Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009/Title V

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==TITLE V — MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS==

Sec. 501. Study and Report on Interchange Fees.[edit]

(a) Study required.—
The Comptroller General of the United States (in this section referred to as the “Comptroller”) shall conduct a study on use of credit by consumers, interchange fees, and their effects on consumers and merchants.
(b) Subjects for review.—
In conducting the study required by this section, the Comptroller shall review—
(1) the extent to which interchange fees are required to be disclosed to consumers and merchants, whether merchants are restricted from disclosing interchange or merchant discount fees, and how such fees are overseen by the Federal banking agencies or other regulators;
(2) the ways in which the interchange system affects the ability of merchants of varying size to negotiate pricing with card associations and banks;
(3) the costs and factors incorporated into interchange fees, such as advertising, bonus miles, and rewards, how such costs and factors vary among cards;
(4) the consequences of the undisclosed nature of interchange fees on merchants and consumers with regard to prices charged for goods and services;
(5) how merchant discount fees compare to the credit losses and other costs that merchants incur to operate their own credit networks or store cards;
(6) the extent to which the rules of payment card networks and their policies regarding interchange fees are accessible to merchants;
(7) other jurisdictions where the central bank has regulated interchange fees and the impact on retail prices to consumers in such jurisdictions;
(8) whether and to what extent merchants are permitted to discount for cash; and
(9) the extent to which interchange fees allow smaller financial institutions and credit unions to offer payment cards and compete against larger financial institutions.
(c) Report required.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller shall submit a report to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives containing a detailed summary of the findings and conclusions of the study required by this section, together with such recommendations for legislative or administrative actions as may be appropriate.

Sec. 502. Board Review of Consumer Credit Plans and Regulations.[edit]

(a) Required review.—
Not later than 2 years after the effective date of this Act and every 2 years thereafter, except as provided in subsection (c)(2), the Board shall conduct a review, within the limits of its existing resources available for reporting purposes, of the consumer credit card market, including—
(1) the terms of credit card agreements and the practices of credit card issuers;
(2) the effectiveness of disclosure of terms, fees, and other expenses of credit card plans;
(3) the adequacy of protections against unfair or deceptive acts or practices relating to credit card plans; and
(4) whether or not, and to what extent, the implementation of this Act and the amendments made by this Act has affected—
(A) cost and availability of credit, particularly with respect to non-prime borrowers;
(B) the safety and soundness of credit card issuers;
(C) the use of risk-based pricing; or
(D) credit card product innovation.
(b) Solicitation of public comment.—
In connection with conducting the review required by subsection (a), the Board shall solicit comment from consumers, credit card issuers, and other interested parties, such as through hearings or written comments.
(c) Regulations.—
(1) Notice.—
Following the review required by subsection (a), the Board shall publish a notice in the Federal Register that—
(A) summarizes the review, the comments received from the public solicitation, and other evidence gathered by the Board, such as through consumer testing or other research; and
(B) either—
(i) proposes new or revised regulations or interpretations to update or revise disclosures and protections for consumer credit cards, as appropriate; or
(ii) states the reason for the determination of the Board that new or revised regulations are not necessary.
(2) Revision of review period following material revision of regulations.—
In the event that the Board materially revises regulations on consumer credit card plans, a review need not be conducted until 2 years after the effective date of the revised regulations, which thereafter shall be treated as the new date for the biennial review required by subsection (a).
(d) Board report to the congress.—
The Board shall report to Congress not less frequently than every 2 years, except as provided in subsection (c)(2), on the status of its most recent review, its efforts to address any issues identified from the review, and any recommendations for legislation.
(e) Additional reporting.—
The Federal banking agencies (as that term is defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) and the Federal Trade Commission shall provide annually to the Board, and the Board shall include in its annual report to Congress under section 10 of the Federal Reserve Act, information about the supervisory and enforcement activities of the agencies with respect to compliance by credit card issuers with applicable Federal consumer protection statutes and regulations, including—
(1) this Act, the amendments made by this Act, and regulations prescribed under this Act and such amendments; and
(2) section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, and regulations prescribed under the Federal Trade Commission Act, including part 227 of title 12 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as prescribed by the Board (referred to as “Regulation AA”).

