subject to this Constitution, be competent to agree to the ratification of or accession to an international agreement negotiated and signed in terms of section 82(1)(i).

(3) Where Parliament agrees to the ratification of or accession to an international agreement under subsection (2), such international agreement shall be binding on the Republic and shall form part of the law of the Republic, provided Parliament expressly so provides and such agreement is not inconsistent with this Constitution.

(4) The rules of customary international law binding on the Republic, shall, unless inconsistent with this Constitution or an Act of Parliament, form part of the law of the Republic.


Interpretation

232. (1) Unless it is inconsistent with the context or clearly inappropriate, a reference in a law referred to in section 229

(a) to the Republic or to any territory which after the commencement of this Constitution forms part of the national territory—

(i) as a constitutional institution, shall be construed as a reference to the Republic referred to in section 1; or

(ii) as a territorial area, shall be construed as a reference to that part of the national territory in which the law in question was in force immediately before such commencement, unless such law is applied by a law of a competent authority to the whole or any part of the national territory;

(b) to a Parliament, House of a Parliament or legislative assembly or body of any territory which after the commencement of this Constitution forms part of the national territory, shall—

(i) if the administration of such a law is allocated in terms of this Constitution to the national government, be construed as a reference to Parliament referred to in section 36; or

(ii) if the administration of such law is allocated or assigned in terms of this Constitution to a government of a province, be construed as a reference to the provincial legislature of that province;

(c) to a State President, Chief Minister, Administrator or other chief executive, Cabinet, Ministers’ Council or executive council of any territory which after the commencement of this Constitution forms part of the national territory, shall—

(i) if the administration of such law is allocated in terms of this Constitution to the national government, be construed as a reference to the President acting in accordance with this Constitution; or

(ii) if the administration of such law is allocated or assigned in terms of this Constitution to a government of a province, be construed as a reference to the Premier of such province acting in terms of this Constitution;

(d) to an official language or to both official languages, shall be construed, with due regard to section 3, as a reference to any of the official South African languages under this Constitution.

(2) (a) Any reference in this Constitution to any particular law shall be construed as a reference to that law as it exists from time to time after any amendment or replacement thereof by a competent authority.

(b) An amendment, replacement or repeal of a law referred to in paragraph (a), shall for the purposes of section 62 not be considered to be an amendment of this Constitution, and any such amendment, replacement or repeal of a law shall for its validity be dependent on its consistency with this Constitution in terms of section 4(1).

(3) No law shall be constitutionally invalid solely by reason of the fact that the wording used is prima facie capable of an interpretation which is inconsistent with a provision of this Constitution, provided such a law is reasonably capable of a more restricted interpretation which is not inconsistent with any such provision, in which event such law shall be construed as having a meaning in accordance with the said more restricted interpretation.

(4) In interpreting this Constitution a provision in any Schedule, including the provision under the heading “National Unity and Reconciliation, to this Constitution shall not by reason only of the fact that it is contained in a Schedule, have a lesser status than any other provision of this Constitution which is not contained in a Schedule, and such provision shall for all purposes be deemed to form part of the substance of this Constitution.

(5) (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of the Independent Electoral Commission Act, 1993 (Act No. 150 of 1993), the President may at any time after the dissolution of the Independent Electoral Commission in terms of section 9 of that Act, by proclamation in the Gazette, reconvene the Commission for the purposes of a referendum or election referred to in section 124.

(b) If any person who before its dissolution was a member of the Commission, cannot or is unwilling to serve as a member after it has been reconvened under paragraph (a), Parliament may, by resolution adopted at a joint sitting of the National Assembly and the Senate by a majority of at least two-thirds of the total number of members of both Houses, appoint any suitably qualified person to replace any such member.


Definitions

233. (1) In this Constitution, unless the context otherwise indicates—

(i) “Chief Justice” means the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of South Africa referred to in section 97(1);

(ii) “Commission on Provincial Government” means the Commission established by section 163;

(iii) “Financial and Fiscal Commission” means the Commission established by section 198;

(iv) “House”, in relation to Parliament, means the National Assembly or the Senate;

(v) “Independent Electoral Commission” means the Commission established by section 4 of the Independent Electoral Commission Act, 1993 (Act No. 150 of 1993);

(vi) “National Defence Force” means the Defence Force established by section 224(1);

(vii) “National Revenue Fund” means the Revenue Fund established by section 185;

(viii) “new constitutional text” means the text of a new Constitution contemplated in Chapter 5;

(ix) “organ of state” includes any statutory body or functionary;

(x) “previous Constitution” means the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act, 1983 (Act No. 110 of 1983);

(xi) “Provincial Revenue Fund” means the Revenue Fund of a province established by section 159(1);

(xii) “Public Service Commission” means the Commission established by section 209;

(xiii) “Republic” means the Republic of South Africa referred to in section 1;

(xiv) “Transitional Executive Council” means the Council established by section 2 of the Transitional Executive Council Act, 1993 (Act No. 151 of 1993).

(2) A reference in this Constitution to rules and orders shall according to the context be construed as a reference to the rules and orders of the National Assembly or the Senate, or the joint rules and orders of the National Assembly and the Senate, or the rules and orders of the Constitutional Assembly, or the rules and orders of a provincial legislature.

