Darwinism (Wallace)/Index

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Darwinism (Wallace) by Alfred Russel Wallace
Index

INDEX

A

Abbott, Dr. C.C., instability of habits of birds, 76
on American water-thrushes (Seiurus), 117
Mr., drawings of caterpillars and their food plants, 203

Accessory plumes, development and display of, 293

Acclimatisation, 94

Achatinellidae, Gulick on variations in, 147

Acquired characters, non-heredity of, 440

Acraeidae, mimicry of, 247

Adaptation to conditions at various periods of life, 112

Adolias dirtea, sexual diversity of, 271

Aegeriidae, mimicry by, 240

Agaristidae, mimicry of, 246

Agassiz, on species, 5
on North American weeds, 15

Agelaeus phoeniceus, diagram showing variations of, 56;
proportionate numbers which vary, 64

Albatross, courtship of great, 287

Allen, Mr. Grant, on forms of leaves, 133
on degradation of wind-fertilised from insect-fertilised flowers, 325 (note)
on insects and flowers, 332
on production of colour through the agency of the colour sense, 334
Mr. J.A., on the variability of birds, 50

Allen, Mr. J.A., on colour as influenced by climate, 228

Alluring coloration, 210

American school of evolutionists, 420

Anemone nemorosa, variability of, 78

Animal coloration, a theory of, 288
general laws of, 296
intelligence, supposed action of, 425
characteristics of man, 454

Animals, the struggle among, 18
wild, their enjoyment of life, 39
usually die painless deaths, 38
constitutional variation of, 94
uses of colours of, 134
supposed effects of disuse in wild, 415
most allied to man, 450

Antelopes, recognition marks of, 219

Anthrocera filipendula inedible, 235

Apples, variations of, 87

Arctic animals, supposed causes of white colour of, 191

Argyll, Duke of, on goose reared by a golden eagle, 75

Artemia salina and A. milhausenii, 426

Asclepias curassavica, spread of, 28

Asses running wild in Quito, 28

Attractive fruits, 306

Australia, spread of the Cape-weed in, 29
fossil and recent mammals of, 392

Azara, on cause of horses and cattle not running wild in Paraguay, 19

Azores, flora of, supports aerial transmission of seeds, 368


B

Baker, Mr. J.G., on rarity of spiny plants in Mauritius, 432

Ball, Mr., on cause of late appearance of exogens, 400

Barber, Mrs., on variable colouring of pupae of Papilio nireus, 197
on protective colours of African sun-birds, 200

Barbs, 91

Barriers, importance of, in questions of distribution, 341

Bates, Mr. H.W., on varieties of butterflies, 44
on inedibility of Heliconidae, 234
on a conspicuous caterpillar, 236
on mimicry, 240, 243, 249

Bathmism or growth-force, Cope on, 421

Beddard, Mr. F.E., variations of earthworms, 67
on plumes of bird of paradise, 292

Beech trees, aggressive in Denmark, 21

Beetle and wasp (figs.), 259

Beetle, fossil in coal measures of Silesia, 404

Beginnings of important organs, 128

Belt, Mr., on leaf-like locust, 203
on birds avoiding Heliconidae, 234

Belt's frog, 266

Birds, rate of increase of, 25
how destroyed, 26
variation among, 49
variation of markings of, 52
variation of wings and tails of, 53
diagram showing variation of tarsus and toes, 60
use of structural peculiarities of, 135
eggs, coloration of, 212
recognition marks of, 222
and butterflies, white in tropical islands, 230
sometimes seize inedible butterflies, 255
mimicry among, 263

Birds, sexual coloration of, 275
cause of dull colour of female, 277
choice of female not known to be determined by colour, etc., 285
decorative plumage of, 285
antics of unornamented, 287
which fertilise flowers, 319
colours of, not dependent on the colours of flowers, 336
no proof of aesthetic tastes in, 336
dispersal of, 355
and insects at sea, 357
of oceanic islands, 358
carrying seeds on their feet, 361
ancestral forms of, 407

Birthplace, probable, of man, 459

Bombyx regia, protective form of larva of, 210

Boyd Dawkins, on development of deer's horns, 389
on origin of man, 456

Brady, Mr. George, on protective colouring of starfishes, 209

Brain development, progressive, 390

Brains of man and apes, 452

Branner, Mr. J.C., on supposed proofs of glaciation in Brazil, 370

Brazil, supposed proof of glaciation in, 370

Brewer, Professor W.H., on want of symmetry in colours of animals, 217

Bromelia, animals inhabiting leaves of, 118

Bronn, Professor, on supposed uselessness of variations of ears and tails, 136

Butler, Mr. A.G., on inedibility of conspicuous caterpillars, 237

Butterflies, varieties of, 44
small, of Isle of Man, 106
special protective colouring of, 206
recognition by, 226
inedibility of some, 234
mimicry among, 240, 249
colour development of, 274
sexual coloration of, 271