Sec. 503. Stored Value.[edit]

(a) In general.—
Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall issue regulations in final form implementing the Bank Secrecy Act, regarding the sale, issuance, redemption, or international transport of stored value, including stored value cards.
(b) Consideration of international transport.—
Regulations under this section regarding international transport of stored value may include reporting requirements pursuant to section 5316 of title 31, United States Code.
(c) Emerging methods for transmittal and storage in electronic form.—
Regulations under this section shall take into consideration current and future needs and methodologies for transmitting and storing value in electronic form.

Sec. 504. Procedure for Timely Settlement of Estates of Decedent Obligors.[edit]

(a) In general.—
Chapter 2 of the Truth in Lending Act (U.S.C. 1631 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the following new section:


``§ 140A Procedure for timely settlement of estates of decedent obligors
``The Board, in consultation with the Federal Trade Commission and each other agency referred to in section 108(a), shall prescribe regulations to require any creditor, with respect to any credit card account under an open end consumer credit plan, to establish procedures to ensure that any administrator of an estate of any deceased obligor with respect to such account can resolve outstanding credit balances in a timely manner.´´.


(b) Clerical amendment.—
The table of sections for chapter 2 of the Truth in Lending Act is amended by inserting after the item relating to section 140 the following new item:


``140A. Procedure for timely settlement of estates of decedent obligors’.´´.


Sec. 505. Report to Congress on Reductions of Consumer Credit Card Limits Based on Certain Information as to Experience or Transactions of the Consumer.[edit]

(a) Report on creditor practices required.—
Before the end of the 1-year period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act, the Board, in consultation with the Comptroller of the Currency, the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the National Credit Union Administration Board, and the Federal Trade Commission, shall submit a report to the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate on the extent to which, during the 3-year period ending on such date of enactment, creditors have reduced credit limits or raised interest rates applicable to credit card accounts under open end consumer credit plans based on—
(1) the geographic location where a credit transaction with the consumer took place, or the identity of the merchant involved in the transaction;
(2) the credit transactions of the consumer, including the type of credit transaction, the type of items purchased in such transaction, the price of items purchased in such transaction, any change in the type or price of items purchased in such transactions, and other data pertaining to the use of such credit card account by the consumer; and
(3) the identity of the mortgage creditor which extended or holds the mortgage loan secured by the primary residence of the consumer.
(b) Other information.—
The report required under subsection (a) shall also include—
(1) the number of creditors that have engaged in the practices described in subsection (a);
(2) the extent to which the practices described in subsection (a) have an adverse impact on minority or low-income consumers;
(3) any other relevant information regarding such practices; and
(4) recommendations to the Congress on any regulatory or statutory changes that may be needed to restrict or prevent such practices.

Sec. 506. Board Review of Small Business Credit Plans and Recommendations.[edit]

(a) Required review.—
Not later than 9 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Board shall conduct a review of the use of credit cards by businesses with not more than 50 employees (in this section referred to as “small businesses”) and the credit card market for small businesses, including—
(1) the terms of credit card agreements for small businesses and the practices of credit card issuers relating to small businesses;
(2) the adequacy of disclosures of terms, fees, and other expenses of credit card plans for small businesses;
(3) the adequacy of protections against unfair or deceptive acts or practices relating to credit card plans for small businesses;
(4) the cost and availability of credit for small businesses, particularly with respect to non-prime borrowers;
(5) the use of risk-based pricing for small businesses;
(6) credit card product innovation relating to small businesses; and
(7) the extent to which small business owners use personal credit cards to fund their business operations.
(b) Recommendations.—
Following the review required by subsection (a), the Board shall, not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of this Act—
(1) provide a report to Congress that summarizes the review and other evidence gathered by the Board, such as through consumer testing or other research, and
(2) make recommendations for administrative or legislative initiatives to provide protections for credit card plans for small businesses, as appropriate.