(3) Where in this Constitution any functionary is required to take a decision in consultation with another functionary, such decision shall require the concurrence of such other functionary: Provided that if such other functionary is a body of persons it shall express its concurrence in accordance with its own decision-making procedures.

(4) Where in this Constitution any functionary is required to take a decision after consultation with another functionary, such decision shall be taken in good faith after consulting and giving serious consideration to the views of such other functionary.


Transitional arrangements: Legislative authorities

234. (1) A person who immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was a member of Parliament or of any other legislature (excluding a local government) which exercised legislative powers in respect of any area which forms part of the national territory, shall upon such commencement cease to be such a member, but shall for the purpose of any law relating to the payment of pension benefits to such members not be disqualified solely by reason of this section.

(2) A person who immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was employed by Parliament, shall after such commencement continue in such employment, subject to and in accordance with the applicable laws regulating such employment.

(3) The provisions of section 236(4), (5) and (6) shall apply mutatis mutandis in respect of a person referred to in subsection (2).

(4) A person who immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was employed by a legislature referred to in subsection (1) other than Parliament, shall be deemed to be employed by the administration in that part of the national territory in which such legislature exercised legislative powers, subject to and in accordance with the applicable laws regulating such employment, and sections 236 and 237 shall apply mutatis mutandis in respect of such person.

(5) Any matter before Parliament or any such other legislature which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was not yet disposed of by Parliament or such legislature, as the case may be, shall lapse upon such commencement.

(6) The rules and orders of Parliament in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, shall, to the extent that they can mutatis mutandis be applied in respect of the business and proceedings of Parliament under this Constitution, continue in force until amended or replaced in terms of this Constitution.


Transitional arrangements: Executive authorities

235. (1) A person who immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was—

(a) the State President or a Minister or Deputy Minister of the Republic within the meaning of the previous Constitution;

(b) the Administrator or a member of the Executive Council of a province; or

(c) the President, Chief Minister or other chief executive or a Minister, Deputy Minister or other political functionary in a government under any other constitution or constitutional arrangement which was in force in an area which forms part of the national territory,

shall continue in office until the President has been elected in terms of section 77(1)(a) and has assumed office: Provided that a person referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c) shall for the purposes of section 42(1)(e) and while continuing in office, be deemed not to hold an office of profit under the Republic.

(2) Any vacancy which may occur in an office referred to in subsection (1)(a), (b) or (c) shall, if necessary, be filled by a person designated by the persons continuing in office in terms of subsection (1)(a), acting in consultation with the Transitional Executive Council.

(3) Executive authority which was vested in a person or persons referred to in subsection (1)(a), (b) or (c) in terms of a constitution or constitutional arrangement in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, shall during the period in which the said person or persons continue in office in terms of subsection (1), be exercised in accordance with such constitution or constitutional arrangement, as if it had not been repealed or superseded by this Constitution, and any such person or persons shall continue to be competent to administer any department of state, administration, force or other institution which was entrusted to, and to exercise and perform any power or function which was vested in, him or her or them immediately before the said commencement: Provided that—

(a) no such executive authority, power or function shall be exercised or performed if the Transitional Executive Council disapproves thereof; and

(b) once the election results of the National Assembly have been certified by the Independent Electoral Commission in terms of the Independent Electoral Commission Act, 1993, the State President referred to in subsection (1)(a) shall exercise and perform his or her powers and functions in consultation with the leader of the party which has received the largest number of votes in the said election.

(4) The Transitional Executive Council may by resolution of a majority of all its members at any time during the period in which the said State President continues in office in terms of subsection (1), require him or her, or any other appropriate authority, to take such steps in terms of any law as are necessary to maintain law and order, including the declaration of a state of emergency or of an area to be an unrest area in terms of an applicable law.

(5) Upon the assumption of office by the President in terms of this Constitution—

(a) the executive authority of the Republic as contemplated in section 75 shall vest in the President acting in accordance with this Constitution; and

(b) the executive authority of a province as contemplated in section 144 shall, subject to subsections (8) and (9), vest in the Premier of that province acting in accordance with this Constitution, or while the Premier of a province has not yet assumed office, in the President acting in accordance with section 75 until the Premier assumes office.

(6) The power to exercise executive authority in terms of laws which, immediately prior to the commencement of this Constitution, were in force in any area which forms part of the national territory and which in terms of section 229 continue in force after such commencement, shall be allocated as follows:

(a) All laws with regard to matters which—

(i) do not fall within the functional areas specified in Schedule 6; or

(ii) do fall within such functional areas but are matters referred to in paragraphs (a) to (e) of section 126(3) (which shall be deemed to include all policing matters until the laws in question have been assigned under subsection (8) and for the purposes of which subsection (8) shall apply mutatis mutandis),

shall be administered by a competent authority within the jurisdiction of the national government: Provided that any policing function which but for subparagraph (ii) would have been performed subject to the directions of a member of the Executive Council of a province in terms of section 219(1) shall be performed after consultation with the said member within that province.