C

Caddis-fly larvae inhabiting bromelia leaves, 118

Callophis, harmless mimicking poisonous species, 262

Candolle, Alp. de, on variation in oaks, 77
on variability of Papaver bracteatum, 79

Cardinalis virginianus, diagram showing proportionate numbers which vary, 65;
variations of, 58

Carpenter, Dr. W.B., on variation in the Foraminifera, 43

Carriers, 91

Caterpillars, resemblance of, to their food plants, 203-205
inedible, 236

Cattle, how they prevent the growth of trees, 18
increase of, in St. Domingo, Mexico, and the pampas, 27

Ceylon, spread of Lantana mixta in, 29

Chaffinch, change of habit of, in New Zealand, 76

Chambers, Robert, on origin of species, 3

Chance rarely determines survival, 123

Change of conditions, utility of, 326

Characters, non-adaptive, 131
transferred from useless to useful class, 132

Charaxes psaphon persecuted by a bird, 235

Chile, numerous red tubular flowers in, 320

Chimpanzee, figure of, 454

Clark, Mr. Edwin, on cause of absence of forests on the pampas, 23
on the struggle for life in the South American valleys, 24

Cleistogamous flowers, 322

Close interbreeding, supposed evil results of, 326

Clover, white, spread of, in New Zealand, 28

Co-adaptation of parts by variation, no real difficulty, 418

Cobra, use of hood of, 262

Coccinella mimicked by grasshopper, (figure), 260

Collingwood, Mr., on butterflies recognising their kind, 226

Coloration, alluring, 210
of birds' eggs, 212
a theory of animal, 288

Colour correlated with sterility, 169
correlated with constitutional peculiarities, 170
in nature, the problem to be solved, 188
constancy, in animals indicates utility, 189
and environment, 190
general theories of animal, 193
animal, supposed causes of, 193
obscure, of many tropical animals, 194
produced by surrounding objects, 195
adaptations, local, 199
for recognition, 217
of wild animals not quite symmetrical, 217 (note)
as influenced by locality or climate, 228
development in butterflies, 274
more variable than habits, 278
and nerve distribution, 290
and tegumentary appendages, 291
of flowers, 308
change of, in flowers when fertilised, 317
in nature, concluding remarks on, 299, 333
of fruits, 304
of flowers growing together contrasted, 318

Complexity of flowers due to alternate adaptation to insect and self-fertilisation, 328

Composite, a, widely dispersed without pappus, 367

Confinement, affecting fertility, 154

Continental and oceanic areas, 346

Continents and oceans cannot have changed places, 345
possible connections between, 349

Continuity does not prove identity of origin, 463

Cope, Dr. E.D., on non-adaptive characters, 131
on fundamental laws of growth, 420
on bathmism or growth-force, 421
on use producing structural change, 422
on law of centrifugal growth, 422
on origin of the feet of ungulates, 423
on action of animal intelligence, 425

Correlations in pigeons, horses, etc., 140

Corvus frugilegus, 2
corone, 2

Coursers, figures of secondary quills, 224

Cowslip, two forms of, 157

Crab, sexual diversity of colour of, 269

Cretaceous period, dicotyledons of, 400

Crisp, Dr., on variations of gall bladder and alimentary canal, 69

Crosses, a cause of variation, 99
reciprocal, 155

Cross-fertilisation, modes of securing, 310
difference in, 155

Crossing and changed conditions,
parallelism of, 166

Cruciferae, variations of structure in, 80

Cuckoo, eggs of, 216

Cuckoos mimick hawks, 263

Cultivated plants, origin of useful, 97

Curculionidae mimicked by various insects (figs.), 260

Curves of variation, 64


D

Dana, Professor, on the permanence of continents, 342

Danaidae little attacked by mites, 235
mimicry of, 246

Darwin, change of opinion effected by, 8
the Newton of Natural History, 9
his view of his own work, 10
on the enemies of plants, 16
on fir-trees destroyed by cattle, 17
on change of plants and animals caused by planting, 18
on absence of wild cattle in Paraguay, 19
on cats and red clover, 20
on variety of plants in old turf, 35
on the beneficent action of the struggle for existence, 40
on variability of wild geraniums, 79
on variability of common species, 80
his non-recognition of extreme variability of wild species, 82
on races of domestic pigeon, 90
on constitutional variation in plants, 95
on unconscious selection, 96
on a case of divergence, 105
on advantage of diversification of structure in inhabitants of one region, 110
on species of plants in turf, 110
on isolation, 119
on origin of mammary glands, 129
on eyes of flatfish, 129
on origin of the eye, 130
on useless characters, 131
on use of ears and tails, 136
on disappearance of sports, 140
on tendency to vary in one direction, 141
on rare perpetuation of sports, 142
on utility of specific characters, 142 (note)
on importance of biological environment, 148
on variable fertility of plants, 155
on fertile hybrids among plants, 164

