Daniel, William (d.1628) (DNB00)

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DANIEL or O'DOMHNUILL, WILLIAM (d. 1628), archbishop of Tuam, translator of the New Testament into Irish, was a native of Kilkenny. His name appears in the patent (3 March 1592) for the foundation of Trinity College, Dublin, as one of three youths who were nominated to scholarships. The second vacancy which occurred in the fellowships was filled up by his election as junior fellow in the summer of 1593. He graduated M.A. in 1595. On 24 Feb. 1602 he was made D.D. at the first commencement.

While at Trinity College Daniel took up the work of translating the New Testament into Irish. This had been begun by Nicholas Walsh [q. v.], chancellor of St. Patrick's Cathedral, and afterwards (1577) bishop of Ossory. After the murder of Walsh at Kilkenny (14 Dec. 1585) it was continued by John Kearney (O'Cearnuidh), treasurer of St. Patrick's, and by Nehemias Donellan, who became archbishop of Tuam in 1595. What use Daniel was able to make of the efforts of his predecessors is not known. He claims to have translated from the original Greek. The printing was begun in 1602, in the house of Sir William Usher, clerk of the council, the printer being John Francke. The types employed had been presented by Queen Elizabeth in 1571 to John Kearney, and used by him in printing a catechism, the first work printed in Irish. The fount is a curious mixture of roman, italic, and Irish. Besides the Irish address to the reader there is an English dedication to James I, showing that the printing was not finished till 1603 or later. No reprint appeared until the edition of 1681, 4to, brought out in London at the cost of Robert Boyle [q. v.] This was printed by Robert Everingham in small pica Irish, full of contractions, cut by Joseph Moxon in 1680. Though it professes to be a reprint, it is not an exact one. An edition further revised by R. Kirke, M.A., was published in English character, London, 1690, 12mo. The modern editions issued by the Bible and Christian Knowledge Societies are reprints, more or less carefully corrected, of the 1681 edition. A version modernised from Daniel, in the existing Munster dialect, was brought out by Robert Kane, 1858, 4to.

About the time of the issue of his Irish Testament Daniel was preferred to the treasurership of St. Patrick's Cathedral. In 1606 he undertook, at the instance of Sir Arthur Chichester [see Chichester, Arthur, (1563–1625)], a translation of the Book of Common Prayer, which occupied him for two years. In 1608 he put it to the press, employing the same printer as before, who now had an establishment of his own, and called himself John Francke, alias Franckton, printer to the king of Ireland. The type is the same, with one new character, the dotted c. ‘Hauing translated the Booke,’ says Daniel, ‘I followed it to the Presse with ielousy, and daiely attendance, to see it perfected.’ During the progress of the work he was promoted to the archbishopric of Tuam (consecrated in August 1609), holding his treasurership in commendam. The dedication to Chichester is dated ‘from my House in Sainct Patricks Close, Dublin, the xx. of October. 1609.’ He prays his patron ‘to send it abroad into the Country Churches, together with the elder brother the new Testament.’ The version includes the special rites and the catechism, but not the psalter; prefixed is James's proclamation for uniformity, 5 March 1604, in Irish.

Daniel had the repute of being a good Hebraist, but it is not known that he took in hand the translation of the Old Testament. That was reserved for William Bedell [q. v.] Early in 1611 Daniel was sworn of the Irish privy council. Later in that year there was a project for removing the seat of his archbishopric to Galway, the cathedral at Tuam being in ruins. This, however, was not carried out; Tuam was erected into a parliamentary borough in the protestant interest (1612), and the cathedral was repaired. Daniel attended the parliament at Dublin in 1613, and the convocation of 1615 which adopted unanimously the Irish articles, with their strong Calvinistic bias. He did not join the protest (26 Nov. 1626) of ‘divers of the archbishops and bishops of Ireland,’ against the toleration of popery. Daniel died at Tuam on 11 July 1628, and is buried there in the tomb of his predecessor Donellan. His will, dated 4 July 1628, mentions his wife, Mary, his daughter, Catelin, and his nephews, Richard Butler, John Donellan, and Edmund Donellan, archdeacon of Cashel; these latter were sons of Archbishop Nehemias Donellan [q. v.], who had married Daniel's sister Elizabeth.

He published: 1. ‘Tiomna Nvadh ar Dtighearna agus ar Slanajghtheora Josa Criosd, ar na tarruing gu firinneach as Gréigis gu Gáoidheilg,’ &c., Athá Cliath [Dublin], 1602, sm. fol. five leaves at beginning unpaged, pp. 214 paged on one side only (i.e. 220 leaves in all, the paging 57 being repeated); separate titles to Matthew, Mark, and Luke. The Duke of Sussex's copy in the British Museum (465 c. 17) is perfect; the Grenville copy (G. 11753) imperfect. 2. ‘Leabhar na Nvrnaightheadh Gcomhchoidchiond agus Mheinisdraldachda na Sacrameinteadh,’ &c., Athá Cliath [Dublin], 1608, sm. fol. unpaged; fifteen leaves at beginning; then A to V2, AA to VV2, AAa to VVv2; at end is leaf with Chichester arms (so rightly in Grenville copy, G. 12086; misplaced before title in copy C. 24. b. 17).

[Ware's Works (Harris), 1764, i. 616; Taylor's Hist. University of Dublin, 1845, pp. 7, 16, 268; Lowndes's Bibliographer's Manual (Bohn), 1864, iii. 1946 (not quite correct as to collation of prayer book); Reid's Hist. Presb. Ch. in Ireland (Killen), 1867, i. 17, 53, 92, 146; Calendar of State Papers (Ireland, 1611–14), 1877, pp. 1, 161, 189, 345; Reed's Hist. of Old English Letter Foundries, 1887, pp. 75, 186 (underestimates the number of Irish characters employed by Francke); information from Sir Bernard Burke, and from the assistant registrar and the assistant librarian, Trinity College, Dublin.]

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