(b) All laws with regard to matters which fall within the functional areas specified in Schedule 6 and which are not matters referred to in paragraphs (a) to (e) of section 126(3) shall—

(i) if any such law was immediately before the commencement of this Constitution administered by or under the authority of a functionary referred to in subsection (1)(a) or (b), be administered by a competent authority within the jurisdiction of the national government until the administration of any such law is with regard to any particular province assigned under subsection (8) to a competent authority within the jurisdiction of the government of such province; or

(ii) if any such law was immediately before the said commencement administered by or under the authority of a functionary referred to in subsection (1)(c), subject to subsections (8) and (9) be administered by a competent authority within the jurisdiction of the government of the province in which that law applies, to the extent that it so applies: Provided that this subparagraph shall not apply to policing matters, which shall be dealt with as contemplated in paragraph (a).

(c) In this subsection and subsection (8) “competent authority” shall mean—

(i) in relation to a law of which the administration is allocated to the national government, an authority designated by the President; and

(ii) in relation to a law of which the administration is allocated to the government of a province, an authority designated by the Premier of the province.

(7) (a) The President may, after consultation with the Premier of a province, by proclamation in the Gazette take such measures, including legislative measures, as he or she considers necessary for the better achievement of this section.

(b) A copy of a proclamation under paragraph (a), shall be submitted to Parliament within 14 days after the publication thereof.

(c) If Parliament disapproves of any such proclamation or any provision thereof, such proclamation or provision shall thereafter cease to be of force and effect to the extent to which it is so disapproved, but without prejudice to the validity of anything done in terms of such proclamation up to the date upon which it so ceased to be of force and effect, or to any right, privilege, obligation or liability acquired, accrued or incurred as at the said date under and by virtue of such proclamation.

(8) (a) The President may, and shall if so requested by the Premier of a province, and provided the province has the administrative capacity to exercise and perform the powers and functions in question, by proclamation in the Gazette assign, within the framework of section 126, the administration of a law referred to in subsection (6)(b) to a competent authority within the jurisdiction of the government of a province, either generally or to the extent specified in the proclamation.

(b) When the President so assigns the administration of a law, or at any time thereafter, and to the extent that he or she considers it necessary for the efficient carrying out of the assignment, he or she may—

(i) amend or adapt such law in order to regulate its application or interpretation;

(ii) where the assignment does not relate to the whole of such law, repeal and re-enact, whether with or without an amendment or adaptation contemplated in subparagraph (i), those of its provisions to which the assignment relates or to the extent that the assignment relates to them; and

(iii) regulate any other matter necessary, in his or her opinion, as a result of the assignment, including matters relating to the transfer or secondment of persons (subject to sections 236 and 237) and relating to the transfer of assets, liabilities, rights and obligations, including funds, to or from the national or a provincial government or any department of state, administration, force or other institution.

(c) In regard to any policing power the President may only make that assignment effective upon the rationalisation of the police service as contemplated in section 237: Provided that such assignment to a province may be made where such rationalisation has been completed in such a province.

(d) Any reference in a law to the authority administering such law, shall upon the assignment of such law in terms of paragraph (a) be deemed to be a reference mutatis mutandis to the appropriate authority of the province concerned.

(9) (a) If for any reason a provincial government is unable to assume responsibility within 14 days after the election of its Premier, for the administration of a law referred to in subsection (6)(b), the President shall by proclamation in the Gazette assign the administration of such law to a special administrator or other appropriate authority within the jurisdiction of the national government, either generally or to the extent specified in the proclamation, until that provincial government is able to assume the said responsibility.

(b) Subsection (8)(b) and (d) shall mutatis mutandis apply in respect of an assignment under paragraph (a) of this subsection.


Transitional arrangements: Public administration

236. (1) A public service, department of state (including a police force), administration, military force as defined in section 224(2)(a) or (b) or other institution (excluding any local government) which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution performed governmental functions under the control of an authority referred to in section 235(1)(a), (b) or (c), shall, subject to subsection (7), continue to function as such in accordance with the laws applicable to it until it is, as the case may be, abolished or incorporated or integrated into any appropriate institution or is rationalised as contemplated in any other Chapter, consolidated with any other institution or otherwise rationalised as contemplated in section 237, as the case may be: Provided that a military force referred to in this subsection shall not be employed for service referred to in section 227(1)(a), (b) or (e) otherwise than by the President and shall only be used for such service by the authority referred to in section 225 in accordance with section 227(2).

(2) A person who immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was employed by an institution referred to in subsection (1) shall continue in such employment subject to and in accordance with this Constitution and other applicable laws regulating such employment.

(3) Subject to subsections (1) and (2), all powers, directions, orders, instructions or delegations which were in force in respect of an institution which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution performed governmental functions as contemplated in subsection (1) shall, after the said commencement, continue in force for the purpose of the continued functioning within the contemplation of subsection (1) of any such institution, until cancelled or otherwise no longer in force in law.

(4) Subject to this Constitution and subsection (5), the terms and conditions of employment applicable to a person employed by an institution referred to in subsection (1) immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, shall continue to apply to him or her until amended by or under any law, including any law enacted in order to establish uniformity of the terms and conditions of employment in accordance with those generally prevailing at such commencement.

(5) Subject to any law relating to unfitness or incapacity of a person to carry out his or her duties efficiently, the pensionable salary or pensionable salary scale of a person referred to in subsection (2) shall not be reduced below that applicable to such person immediately before the commencement of this Constitution.