Darwin, on correlation of sterility and colour, 169
on selective association, 172
on infertility and natural selection, 174
on cause of infertility of hybrids, 185
on white tail of rabbit, 218
on conspicuous caterpillars, 236
on sexual selection in insects, 274
on decorative plumage of male birds, 285
on development of ocelli, 290
on value of cross-fertilisation, 309
on limits to utility of intercrossing, 326
on flowers due to insects, 332
on oceanic islands, 342
on effects of disuse in domestic animals, 415, 435
on direct action of environment, 419
on unintelligibility of theory of retardation and acceleration, 421 (note)
on origin of man's moral nature, 461
Mr. George, on intermarriages of British aristocracy, 326

Darwinian theory, statement of, 10
not opposed to spiritual nature of man, 478
Dawkins, Professor Boyd, on development of deer's horns, 389
on recent origin of man, 456
Dawson, Sir W., on determination of fossil plants by leaves, 398 (note)

Death of wild animals usually painless, 38

De Candolle, definition of species, 1
on difficulty of naturalising plants, 15
on war between plants, 16
on origin of useful cultivated plants, 97

Deer's horns, development of, 389

Degeneration, 121

Delboeuf's law of variation, 141

Dendraeca coronata, variation of wing-feathers of, 51

Denmark, struggle between trees in, 20

Denudation, evidences of, 379

Desert animals, colour of, 192

Deserts, effect of goats and camels in destroying vegetation in, 17

Development and display of accessory plumes, 293

Diadema anomala, 271
misippus, great diversity of sexes in, 271

Diaphora mendica mimics Spilosoma menthrasti, 249

Difficulties in the facts of fertilisation of flowers, 325

Dimorphism and trimorphism, 156

Dippers, probable origin of, 116

Disease and markings, 290

Diseases common to man and animals, 449

Display of decorative plumage, 287

Distribution of organisms should be explained by theory of descent, 338
conditions which have determined the, 341
of marsupials, 350
of tapirs, 352

Disuse, effects of, among wild animals, 415
no proof that the effects of, are inherited, 417

Divergence of character, 105-109
leads to maximum of forms of life in each area, 109

Diversity of fauna and flora with geographical proximity, 339

Dixon, Mr. C, changed habits of chaffinch in New Zealand, 76

Dogs, origin of, 88
varieties of, 89

Dolichonyx oryzivorus, diagram showing variations of, 55

Domestic animals, varieties of, 88

Draba verna, varieties of, 77

Dress of men not determined by female choice, 286

Dust from Krakatoa, size of particles of, 363


E

Eastern butterflies, variation of, 45

Eaton, Rev. A.E., on Kerguelen insects, 106

Edwards, Mr. W.H., on dark forms of Papilio turnus, 248

Eggs protectively coloured, 214, 215
theory of varied colours of, 216

Elaps mimicked by harmless snakes, 261

Embryonic development of man and other mammalia, 448

Ennis, Mr. John, on willows driving out watercresses from rivers of New Zealand, 24

Entomostraca, in bromelia leaves, 118

Environment never identical for two species, 149
direct action of, 418
direct influence of, 426
as initiator of variations, 436
action of, overpowered by natural selection, 437

Ethical aspect of the struggle for existence, 36

Euchelia jacobeae inedible, 235

Everett, Mr. A., on a caterpillar resembling moss, 205

Evidence of evolution that may be expected among fossil forms, 380

Evolutionists, American school of, 420

Exogens, possible cause of sudden late appearance of, 400

External differences of man and apes, 453

Extinct animals, number of species of, 376

Extinction of large animals, cause of, 394

Eye, origin of, 130

Eyes, explanation of loss of in cave animals, 416


F

Facts of natural selection, summary of, 122

Falcons illustrating divergence, 108
and butcher birds, hooked and toothed beaks of, 422

Fantails, 91

Female birds, why often dull coloured, 277

Female birds, what their choice of mates is determined by, 286
butterflies, why dull coloured, 272
brighter than male bird, 281
choice a doubtful agent in selection, 283
preference neutralised by natural selection, 294

Fertility of domestic animals, 154

Flatfish, eyes of, 129

Flesh-fly, enormous increase of, 25

Floral structure, great differences of, in allied genera and species, 329

Flowers, variations of, 88
colours of, 308
with sham nectaries, 317
changing colour when fertilised, 317
adapted to bees or to butterflies, 318
contrasted colours of, at same season and locality, 318
fertilisation of, by birds, 319
self-fertilisation of, 321
once insect-fertilised now self-fertile, 323
how the struggle for existence acts among, 328
repeatedly modified during whole Tertiary period, 331
the product of insect agency, 332

Forbes, Mr. H.O., on protective colour of a pigeon, 200
on spider imitating birds' dropping, 211

Fossil shells, complete series of transitional forms of, 381
crocodiles afford evidence of evolution, 383
horses in America, 386
and living animals, local relations of, 391

Fowl, early domestication of, 97

Frill-back, Indian, 93

Frog inhabiting bromelia leaves, 118

Fruits, use of characters of, 133
colours of, 304
edible or attractive, 306
poisonous, 307