Sec. 507. Small Business Information Security Task Force.[edit]

(a) Definitions.—
In this section—
(1) the terms “Administration” and “Administrator” mean the Small Business Administration and the Administrator thereof, respectively;
(2) the term “small business concern” has the same meaning as in section 3 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632); and
(3) the term “task force” means the task force established under subsection (b).
(b) Establishment.—
The Administrator shall, in conjunction with the Secretary of Homeland Security, establish a task force, to be known as the “Small Business Information Security Task Force”, to address the information technology security needs of small business concerns and to help small business concerns prevent the loss of credit card data.
(c) Duties.—
The task force shall—
(1) identify—
(A) the information technology security needs of small business concerns; and
(B) the programs and services provided by the Federal Government, State Governments, and nongovernment organizations that serve those needs;
(2) assess the extent to which the programs and services identified under paragraph (1)(B) serve the needs identified under paragraph (1)(A);
(3) make recommendations to the Administrator on how to more effectively serve the needs identified under paragraph (1)(A) through—
(A) programs and services identified under paragraph (1)(B); and
(B) new programs and services promoted by the task force;
(4) make recommendations on how the Administrator may promote—
(A) new programs and services that the task force recommends under paragraph (3)(B); and
(B) programs and services identified under paragraph (1)(B);
(5) make recommendations on how the Administrator may inform and educate with respect to—
(A) the needs identified under paragraph (1)(A);
(B) new programs and services that the task force recommends under paragraph (3)(B); and
(C) programs and services identified under paragraph (1)(B);
(6) make recommendations on how the Administrator may more effectively work with public and private interests to address the information technology security needs of small business concerns; and
(7) make recommendations on the creation of a permanent advisory board that would make recommendations to the Administrator on how to address the information technology security needs of small business concerns.
(d) Internet website recommendations.—
The task force shall make recommendations to the Administrator relating to the establishment of an Internet website to be used by the Administration to receive and dispense information and resources with respect to the needs identified under subsection (c)(1)(A) and the programs and services identified under subsection (c)(1)(B). As part of the recommendations, the task force shall identify the Internet sites of appropriate programs, services, and organizations, both public and private, to which the Internet website should link.
(e) Education programs.—
The task force shall make recommendations to the Administrator relating to developing additional education materials and programs with respect to the needs identified under subsection (c)(1)(A).
(f) Existing materials.—
The task force shall organize and distribute existing materials that inform and educate with respect to the needs identified under subsection (c)(1)(A) and the programs and services identified under subsection (c)(1)(B).
(g) Coordination with public and private sector.—
In carrying out its responsibilities under this section, the task force shall coordinate with, and may accept materials and assistance as it determines appropriate from, public and private entities, including—
(1) any subordinate officer of the Administrator;
(2) any organization authorized by the Small Business Act to provide assistance and advice to small business concerns;
(3) other Federal agencies, their officers, or employees; and
(4) any other organization, entity, or person not described in paragraph (1), (2), or (3).
(h) Appointment of members.—
(1) Chairperson and vice-chairperson.—
The task force shall have—
(A) a Chairperson, appointed by the Administrator; and
(B) a Vice-Chairperson, appointed by the Administrator, in consultation with appropriate nongovernmental organizations, entities, or persons.
(2) Members.—
(A) Chairperson and vice-chairperson.—
The Chairperson and the Vice-Chairperson shall serve as members of the task force.
(B) Additional members.—
(i) In general.—
The task force shall have additional members, each of whom shall be appointed by the Chairperson, with the approval of the Administrator.
(ii) Number of members.—