(6) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the conclusion or amendment of a contract, the appointment or promotion, or the award of a term or condition of service or other benefit, which occurred or may occur between 27 April 1993 and 30 September 1994 in respect of any person referred to in subsection (2), or any class of such persons, may, at the instance of a Minister or a member of the Executive Council of a province, within one year of the commencement of this Constitution be reviewed by a commission appointed by the President and presided over by a judge, and if not proper or justifiable in the circumstances of the case, the commission may reverse or alter the contract, appointment, promotion or award.

(7) (a) At the commencement of this Constitution the South African Police existing in terms of the Police Act, 1958 (Act No. 7 of 1958), and all other police forces established by law shall be deemed to constitute the South African Police Service referred to in section 214, and any reference to the South African Police or any such force in the said Act or law shall be deemed to be a reference to the said Service.

(b) Any reference in any law to the South African Police or any other police force (excluding a municipal police service) shall, unless the context indicates otherwise, be construed as a reference to the said South African Police Service.

(8) (a) The National Defence Force referred to in section 224 shall, subject to this Constitution and any Act of Parliament, mutatis mutandis be governed by the Defence Act, 1957 (Act No. 44 of 1957).

(b) Any reference in any law to a defence force referred to in section 224(2)(a) or (b), shall be deemed to be a reference to the National Defence Force.

(c) If the number of the members of the National Defence Force exceeds the personnel strength determined in respect of the force design and structure for the Force, any member of the Force who, due to integration, consolidation and rationalisation of the National Defence Force is not accommodated in such force design and structure, shall be dealt with in accordance with a law.

(d) The continuance of membership of members of the National Defence Force referred to in section 224(2)(c) shall be subject to such members entering into an agreement for temporary or permanent appointment with the National Defence Force within a reasonable time: Provided that such agreements shall be in accordance with normal employment policies and terms and conditions of service.


Rationalisation of public administration

237. (1) (a) All institutions referred to in section 236(1), excluding military forces referred to in section 224(2), shall as soon as is possible after the commencement of this Constitution be rationalised with a view to establishing within the public service contemplated in section 212(1)—

(i) an effective administration at the national level of government to deal with matters within the jurisdiction of the national government referred to in section 235(5)(a); and

(ii) an effective administration for each province to deal with matters within the jurisdiction of each provincial government referred to in section 235(5)(b).

(b) All military forces referred to in section 224(2) shall be rationalised for the purposes of the National Defence Force.

(2) (a) The responsibility for the rationalisation of—

(i) institutions referred to in section 236(1), excluding military forces, shall primarily but not exclusively rest with the national government, which shall exercise such responsibility in co-operation with the provincial governments and the Commission on Provincial Government, and with due regard to the advice of the Public Service Commission: Provided that in the case of policing services, the national government shall exercise such responsibility in co-operation with the committee referred to in section 220(1) and the Board of Commissioners referred to in section 220(2); and

(ii) military forces shall rest with the national government.

(b) Subject to section 235(6), (7), (8) and (9), the responsibility for the internal rationalisation of an administration referred to in subsection (1)(a)(ii) shall primarily rest with the relevant provincial government, with due regard to the advice of the Public Service Commission and any relevant provincial service commission: Provided that the rationalisation of all police forces shall be dealt with in accordance with paragraph (a)(i).

(3) (a) The President may, subject to subsection (2) (a), by proclamation in the Gazette take such steps as he or she considers necessary in order to achieve the aim mentioned in subsection (1).

(b) Without derogating from the generality of paragraph (a), the steps referred to in that paragraph may include—

(i) the amendment, repeal or replacement of any law regulating the establishment, functions and other matters relating to an institution referred to in section 236(1), or of any law referred to in section 236(2), or of any law which deals with any of the aforegoing matters in a consequential manner: Provided that if a law referred to in section 236(2) is repealed, provision shall be made for the application of any law of general application regulating the employment of persons or any class of persons in the employment of the state, to the persons or class of persons affected by such repeal; and

(ii) measures relating to the transfer or secondment of personnel, or the allocation of property, funds, rights and obligations, including administrative records, in order to establish the administrations referred to in subsection (2) and rationalise the South African Police Service and the National Defence Force.

(c) A copy of a proclamation under paragraph (a), shall be submitted to Parliament within 14 days after the publication thereof.

(d) If Parliament disapproves of any such proclamation or any provision thereof, such proclamation or provision shall thereafter cease to be of force and effect to the extent to which it is so disapproved, but without prejudice to the validity of anything done in terms of such proclamation up to the date upon which it so ceased to be of force and effect, or to any right, privilege, obligation or liability acquired, accrued or incurred as at the said date under and by virtue of such proclamation.

(4) (a) The labour appeal court established by section 17A of the Labour Relations Act, 1956 (Act No. 28 of 1956), sitting as a special tribunal in terms of an Act to be passed by Parliament, shall be competent to determine any claim or dispute of right in terms of a law regulating as at 1 November 1993 employment in an institution referred to in section 236(1) and arising out of the implementation of this section and section 236.

(b) The Act of Parliament contemplated in paragraph (a) shall prescribe expeditious procedures for the adjudication of claims and disputes contemplated in this section, including the granting of interim and final relief.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of any law the procedures contemplated in paragraph (b) shall be the only procedures to be followed in such court.

(d) A decision of the court on any such claim or dispute shall be final and binding.