Fulica atra, protectively coloured eggs of, 215

Fulmar petrel, abundance of, 30


G

Gallinaceae, ornamental plumes of, 292

Galton, Mr. F., diagrams of variability used by, 74
on markings of zebra, 220 (note)
on regression towards mediocrity, 414
theory of heredity by, 443 (note)
on imperfect counting of the Damaras, 464

Gaudry on extinct animals at Pikermi, 377

Gay, Mons. T., on variations of structure in Cruciferae, 80

Gazella soemmerringi (figure), 219

Gazelles, recognition marks of, 218

Geddes, Professor, on variation in plants, 428
objection to theory of, 430

Geikie, Dr. Archibald, on formation of marine stratified rocks, 344

Geoffroy St. Hilaire, on species, 6

Geological evidences of evolution, 376, 381
record, causes of imperfection of, 379
distribution of insects, 403
antiquity of man, 455

Ghost-moth, colours of, 270

Glaciation, no proofs of, in Brazil, 370

Glow-worm, light a warning of inedibility, 287

Gomphia oleaefolia, variability of, 79

Goose eating flesh, 75

Gosse, Mr. P.H., on variation in the sea-anemones, 43
on sea-anemone and bullhead, 265

Gould, Mr., on colours of coast and inland birds, 228

Grant Allen, on forms of leaves, 133
on insects and flowers, 332

Graphite in Laurentian implies abundant plant life, 398

Gray, Dr. Asa, on naturalised plants in the United States, 110
Dr. J.E., on variation of skulls of mammalia, 71

Great fertility not essential to rapid increase, 30

Great powers of increase of animals, 27

Green colour of birds in tropical forests, 192

Grouse, red, recent divergence of, 106

Gulick, Rev. J.T., on variation of land-shells, 43
on isolation and variation, 147, 150
on divergent evolution, 148


H

Habits of animals, variability of, 74

Hairy caterpillars inedible, 237

Hanbury, Mr. Thomas, on a remarkable case of wind conveyance of seed, 373 (note)

Hansten-Blangsted, on succession of trees in Denmark, 21

Harvest mice, prehensile tails of young, 136

Hawkweed, species and varieties of British, 77

Hector, Sir James, use of horns of deer, 137

Heliconidae, warning colours of, 234
mimicry of, 240

Helix nemoralis, varieties of, 43
hortensis, varieties of, 43

Hemsley, Mr., on rarity of spines in oceanic islands, 432

Henslow, Professor G., on vigour of self-fertilised plants, 323
on wind-fertilised as degradations from insect-fertilised flowers, 324
on origin of forms and structures of flowers, 434 (note)

Herbert, Dean, on species, 6
on plant hybrids, 164

Herbivora, recognition marks of, 218

Heredity, 11
Weismann's theory of, 437

Herschel, Sir John, on species, 3

Hooker, Sir Joseph, on attempts at naturalising Australian plants in New Zealand, 16

Home, Mr. C, on inedibility of an Indian locust, 267

Horns of deer, uses of, 136

Horse tribe, pedigree of, 384
ancestral forms of, 386

Humming-birds, recognition marks of, 226

Huth, Mr., on close interbreeding, 160

Huxley, Professor on the struggle for existence, 37
on fossil crocodiles, 383
on anatomical peculiarities of the horse tribe, 384
on development of vertebrates, 448
on early man, 456
on brains of man and the gorilla, 457

Hybridity, remarks on facts of, 166
summary on, 184

Hybrids, infertility of, supposed test of distinct species, 152
fertility of, 159
fertile among animals, 162
between sheep and goat, 162
fertile between distinct species of moths, 163
fertile among plants, 163

Hymenopus bicornis, resembling flower, 212


I

Icterus Baltimore, diagram showing proportionate numbers which
vary, 63

Imitative resemblances, how produced, 205

Increase of organisms in a geometrical ratio, 25

Inedible fruits rarely coloured, 308

Insect and self-fertilisation, alternation of, in flowers, 328

Insect-fertilisation, facts relating to, 316

Insects, coloured for recognition, 226
warning colours of, 233
sexual coloration of, 269
importance of dull colours to female, 272
visiting one kind of flower at a time, 318
and flowers, the most brilliant not found together, 335

Insects, no proof of love of colour by, 336
and birds at sea, 357
in mid-ocean, 359
at great altitudes, 360
geological distribution of, 403
ancestral in Silurian, 405
fossil support evolution, 405

Instability of useless characters, 138

Instinct, the theory of, 441

Insular organisms illustrate powers of dispersal, 354

Interbreeding, close, injurious effects of, 160
supposed evil results of close, 326

Intercrossing, swamping effects of, 142
not necessarily useful, 325

Intermediate forms, why not found, 380

Islands, all oceanic are volcanic or coralline, 342

Isle of Man, small butterflies of, 106

Isolation, the importance of, 119
to prevent intercrossing, 144
by variations of habits, etc., 145
Rev. J.G. Gulick on, 147
when ineffective, 150

