Ellis, William (1800-1881) (DNB00)

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Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 17
Ellis, William (1800-1881)

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ELLIS, WILLIAM (1800–1881), economist, was born in January 1800. His father, Andrew Ellis Ellis, an underwriter at Lloyd's, was the descendant of a French refugee family named De Vezian, and took the name Ellis shortly after the son's birth. His mother was Maria Sophia Fazio, of Italian extraction. He was educated at a school in Bromley, and at the age of fourteen became his father's assistant at Lloyd's. In 1824, on the foundation of the Indemnity Marine Insurance Company, he became assistant-underwriter. In 1827 he was appointed chief manager of the company, and held that position for many years, until on his retirement he was elected director. He was a most energetic and successful man of business, never taking a holiday for thirty years. He found time, however, to write many books and take an active part in teaching. He was interested in economic speculations, and joined the Utilitarian Society formed by John Stuart Mill, a body never exceeding ten in number, and lasting only from the winter of 1822-3 to 1826. His fellow-members included William Eyton Tooke, son of the economical writer, and John Arthur Roebuck. He joined Mill in another informal club for the discussion of economic questions about 1825-30, and was one of those who 'originated new speculations.' Ellis was through life a member of the school of economists led by Mill, and became conspicuous for what Mill calls his 'apostolic exertions for the improvement of education.' He was especially impressed by the importance of teaching political economy to children. He endeavoured to enforce this theory with great simplicity and earnestness, both in writing and by practice. In 1846 he tried a conversation class upon economic subjects in a British school. His success encouraged him to form a class of schoolmasters. In 1848 he founded the first Birkbeck school. In 1852 he had founded five of these schools at his own expense, naming them after George Birkbeck [q. v.] At one time there were ten of these schools. He appointed trustees and provided endowments, but only two now remain (1888). The Peckham school had at one time eight hundred pupils. He afterwards helped to found, and was a governor of, the school of the Middle-class Corporation, to which he contributed munificently until his death. At the request of the prince consort he gave lectures to the royal children at Buckingham Palace. Some lectures written by him were read in several towns at the expense of Brougham. He wrote a series of text-books for the advancement of his favourite science. The best known was 'Lessons on the Phenomena of Industrial Life,' edited by Dean Dawes.

His chief works are: 1. 'Outlines of Social Economy,' 1846. 2. 'Education as a means of Preventing Destitution,' 1851. 3. 'A Layman's Contribution to the Knowledge and Practice of Religion in Common Life,' 1857 (really an exposition of economical principles). 4. 'Where must we look for the further Prevention of Crime?' 1857. 5. 'Philo-Socrates' (a series of papers), 1861. 6. 'Introduction to the Study of the Social Sciences,' 1863 (a lecture at University College). 7. 'Thoughts on the Future of the Human Race,' 1866. 8. 'What stops the Way? or the two great difficulties,' 1868. Ellis also contributed the article upon 'Marine Insurance' to the first edition of McCulloch's 'Commercial Dictionary.' Some of his books have been translated and two of them were introduced into the primary schools in France. He died, aged 81, on 18 Feb. 1881. He married in 1825 Mary, third daughter of the historian Sharon Turner. She died in 1870, and he survived his two sons.

[Times, 22 Feb. 1881; Athenæum, 1881, pt. i., p. 336; Good Words for August 1881; J. S. Mill's Autobiography, pp. 81, 121, 126; W. Rogers's Reminiscences (1888), p. 86; Bain's James Mill, pp. 182, 389, 392; Walford's Insurance Cyclopædia; information from his daughter, Mrs. Durham. An article by George Combe [q.v.] in the Westminster Review for July 1852 describes his teaching.]