(e) This subsection and the Act of Parliament contemplated in paragraph (a) shall lapse one year from the commencement of this Constitution, save that any matter properly before the court referred to in paragraph (a) on that date shall be heard and determined as if this subsection and the said Act had not lapsed.


Transitional arrangements: Public service commissions

238. (1) A public service commission established for a public service referred to in section 236(1) shall, subject to subsections (3) and (4), after the commencement of this Constitution continue to function as such in accordance with the laws applicable to it.

(2) (a) A person who immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was the chairperson or member of a public service commission referred to in subsection (1) shall, subject to subsections (3) and (4) and section 237, after such commencement, continue in office in accordance with the laws regulating his or her appointment.

(b) Section 236(3), (4) and (5) shall apply mutatis mutandis in respect of a person referred to in paragraph (a) of this subsection.

(3) The Commission for Administration established by the Commission for Administration Act, 1984 (Act No. 65 of 1984), shall cease to exist upon the appointment of the members of the Public Service Commission referred to in section 209: Provided that a person who immediately before such appointment held office as the chairperson or a member of the Commission for Administration shall be entitled to be appointed as a member of the Public Service Commission.

(4) A public service commission, other than the Commission for Administration referred to in subsection (3), which continues to perform its functions in any part of the national territory, shall mutatis mutandis be subject to rationalisation under section 237 and shall cease to exist to the extent that it is superseded by the establishment of a provincial service commission contemplated in section 213 or otherwise rationalised or abolished under section 237.

(5) If—

(a) the chairperson or a member referred to in the proviso to subsection (3) elects not to be appointed to the Public Service Commission; or

(b) the chairperson or a member of a public service commission referred to in subsection (4), is not upon the abolition of such public service commission appointed to any provincial service commission,

the period of office for which such a chairperson or member has been appointed shall for the purpose of any applicable law regulating retirement benefits, be deemed to have been completed.

(6) Any reference in any law to the Commission for Administration referred to in subsection (3), shall be deemed to be a reference to the Public Service Commission.


Transitional arrangements: Assets and liabilities

239. (1) All assets, including funds and administrative records, which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution vested in an authority referred to in section 235(1)(a), (b) or (c), or in a government, administration or force under the control of such an authority, shall be allocated as follows:

(a) Where any asset is applied or intended to be applied for or in connection with a matter which—

(i) does not fall within a functional area specified in Schedule 6; or

(ii) does fall within such a functional area but is a matter referred to in paragraphs (a) to (e) of section 126(3) (which shall be deemed to include a police asset),

such asset shall vest in the national government.

(b) Where any asset is applied or intended to be applied for or in connection with a matter which is not a matter referred to in paragraphs (a) to (e) of section 126(3), such asset shall, subject to paragraph (c), vest in the relevant provincial government.

(c) Where any asset referred to in paragraph (b) is applied or intended to be applied for or in connection with the administration of a particular law or the performance of a particular function in a particular area, such asset shall vest in the government to which the administration of that law is assigned, or is assigned in that particular area, in terms of section 235(6), (8) or (9), or to which the performance of that function is entrusted, or entrusted in the particular area, in terms of section 237.

(d) Where any asset cannot in terms of the aforegoing rules be classified with reference to a particular matter, law or function, or where there is disagreement between two or more governments, the advice of the Commission on Provincial Government shall be obtained, and any dispute shall be resolved with due regard to such advice.

(e) Parliament shall be competent to enact a law to facilitate the application of this section and to prescribe guidelines for the resolution of disputes arising from such application.

(f) All assets under the control of a police force shall vest in the South African Police Service.

(2) (a) A registrar of deeds shall upon the production of a certificate by a competent authority that immovable property described in the certificate is vested in a particular government in terms of this section, make such entries or endorsements in or on any relevant register, title deed or other document to register such immovable property in the name of such government.

(b) No duty, fee or other charge shall be payable in respect of a registration in terms of paragraph (a).

(3) (a) Subject to paragraph (b), all debts and liabilities—

(i) directly linked to an asset vesting in terms of subsection (1) in a provincial government, shall be assumed by such provincial government; and

(ii) other than those referred to in subparagraph (i) shall be assumed by the national government:

Provided that the servicing of all state debts and liabilities not provided for in this Constitution shall be undertaken by the national government until allocated to the relevant level of government.

(b) Parliament shall be competent to pass a law regulating the re-allocation of debts and liabilities to the national government and the respective provincial governments, but no such law shall be passed unless a report and recommendations of the Financial and Fiscal Commission has been tabled in and considered by Parliament.

(4) Subject to and in accordance with any applicable law, the assets, rights, duties and liabilities of all forces referred to in section 224(2) shall devolve upon the National Defence Force.

(5) Anything done in terms of this section shall be subject to audit by the Auditor-General.


Transitional arrangements: State Revenue Fund

240. (1) At the commencement of this Constitution the State Revenue Fund established in terms of section 81 of the previous Constitution shall continue to exist until an Act of Parliament contemplated in section 185(1) is adopted prescribing the administration of the National Revenue Fund.

(2) While the State Revenue Fund continues to exist it shall for all purposes be deemed to be the National Revenue Fund.

(3) The Accounts of the State Revenue Fund referred to in section 82 of the previous Constitution shall be phased out and closed as soon as circumstances permit.