Ituna Ilione and Thyridia megisto, figures of wings of, 251


J

Jacobin, 93

Jenyns, Rev. L., on internal variations of mammalia, 69

Jordan, Mons. A., on varieties of Draba verna, 77

Judd, Professor, on dust fallen at Genoa, 363
on Hungarian fossil lacustrine shells, 381


K

Kerguelen Island, wingless insects of, 106

Kerivoula picta, protective colour of, 201

Kerner, Professor, on use of external characters of plants, 133
on seeds found on glaciers, 366

Kingfishers illustrating divergence of character, 109


L

Lacerta muralis, diagram of variation of, 47

Lagopus scoticus, origin of, 107

Lamarck, on origin of species, 3

Land debris deposited near coasts, 343
and ocean, diagram showing comparative height and depth of, 345

Large animals, cause of extinction of, 394

Larvae of moths, variability of, 46

Laughers, Frill-backs, Nuns, Spots, and Swallows, 93

Law of relation of colour and nest, 278, 279

Laws of animal coloration, 296

Lawson Tait, on uses of tails, 136

Leaf-butterflies, 207

Leguminosae, rare in oceanic islands, 368

Lemuria, an unsound hypothesis, 354

Lepidoptera, variation of, 44

Leyden Museum, diagram showing variability of birds in, 61

Life, Weismann on duration of, 437 (note)

Limenitis misippus mimics Danais archippus, 248
ursula mimics Papilio philenor, 248

Linnaeus, on rapid increase of the flesh-fly, 25

Livingstone, his sensations when seized by a lion, 38

Lizards, variation among, 46
diagram of variation of, 48
sexual colours of, 281

Local colour adaptations, 199

Locusts with warning colours inedible, 267

Longicorns mimic Malacoderms, 257

Low, Mr., on effects of close interbreeding, 160

Low, Mr., on fertile crosses between sheep and goat, 162
on selective association, 172

Low forms of life, continued existence of, explained, 114
forms, persistence of, 121
temperature of tropics not needed to explain plant dispersal, 370

Lower types, extinction of, among the higher animals, 114

Lubbock, Sir John, on forms of leaves, 133
on imperfect counting of early man, 464

Lyell, Sir Charles, on variation of species, 4
on the shifting of continents, 342


M

Madagascar and New Zealand, 347

Madeira, wingless beetles of, 105

Maize, origin of, 98

Male rivalry, a real cause of selection, 283

Males of many animals fights together, 282

Malm, on eyes of flatfish, 129

Mammalia, variation of, 65
sexual colours of, 281, 282
afford crucial tests of theories of distribution, 353
early forms of, 407
geological distribution of, 408

Mammary glands, supposed origin of, 129

Man, summary of animal characteristics of, 454
geological antiquity of, 455
early remains of, in California, 456
probably as old as the Miocene, 457
probable birthplace of, 459
origin of moral and intellectual nature of, 461
possesses mental qualities not derived exclusively
from his animal progenitors, 474

Man's body that of an animal, 444
development similar to that of animals, 449
structure compared with that of the anthropoid apes, 451

Mania typica refused by lizards, 238

Mantidae resembling flowers, 212

Marcgravia nepenthoides fertilised by birds (woodcut), 320

Marine animals, protective resemblance among, 208
with warning colours, 266

Marsh, Mr., on destructiveness to vegetation of goats and camels, 17
Professor O., on the development of the horse tribe, 386
on brain development of Tertiary mammals, 391
on specialised forms dying out, 395

Marsupials, distribution of, 350

Mathematical faculty, the origin of the, 464
how developed, 466
not developed by law of natural selection, 469

Mathematics, late development of, 465

Meldola, Professor R., on variable protective colouring, 196
on mimicry among British moths, 249 (note)
on an extension of the theory of mimicry, 255 (note)

Melons, variations of, 87

Methona psidii and Leptalis orise (figs.), 241

Meyer, Dr. A.B., on mimicry of snakes, 262

Milne Edwards, on variation of lizards, 46

Mimicking birds deceive naturalists, 264
butterfly, figure of, 241

Mimicry, 239
how it has been produced, 242
among protected genera, 249
extension of, 255
in various orders of insects, 257
among vertebrata, 261
among birds, 263
objections to theory of, 264

Mineral particles carried by wind, 363

Miocene fossils of North America, 378

Missing links, character of, 380

Mivart, Dr. St. George, on variation of ribs and dorsal vertebrae, 69
on supposed useless characters, 138 (note)
on resemblance of man and apes, 451

Modifications for special purposes, 113

Mongrels, sterility of, 165

Monkeys affected by medicines as are men, 450

Monocotyledons degradations from dicotyledons, 325 (note)
scarcity of, in Rocky Mountains, 401
scarcity of, in Alpine flora, 401