The number of additional members shall be determined by the Chairperson, in consultation with the Administrator, except that—
(I) the additional members shall include, for each of the groups specified in paragraph (3), at least 1 member appointed from within that group; and
(II) the number of additional members shall not exceed 13.
(3) Groups represented.—
The groups specified in this paragraph are—
(A) subject matter experts;
(B) users of information technologies within small business concerns;
(C) vendors of information technologies to small business concerns;
(D) academics with expertise in the use of information technologies to support business;
(E) small business trade associations;
(F) Federal, State, or local agencies, including the Department of Homeland Security, engaged in securing cyberspace; and
(G) information technology training providers with expertise in the use of information technologies to support business.
(4) Political affiliation.—
The appointments under this subsection shall be made without regard to political affiliation.
(i) Meetings.—
(1) Frequency.—
The task force shall meet at least 2 times per year, and more frequently if necessary to perform its duties.
(2) Quorum.—
A majority of the members of the task force shall constitute a quorum.
(3) Location.—
The Administrator shall designate, and make available to the task force, a location at a facility under the control of the Administrator for use by the task force for its meetings.
(4) Minutes.—
(A) In general.—
Not later than 30 days after the date of each meeting, the task force shall publish the minutes of the meeting in the Federal Register and shall submit to the Administrator any findings or recommendations approved at the meeting.
(B) Submission to Congress.—
Not later than 60 days after the date that the Administrator receives minutes under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship of the Senate and the Committee on Small Business of the House of Representatives such minutes, together with any comments the Administrator considers appropriate.
(5) Findings.—
(A) In general.—
Not later than the date on which the task force terminates under subsection (m), the task force shall submit to the Administrator a final report on any findings and recommendations of the task force approved at a meeting of the task force.
(B) Submission to Congress.—
Not later than 90 days after the date on which the Administrator receives the report under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship of the Senate and the Committee on Small Business of the House of Representatives the full text of the report submitted under subparagraph (A), together with any comments the Administrator considers appropriate.
(j) Personnel matters.—
(1) Compensation of members.—
Each member of the task force shall serve without pay for their service on the task force.
(2) Travel expenses.—
Each member of the task force shall receive travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in accordance with applicable provisions under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code.
(3) Detail of SBA employees.—
The Administrator may detail, without reimbursement, any of the personnel of the Administration to the task force to assist it in carrying out the duties of the task force. Such a detail shall be without interruption or loss of civil status or privilege.
(4) SBA support of the task force.—
Upon the request of the task force, the Administrator shall provide to the task force the administrative support services that the Administrator and the Chairperson jointly determine to be necessary for the task force to carry out its duties.
(k) Not subject to Federal Advisory Committee Act.—
The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the task force.
(l) Startup deadlines.—
The initial appointment of the members of the task force shall be completed not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, and the first meeting of the task force shall be not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act.
(m) Termination.—
(1) In general.—
Except as provided in paragraph (2), the task force shall terminate at the end of fiscal year 2013.
(2) Exception.—
If, as of the termination date under paragraph (1), the task force has not complied with subsection (i)(4) with respect to 1 or more meetings, then the task force shall continue after the termination date for the sole purpose of achieving compliance with subsection (i)(4) with respect to those meetings.
(n) Authorization of appropriations.—
There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $300,000 for each of fiscal years 2010 through 2013.