(4) In the 1994/1995 financial year the head of the department of the Treasury, as defined in section 1 of the Exchequer Act, 1975 (Act No. 66 of 1975), may, in consultation with the Minister responsible for national financial matters, from the Exchequer Account, on conditions aimed at ensuring financial control, grant advances to provincial governments as he or she deems necessary for the purposes of establishing and funding of structures of government at provincial level as contemplated in this Constitution until Parliament has appropriated money for such purposes.

(5) Any Revenue Fund established before the commencement of this Constitution by a law in force in an area which forms part of the national territory, excluding the State Revenue Fund referred to in subsection (1), shall, subject to subsection (6) and any laws governing the application and withdrawal of moneys from such Revenue Fund, continue to exist until the money therein is transferred under this Chapter to the National Revenue Fund or to any relevant Provincial Revenue Fund, as the case may be, or otherwise dealt with by a competent authority.

(6) Moneys in a Revenue Fund referred to in subsection (5) may only be withdrawn in order to meet expenditure for services in the area in respect of which the Fund was established and in respect of which an appropriation has been made for the current or in the immediately preceding financial year or for which there is other statutory authority: Provided that no withdrawal shall be made from such Revenue Fund other than with the concurrence of a person designated by the President for that purpose.


Transitional arrangements: Judiciary

241. (1) Every court of law existing immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in an area which forms part of the national territory, shall be deemed to have been duly constituted in terms of this Constitution or the laws in force after such commencement, and shall continue to function as such in accordance with the laws applicable to it until changed by a competent authority.

(2) The Chief Justice of South Africa, the judges-president and deputy judges-president of the various divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, the judges of appeal of the Appellate Division of the said Supreme Court, and the other judges of the said Supreme Court, holding office immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, shall be deemed to have been duly appointed to the corresponding positions in terms of Chapter 7 and shall continue to hold office in accordance with the applicable laws.

(3) All other judicial officers holding office immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in terms of a law, shall continue to hold such office in accordance with such law.

(4) Every attorney-general holding office immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in terms of a law, shall continue to hold such office in accordance with such law.

(5) Subject to this Constitution, all measures which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution were in operation and applied to judicial officers and attorneys-general, including measures regarding the remuneration, pension and pension benefits, leave gratuity and any other term and condition of service, shall continue in operation and to apply to the said judicial officers and attorneys-general, until amended or repealed by a competent authority: Provided that no such measure shall, except in accordance with an applicable law, be changed in a manner which affects such judicial officers and attorneys-general to their detriment.

(6) The provisions of section 236(5) and (6) shall apply mutatis mutandis in respect of persons referred to in subsections (3) and (4) of this section.

(7) Persons referred to in subsections (2), (3) and (4) shall within 30 days of the election of the President in terms of section 77(1)(a) make and subscribe an oath or solemn affirmation in the terms set out in Schedule 3 before the Chief Justice or a judge of the Supreme Court designated by the Chief Justice for this purpose, or, in the case of a person continuing in office or appointed as the Chief Justice or the President of the Constitutional Court, before the President.

(8) All proceedings which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution were pending before any court of law, including any tribunal or reviewing authority established by or under law, exercising jurisdiction in accordance with the law then in force, shall be dealt with as if this Constitution had not been passed: Provided that if an appeal in such proceedings is noted or review proceedings with regard thereto are instituted after such commencement such proceedings shall be brought before the court having jurisdiction under this Constitution.

(9) Any legal proceedings instituted before or after the commencement of this Constitution by or against a government, authority or functionary which ceased to exist at or after such commencement, may be continued by or against the relevant government, authority or functionary which superseded the said government, authority or functionary.

(10) The laws and other measures which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution regulated the jurisdiction of courts of law, court procedures, the power and authority of judicial officers and all other matters pertaining to the establishment and functioning of courts of law, shall continue in force subject to any amendment or repeal thereof by a competent authority.


Rationalisation of court structures

242. (1) All jurisdictional areas and court structures appropriate thereto existing immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, shall as soon as possible after such commencement be rationalised in accordance with an Act of Parliament with a view to establishing the jurisdictional areas and court structures contemplated in Chapter 7.

(2) The rationalisation of the jurisdictional areas and court structures referred to in subsection (1) shall be the responsibility of the national government after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission.

(3) The rationalisation contemplated in subsection (1) includes—

(a) the amendment, repeal or replacement of any law regulating the establishment, functions, jurisdiction and other matters relating to a court referred to in section 241(1), or of any law referred to in section 241(2), or of any law which deals with any of the aforegoing matters in a consequential manner: Provided that if a law referred to in section 241(2) is repealed, provision shall be made for the application of any law of general application regulating the service of judicial officers or any class of judicial officers, to the judicial officers or class of judicial officers affected by such repeal; and

(b) measures relating to the transfer or secondment of judicial officers, or the allocation of property, including court and administrative records, in order to establish the said jurisdictional areas or court structures.


Transitional arrangements: Ombudsman

243. (1) A person who immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was—

(a) the Ombudsman in terms of the Ombudsman Act, 1979 (Act No. 118 of 1979), shall continue to hold office and to exercise and perform the powers and functions of the Ombudsman in accordance with the said Act until the Public Protector has been appointed under section 110 and has assumed office;

(b) an assistant to the Ombudsman, shall continue as such until the Public Protector has been appointed and has assumed office, whereupon such person shall be deemed to have been appointed under section 113; or

(c) an ombudsman in terms of a law of an area which forms part of the national territory (other than the Ombudsman referred to in paragraph (a)), or in the employ of such an ombudsman, shall continue in such office or employment in accordance with the law which regulated such office or employment, until the office of such ombudsman is abolished or such ombudsman or person is appointed as, or to the office of, a provincial public protector contemplated in section 114.