Moral nature of man, origin of, 461

Morse, Professor E.T., on protective colouring of marine mollusca, 209

Moseley, Professor, on protective resemblance among marine
animals, 208
on courtship of Great Albatross, 287

Moths, protected groups of, 235

Mountains, remote, with identical plants, 369

Müller, Dr. Fritz, on inhabitants of bromelia leaves, 118
on butterfly, deceived by its mimic, 245
his explanation of mimicry among protected genera, 252
Dr. Hermann, on variability of Myosurus minimus, 78

Murray, Mr. John, on bulk of land and ocean, 344
on quartz particles on ocean floor, 363
Rev. R.P., variation in the neuration of butterflies' wings, 45

Musical and artistic faculties, origin of, 467

Myosurus minimus, variability of, 78


N

Natural selection with changed and unchanged conditions, 103
and sterility, 173
overpowers effects of use and disuse, 435
the most important agency in modifying species, 444

Naturalist deceived by a mimicking insect, 259
by mimicking birds, 264

Naudin, M., on varieties of melons, 87

Nectarinea amethystina, protective colouring of, 201

Nestor notabilis, variation of habits of, 75

Nests of birds influence the colour of females, 278

New species, conditions favourable to origin of, 115

Newton, Professor A., on fertile hybrid ducks, 162

New Zealand, European plants in, 15
spread of white clover in, 28
effects of introduced plants in, 29
native rat and fly exterminated by European species, 34
many plants of, incapable of self-fertilisation, 321
fauna of, 348
few spiny plants in, 433

Nocturnal animals, colours of, 193

Non-adaptive characters, instability of, 138

Normandy pigs, fleshy appendages to jaws of, 139

North America, Miocene fossils of, 378

Northern plants in southern hemisphere, 368

Nostus Borbonicus, variability of, 80

Number of individuals which vary, 62

Nutmeg, how dispersed, 307

Nuts, not meant to be eaten, 305


O

Oaks, great variability of, 78

Objections to Darwin's theory, 126

Ocean floor, deposits on, 343

Oceanic animals, colours of, 193
and continental areas, 346
islands have no mammals or batrachia, 342

Oceans, the permanence of, 341

Oedicnemus, figures of wings of, 223

Opthalmis lincea and Artaxa simulans (figs.), 247

Orang-utans, variations of skull of, 69

Orchideae, why scarce on oceanic islands, 367

Orchis pyramidalis, mode of fertilisation of, 314
figures illustrating fertilisation of, 315

Organic development, three stages of, involving new cause or power, 474
world, the development of, implies a spiritual world, 476

Organisation, advance of, by natural selection, 120
degradation in, 121

Origin of species, objections, 7
of accessory plumes, 291

Orioles mimicking honey-suckers, 263

Ornamental plumes and vitality, 293


P

Pachyrhynchi subjects of mimicry, 261

Pampas, effects of drought in, 23

Papaver bracteatum, variability of, 79

Papilio, use of forked tentacle of larva of, 210
protected groups of, 235
mimicry of, 247

Paraguay, absence of wild cattle and horses, 19

Parnassia palustris, sham nectaries of, 317

Parrot, change of habits of New Zealand, 75

Parus, species of, illustrate divergence, of character, 107

Passenger-pigeon, account of its breeding-places and numbers, 31

Pelagic animals, colours of, 193

Phasmidae, resemblance of, to sticks and leaves, 203

Physiological selection, 180

Pickard-Cambridge, Rev. O., on sexual selection, 296 (note)

Pieridae, sexual diversity among, 271

Pigeons, varieties of, 89
domestic, derived from wild rock-pigeons, 90
curious correlations in, 140
white eggs of, protective, 213

Pigs, great increase of, in South America and New Zealand, 28

Pikermi, extinct animals of, 377

Pipits as illustrating divergence, 108

Planorbidae, variations of, 44

Plants, the enemies of, 16
variability of, 76
constitutional variation of, 94
colour relations of, 302
true mimicry rare in, 303
exotic rarely naturalised in Europe, 356
dispersal of, 361
northern, in southern hemisphere, 368
identical on summits of remote mountains, 369
progressive development of, 397
geological development of (diagram), 402

Plovers, recognition marks of (figure), 221

Plumes, origin of accessory, 291
muscular relation of ornamental, 292

Poisonous fruits, 307

Porto Santo, rabbits of, 326

Poulton, Mr. E.B., on variable colours of larvae and pupae, 196, 198
on concealments of insects by resemblance to environment, 202
on protective form of Notodonta ziczac, 210
on inedibility of conspicuous larvae, 237

Pouters, 90

Primulaceae, variations of structure in, 79

Problem, the, before Darwin, 6

Problems in variation and heredity, 410

Progression in plants and animals, 395

Protection by terrifying enemies, 209

Protective colouring, variable, 195
of white-headed fruit-pigeon, 200
of African sun-birds, 200
of Kerivoula picta, 201
of sloths, 201
of larva of Sphinx ligustri, 202
of stick and leaf insects, 203
of caterpillars, 203, 205
of butterflies, 206