Sec. 508. Study and Report on Emergency PIN Technology.[edit]

(a) In General.—
The Federal Trade Commission, in consultation with the Attorney General of the United States and the United States Secret Service, shall conduct a study on the cost-effectiveness of making available at automated teller machines technology that enables a consumer that is under duress to electronically alert a local law enforcement agency that an incident is taking place at such automated teller machine, including—
(1) an emergency personal identification number that would summon a local law enforcement officer to an automated teller machine when entered into such automated teller machine; and
(2) a mechanism on the exterior of an automated teller machine that, when pressed, would summon a local law enforcement to such automated teller machine.
(b) Contents of study.—
The study required under subsection (a) shall include—
(1) an analysis of any technology described in subsection (a) that is currently available or under development;
(2) an estimate of the number and severity of any crimes that could be prevented by the availability of such technology;
(3) the estimated costs of implementing such technology; and
(4) a comparison of the costs and benefits of not fewer than 3 types of such technology.
(c) Report.—
Not later than 9 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Federal Trade Commission shall submit to Congress a report on the findings of the study required under this section that includes such recommendations for legislative action as the Commission determines appropriate.

Sec. 509. Study and Report on the Marketing of Products with Credit Offers.[edit]

(a) Study.—
The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study on the terms, conditions, marketing, and value to consumers of products marketed in conjunction with credit card offers, including—
(1) debt suspension agreements;
(2) debt cancellation agreements; and
(3) credit insurance products.
(b) Areas of concern.—
The study conducted under this section shall evaluate—
(1) the suitability of the offer of products described in subsection (a) for target customers;
(2) the predatory nature of such offers; and
(3) specifically for debt cancellation or suspension agreements and credit insurance products, loss rates compared to more traditional insurance products.
(c) Report to Congress.—
The Comptroller shall submit a report to Congress on the results of the study required by this section not later than December 31, 2010.

Sec. 510. Financial and Economic Literacy.[edit]

(a) Report on Federal financial and economic literacy education programs.—
(1) In general.—
Not later than 9 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Education and the Director of the Office of Financial Education of the Department of the Treasury shall coordinate with the President’s Advisory Council on Financial Literacy—
(A) to evaluate and compile a comprehensive summary of all existing Federal financial and economic literacy education programs, as of the time of the report; and
(B) to prepare and submit a report to Congress on the findings of the evaluations.
(2) Contents.—
The report required by this subsection shall address, at a minimum—
(A) the 2008 recommendations of the President’s Advisory Council on Financial Literacy;
(B) existing Federal financial and economic literacy education programs for grades kindergarten through grade 12, and annual funding to support these programs;
(C) existing Federal postsecondary financial and economic literacy education programs and annual funding to support these programs;
(D) the current financial and economic literacy education needs of adults, and in particular, low- and moderate-income adults;
(E) ways to incorporate and disseminate best practices and high quality curricula in financial and economic literacy education; and
(F) specific recommendations on sources of revenue to support financial and economic literacy education activities with a specific analysis of the potential use of credit card transaction fees.
(b) Strategic plan.—
(1) In general.—
The Secretary of Education and the Director of the Office of Financial Education of the Department of the Treasury shall coordinate with the President’s Advisory Council on Financial Literacy to develop a strategic plan to improve and expand financial and economic literacy education.
(2) Contents.—
The plan developed under this subsection shall—
(A) incorporate findings from the report and evaluations of existing Federal financial and economic literacy education programs under subsection (a); and
(B) include proposals to improve, expand, and support financial and economic literacy education based on the findings of the report and evaluations.
(3) Presentation to congress.—
The plan developed under this subsection shall be presented to Congress not later than 6 months after the date on which the report under subsection (a) is submitted to Congress.
(c) Effective date.—
Notwithstanding section 3, this section shall become effective on the date of enactment of this Act.

Sec. 511. Federal Trade Commission Rulemaking on Mortgage Lending.[edit]

(a) In general.—
Section 626 of division D of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (Public Law 111-8) is amended—
(1) in subsection (a)—
(A) by striking “Within” and inserting “(1) Within”;
(B) in paragraph (1), as designated by subparagraph (A), by inserting after the first sentence the following: “Such rulemaking shall relate to unfair or deceptive acts or practices regarding mortgage loans, which may include unfair or deceptive acts or practices involving loan modification and foreclosure rescue services.”; and
(C) by adding at the end the following:


``(2) Paragraph (1) shall not be construed to authorize the Federal Trade Commission to promulgate a rule with respect to an entity that is not subject to enforcement of the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.) by the Commission.
``(3) Before issuing a final rule pursuant to the proceeding initiated under paragraph (1), the Federal Trade Commission shall consult with the Federal Reserve Board concerning any portion of the proposed rule applicable to acts or practices to which the provisions of the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) may apply.
``(4) The Federal Trade Commission shall enforce the rules issued under paragraph (1) in the same manner, by the same means, and with the same jurisdiction, powers, and duties as though all applicable terms and provisions of the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.) were incorporated into and made part of this section.´´; and
(2) in subsection (b)—
(A) by striking so much as precedes paragraph (2) and inserting the following:


``(b)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (6), in any case in which the attorney general of a State has reason to believe that an interest of the residents of that State has been or is threatened or adversely affected by the engagement of any person subject to a rule prescribed under subsection (a) in a practice that violates such rule, the State, as parens patriae, may bring a civil action on behalf of the residents of the State in an appropriate district court of the United States or other court of competent jurisdiction—
``(A) to enjoin that practice;
``(B) to enforce compliance with the rule;
``(C) to obtain damages, restitution, or other compensation on behalf of residents of the State; or
``(D) to obtain penalties and relief provided by the Federal Trade Commission Act and such other relief as the court considers appropriate.´´; and


(B) in paragraphs (2), (3), and (6), by striking “Commission” each place it appears and inserting “primary Federal regulator´´.
(b) Effective date.—
The amendments made by subsection (a) shall take effect on March 12, 2009.

Sec. 512. Protecting Americans from Violent Crime.[edit]

(a) Congressional findings.—
Congress finds the following:
(1) The Second Amendment to the Constitution provides that “the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed”.
(2) Section 2.4(a)(1) of title 36, Code of Federal Regulations, provides that “except as otherwise provided in this section and parts 7 (special regulations) and 13 (Alaska regulations), the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a weapon, trap or net”.
(3) Section 27.42 of title 50, Code of Federal Regulations, provides that, except in special circumstances, citizens of the United States may not “possess, use, or transport firearms on national wildlife refuges” of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
(4) The regulations described in paragraphs (2) and (3) prevent individuals complying with Federal and State laws from exercising the second amendment rights of the individuals while at units of—
(A) the National Park System; and
(B) the National Wildlife Refuge System.
(5) The existence of different laws relating to the transportation and possession of firearms at different units of the National Park System and the National Wildlife Refuge System entrapped law-abiding gun owners while at units of the National Park System and the National Wildlife Refuge System.
(6) Although the Bush administration issued new regulations relating to the Second Amendment rights of law-abiding citizens in units of the National Park System and National Wildlife Refuge System that went into effect on January 9, 2009—
(A) on March 19, 2009, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia granted a preliminary injunction with respect to the implementation and enforcement of the new regulations; and
(B) the new regulations—
(i) are under review by the administration; and
(ii) may be altered.
(7) Congress needs to weigh in on the new regulations to ensure that unelected bureaucrats and judges cannot again override the Second Amendment rights of law-abiding citizens on 83,600,000 acres of National Park System land and 90,790,000 acres of land under the jurisdiction of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
(8) The Federal laws should make it clear that the second amendment rights of an individual at a unit of the National Park System or the National Wildlife Refuge System should not be infringed.
(b) Protecting the right of individuals To bear arms in units of the National Park System and the National Wildlife Refuge System.—
The Secretary of the Interior shall not promulgate or enforce any regulation that prohibits an individual from possessing a firearm including an assembled or functional firearm in any unit of the National Park System or the National Wildlife Refuge System if—
(1) the individual is not otherwise prohibited by law from possessing the firearm; and
(2) the possession of the firearm is in compliance with the law of the State in which the unit of the National Park System or the National Wildlife Refuge System is located.

Sec. 513. GAO Study and Report on Fluency in the English Language and Financial Literacy.[edit]

(a) Study.—
The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study examining—
(1) the relationship between fluency in the English language and financial literacy; and
(2) the extent, if any, to which individuals whose native language is a language other than English are impeded in their conduct of their financial affairs.
(b) Report.—
Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit a report to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives that contains a detailed summary of the findings and conclusions of the study required under subsection (a).