(2) Section 236(4), (5) and (6) shall apply mutatis mutandis to a person referred to in subsection (1)(c).


Transitional arrangements: Auditor-General

244. (1) A person who immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was—

(a) the Auditor-General in terms of the Auditor-General Act, 1989 (Act No. 52 of 1989), shall continue in office subject to section 191 and the laws applicable to such office;

(b) employed in terms of the Audit Arrangements Act, 1992 (Act No. 122 of 1992), shall continue in such employment subject to and in accordance with this Constitution, the said Act and any other applicable law regulating such employment; and

(c) the auditor-general of any area which forms part of the national territory (other than the Auditor-General referred to in paragraph (a)), shall continue in such office or employment in accordance with the laws regulating such office or employment, until such office of auditor-general is abolished by law: Provided that any such auditor-general shall be eligible for appointment under section 194: Provided further that should such a person not be appointed, he or she shall have the right to retire and if he or she so retires he or she shall be entitled to such pension as he or she would have been entitled to under the pensions law applicable to him or her if he or she had been compelled to retire from the public service owing to the abolition of his or her post.

(2) For the purpose of subsection (1), the persons referred to in that subsection shall not be dealt with less favourably than an officer or employee in a public service.


Transitional arrangements: Local government

245. (1) Until elections have been held in terms of the Local Government Transition Act, 1993, local government shall not be restructured otherwise than in accordance with that Act.

(2) Restructuring of local government which takes place as a result of legislation enacted by a competent authority after the elections referred to in subsection (1) have been held, shall be effected in accordance with the principles embodied in Chapter 10 and the Constitution as a whole.

(3) (a) For the purposes of the first election of members of a local government after the commencement of this Constitution, the area of jurisdiction of such local government shall be divided into wards in accordance with the Act referred to in subsection (1).

(b) Forty per cent of the members of the local government shall be elected according to the system of proportional representation applicable to an election of the National Assembly and regulated specifically by or under the Act referred to in subsection (1), and sixty per cent of the members shall be elected on the basis that each such member shall represent a ward as contemplated in paragraph (b): Provided that, notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Constitution, where the area of jurisdiction of the local government includes—

(i) the area of jurisdiction of any institution or body as was referred to in section 84(1)(f) of the Provincial Government Act, 1961 (Act No. 32 of 1961); and

(ii) any other area not falling within the area of jurisdiction of the institution or body referred to in subparagraph (i),

no area referred to in subparagraph (i) or (ii) shall be allocated less than half of the total number of wards of the local government concerned: Provided further that an area referred to in subparagraph (i) shall be deemed not to include any area for which a local government body referred to in paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of the definition of “local government body” in section 1(1) of the Act referred to in subsection (1) of this section (as that Act exists at the commencement of this Constitution), has been established.


Transitional arrangements: Pensions of political office-bearers

246. The right of any person in terms of any law which at the commencement of this Constitution provides for the payment of pensions from the exchequer or from any pension fund or arrangement to which the state contributes or has contributed, to or in respect of political office-bearers or former political office-bearers (including members and former members of Parliament and of any other legislative assembly which exercised legislative powers in respect of any area which forms part of the national territory) shall continue and shall not be diminished: Provided that those who have already received benefits that were due to them shall not benefit again by reason of the provisions of this section.


Special provisions regarding existing educational institutions

247. (1) The national government and the provincial governments as provided for in this Constitution shall not alter the rights, powers and functions of the governing bodies, management councils or similar authorities of departmental, community-managed or state-aided primary or secondary schools under laws existing immediately before the commencement of this Constitution unless an agreement resulting from bona fide negotiation has been reached with such bodies and reasonable notice of any proposed alteration has been given.

(2) The national government shall not alter the rights, powers and functions of the controlling bodies of universities and technikons under laws existing immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, unless agreement resulting from bona fide negotiation has been reached with such bodies, and reasonable notice of any proposed alteration has been given.

(3) Should agreement not be reached in terms of subsection (1) or (2), the national government and the provincial governments shall, subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, not be precluded from altering the rights, powers and functions of the governing bodies, management councils or similar authorities of departmental, community-managed or state-aided primary or secondary schools, as well as the controlling bodies of universities and technikons, provided that interested persons and bodies shall be entitled to challenge the validity of any such alteration in terms of this Constitution.

(4) In order to ensure an acceptable quality of education, the responsible government shall provide funds to departmental, community-managed or state-aided primary or secondary schools on an equitable basis.


National flag and anthem

248. (1) The State President may at any time before the commencement of this Constitution or while continuing in office in terms of section 235(1)(a), exercise, on the advice of the Transitional Executive Council, the powers conferred upon the President by section 2(1) and (2), and if the State President in the exercise of such powers issues a proclamation referred to in that section, such proclamation shall for all purposes be deemed to form part of this Constitution.

(2) This section shall come into operation on the date of promulgation of this Constitution.