Ptilopus cinctus, protective colour of, 200

Pugnacity of birds with accessory plumes, 294


R

Rabbit, use of white tail of, 218

Rapid increase of plants, 28

Raspail, M., on variability in a grass, 80

Rat, black, spread of, 34

Rattlesnake, use of rattle of, 262

Raven, why black in arctic regions, 191

Reciprocal crosses, 155

Recognition marks of herbivora, 218
of birds, 222
of tropical forest birds, 224
of insects, 226

Reproductive functions, susceptibility of, 153

Reptiles, geological distribution of, 406

Rhinoceroses, evidence of evolution afforded by fossil, 383

Rocks, all stratified formed in shallow water, 344

Rocky Mountains, scarcity of monocotyledons in, 401

Rodents, prevent woody vegetation in the pampas, 23

Romanes, Professor G.J., on useless characters, 131, 139
on meaningless peculiarities of structure, 140
on supposed absence of simultaneous variations, 142
on physiological selection, 180

Rook and crow, 2

Roses, Mr. Baker on varieties of, 77

Rubus, Bentham and Babington on species and varieties of, 77

Rudiments and variations in man, 446

Runts, 91

Rutaceae, variation of structure in, 79


S

St. Helena, destruction of forests by goats, 17

St. Hilaire, M. Aug., variability of Gomphia oleaefolia, 79

Saxicola, divergence of character in species of, 108
recognition marks of, 222

Scientific opinion before Darwin, 4

Scolopax, figures of tails of, 225

Scudder, Mr. S.H., on inedibility of Danais archippus, 238
on fossil insects, 403

Seebohm, Mr., on swamping effects of intercrossing, 143

Seeds, how dispersed, 306
how protected, 307
floating great distances, 361
dispersal of, by wind, 362
weight and dimensions of, 364
importance of wind-carriage of, 372
remarkable case of wind-carriage of, 373

Seiurus carolinensis, diagram of variation, 67
sp., habits of, 117

Selection, artificial, 84
by man, circumstances favourable to, 96
unconscious, 96

Selective association, isolation by, 171

Self-fertilisation of flowers, 321

Semper, Professor, on casting hairs of reptiles and Crustacea, 137 (note)
on direct influence of environment, 426

Sesiidae, mimicry by, 240

Sex colour and nests of birds, 277

Sex, colours characteristic of, 269

Sexual colours of insects, probable causes of, 273
of birds, 275
characters due to natural selection, 283
diversity the cause of variation, 439

Sexual selection and colour, 274
by struggles of males, 282
neutralised by natural selection, 294-296
restricted to male struggles, 296

Shetland Islands, variety of ghost-moth in, 270

Shrews and field-mice, internal variations of, 69

Shrikes, recognition marks of, 222

Similarity of forms of life not due to similarity of conditions, 339

Singing of male birds, use of, 284

Skull of wolf, diagram of variations of, 70
of Ursus labiatus, diagram of variations of, 72
of Sus cristatus, diagram of variations of, 73

Skunk an illustration of warning colour, 233

Slack, Baron von, on protective markings of sloths, 201

Sloth, protective colour and marking of, 201

Snakes, mimicry of poisonous, 261

Snipe, tails of two species (figs.), 225

Sounds and odours peculiar to male,
how useful, 284
produced by peculiar feathers, 284

South America, fossil and recent mammals of, 393

Species, definition of, 1, 2
origin of, 2, 6
Lyell on, 4
Agassiz on, 5
transmutation of, 6
Geoffroy St. Hilaire on, 6
Dean Herbert on, 6
Professor Grant on, 6
Von Buch on, 6
allied, found in distinct areas, 36

Species, which vary little, 80
closely allied inhabit distinct areas, 111
vigour and fertility of, how kept up, 327

Spencer, Mr. Herbert, on factors of organic evolution, 411
on effects of disuse, 413
on difficulty as to co-adaptation of parts, 417
on direct action of environment, 418

Sphingidae, protective attitudes of larvae, 210

Sphinx ligustri, general resemblance of larva to food plant, 202

Spider, alluring coloration of, 211

Spines, on origin of, 431
rarity of, in oceanic islands, 432

Spiny plants abundant in South Africa and Chile, 433

Spots a primitive ornamentation of animals, 289

Sprengel on flowers and insects, 309

Staphylinidae, protective habit of, 210

Sterility of mongrels, 165
correlated with colour, etc., 168
and natural selection, 173
of hybrids produced by natural selection, 179

Struggle for existence, 14
among plants, 15
for life, illustrations of, 18
for existence on the pampas, 22
for life between closely allied forms most severe, 33
for existence, ethics of, 36
how it acts among flowers, 328

Summary of facts of colouring for protection and recognition, 227

Survival of the fittest, 11, 122, 123

Swainson, definition of species, 2

Swamping effects of intercrossing, 142

Sweden, destruction of grass by larvae of moths in, 17

Swinhoe, Mr., on protective colouring of a bat, 201

Symmetry, bilateral in colours of animals needful for recognition, 217


T

Tails used as respirators, 136

Tapirs, distribution of, 352

Tegetmeier, Mr., on feeding habits of pigeons and fowls, 75
on sparrows and crocuses, 75
on curious correlations in pigeons, 140

Tegumentary appendages and colour, 291

Thousand-fathom line divides oceanic from continental islands, 347
the teachings of, 348
map showing, 349

Thwaites, Mr., on spread of Lantana mixta in Ceylon, 30

Tiger, use of stripes of, 199

Titmice as illustrating divergence, 107

Transformation of species of crustacea, 427

Transmutationists, the early, 3

Travers, Mr. W.L., on effects of introduced plants in New Zealand, 29

Trees, great variety of, in many forests, 36

Trimen, Mr., on butterfly deceived by its mimic, 245
on mimicry, 247

Tropical animals, why brilliantly coloured, 299

Tropics, no proof of lower temperature of, 369

Tropidorhynchi mimicked by orioles, 263

Trumpeter, 93

Tumblers, 91

Turbits and owls, 91

Tylor, Mr. A., on Coloration in Animals and Plants, 285


U

Ungulates, origin of feet of, 423

Use and disuse, effects of, overpowered by natural selection, 435

Useless characters, 131
not specific, 132

Useless specific characters, no proof of existence of, 141

Utriculariae inhabiting bromelias, 118


V

Vanessa callirhoe, small variety in Porto Santo, 106

Variability of the lower animals, 42
of the Foraminifera, 43
of sea-anemones, 43
of land mollusca, 43
of insects, 44
of lizards, 46
of birds, 49
of primary wing-feathers, 51
of wings and tail, 53
of Dolichonyx oryzivorus, 55
of Agelaeus phoeniceus, 56
of Cardinalis virginianus, 58
of tarsus and toes, 60
of birds in Leyden Museum, 61
of Sciurus carolinensis, 67
of skulls of wolf, 70
of skulls of a bear, 72
of skulls of Sus cristatus, 73
of plants, 76
of oaks, 77

Variation, Lyell on, 4
in internal organs, 66
the facts of, 83
proofs of generality of, 85
of vegetables and fruits, 86
of apples and melons, 87
under domestication accords with that under nature, 100
coincident not necessary, 127
and heredity, problems of, 410
Professor Geddes's theory of, 428
the cause of, 439

Variations of flowers, 88
of domestic animals, 88
of domestic pigeons, 89
conditions favourable to production of, 98
beneficial, 143

Varieties, importance of, 41
of same species adapted to self or to insect-fertilisation, 330

Vegetables, variation of, 86

Vegetation and reproduction, antagonism of, 428

Vertebrata, mimicry among, 261
geological succession of, 405

Vestiges of Creation, 3

Viola odorata, 2
canina, 2

Violets, as illustrating species, 2

Von Buch on species, 6


W

Wallace, Dr. Alexander, on absence of choice by female moths, 275

Ward, Mr. Lester F., on progressive development of plants, 398

Warning coloration, 232

Warning colours of marine animals, 265

Wasps and bees, mimicry of, 258
poisonous with warning colours, 287

Water-cress, chokes rivers in New Zealand, 24
driven out by willows, 24

Water-ouzels, probable origin of, 116

Weale, Mr. Mansel, on protective colours of butterflies, 206

Weeds of United States, 15

Weir, Mr. Jenner, on deceptive resemblance of a caterpillar to
a twig, 204
on inedibility of conspicuous caterpillars, 236
on birds disregarding inedible larvae, 254

Weismann on progressive adaptation of colours of larva, 206
on non-heredity of acquired characters, 440
and Galton's theories of heredity almost identical, 443 (note)
on origin of the mathematical faculty, (note)

Weismann's theory of heredity, 437

Westwood, Professor, on variation of insects, 44
deceived by a mimicking cricket, 259

White coloration of insular birds and butterflies, 230

Whymper, Mr., his sensations when falling on the Matterhorn, 38

Willows, species and varieties of British, 77

Wilson, Alexander, his account of the passenger-pigeon in North
America, 31

Wind-carriage of seeds explains many facts of plant distribution, 371

Wind-dispersal of seeds, objections to, 365

Wind-fertilised degraded from insect-fertilised flowers, 324

Wings of stone-curlews (figure), 223
why small but useless are retained, 416

Wit and humour, origin of faculties of, 472

Wollaston, Mr. T.W., on variation of beetles, 44
on small butterfly in Porto Santo, 106

Wolves, varieties of in Catskill Mountains, 105

Wood, Mr. J., on muscular variations, 447

Mr. T.W., on variable colouring of pupae of cabbage butterflies,
197

Woodward, Dr. S.P., on variation of mollusca, 43


Y

Youatt, on breeds of sheep, 97

Young animals often spotted, 289


Z

Zebra, markings for recognition and protection, (note)

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