First election of National Assembly

249. (1) Notwithstanding the fact that Chapter 4 may not yet be in force, the State President may, by proclamation in the Gazette, call an election in terms of the Electoral Act, 1993, for the election of the members of the National Assembly.

(2) Such election shall be conducted in accordance with Schedule 2 and the Electoral Act, 1993.

(3) This section shall come into operation on the date of promulgation of this Constitution.


Non-certification of election by Independent Electoral Commission

250. (1) If in the application of section 18 of the Independent Electoral Commission Act, 1993, the Independent Electoral Commission declares that it is unable to certify that any election referred to in that section was substantially free and fair, the Commission shall declare that either—

(a) it is able to determine a result based on the votes which could be counted; or

(b) it is unable to determine any result.

(2) If the Independent Electoral Commission declares as contemplated in subsection (1)(a)

(a) a new election shall be held for the National Assembly and the provincial legislatures or a relevant provincial legislature, as the case may be, mutatis mutandis in accordance with this Constitution and the Electoral Act, 1993, as soon as practicable but in any event not later than 12 months after the date of the election in question: Provided that any reference to the Transitional Executive Council in the said Act shall be deemed to be a reference to Parliament;

(b) Parliament and the provincial legislatures or a provincial legislature, as the case may be, shall be established on the basis of the result determined in terms of subsection (1)(a): Provided that no provincial legislature shall be established unless the National Assembly is established;

(c) no amendment by a Parliament established on the basis of a declaration in terms of subsection (1)(a), of this Constitution, the Independent Electoral Commission Act, 1993, the Electoral Act, 1993, the Independent Media Commission Act, 1993, or the Independent Broadcasting Authority Act, 1993, shall be permissible until the election contemplated in paragraph (a) has been certified as substantially free and fair in terms of the Independent Electoral Commission Act, 1993; and

(d) any provincial legislature established on the basis of a declaration in terms of subsection (1)(a), shall have no legislative competence save for the enactment of laws necessary for the appropriation of revenue or moneys, or the imposition of taxation within the framework of section 126, until the election contemplated in paragraph (a) has been certified as substantially free and fair in terms of the Independent Electoral Commission Act, 1993.

(3) If the Independent Electoral Commission declares as contemplated in subsection (1)(b)

(a) a new election shall be held for the National Assembly and the provincial legislatures, or a relevant provincial legislature, as the case may be, in accordance with this Constitution and the Electoral Act, 1993, as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than within 10 weeks after the date of the election in question: Provided that a new election for the National Assembly and the provincial legislatures shall be held simultaneously; and

(b) the constitutional arrangements under the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act, 1983 (Act No. 110 of 1983), the Transitional Executive Council Act, 1993, the Independent Electoral Commission Act, 1993, the Electoral Act, 1993, the Independent Media Commission Act, 1993, and the Independent Broadcasting Authority Act, 1993, shall apply, until the election referred to in paragraph (a) has been held.

(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law, the Independent Electoral Commission shall continue to exist for the purposes set out in this section and the Commission shall exercise its function contemplated in section 18 of the Independent Electoral Commission Act, 1993, with reference to an election referred to in this section: Provided that section 232(5)(b) shall apply mutatis mutandis in respect of the replacement of members of the Commission.


Short title and commencement

251. (1) This Act shall be called the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1993, and shall, subject to subsection (2), come into operation on 27 April 1994.

(2) The State President may, in consultation with the Transitional Executive Council, by proclamation in the Gazette provide that a provision of this Constitution specified in the proclamation shall come into operation on a date prior to the date referred to in subsection (1).

(3) Different dates may be fixed in terms of subsection (2) in respect of different provisions of this Constitution.

(4) A reference in a provision of this Constitution to the commencement of this Constitution shall, unless the context otherwise indicates, be construed as a reference to the commencement of such provision.


National Unity and Reconciliation

This Constitution provides a historic bridge between the past of a deeply divided society characterised by strife, conflict, untold suffering and injustice, and a future founded on the recognition of human rights, democracy and peaceful co-existence and development opportunities for all South Africans, irrespective of colour, race, class, belief or sex.

The pursuit of national unity, the well-being of all South African citizens and peace require reconciliation between the people of South Africa and the reconstruction of society.

The adoption of this Constitution lays the secure foundation for the people of South Africa to transcend the divisions and strife of the past, which generated gross violations of human rights, the transgression of humanitarian principles in violent conflicts and a legacy of hatred, fear, guilt and revenge.

These can now be addressed on the basis that there is a need for understanding but not for vengeance, a need for reparation but not for retaliation, a need for ubuntu but not for victimisation.

In order to advance such reconciliation and reconstruction, amnesty shall be granted in respect of acts, omissions and offences associated with political objectives and committed in the course of the conflicts of the past. To this end, Parliament under this Constitution shall adopt a law determining a firm cut-off date, which shall be a date after 8 October 1990 and before 6 December 1993, and providing for the mechanisms, criteria and procedures, including tribunals, if any, through which such amnesty shall be dealt with at any time after the law has been passed.

With this Constitution and these commitments we, the people of South Africa, open a new chapter in the history of our country.

Nkosi sikelel’ iAfrika. God seën Suid-Afrika.
Morena boloka sechaba sa heso. May God bless our country.
Mudzimu fhatutshedza Afrika. Hosi katekisa Afrika.