The Federalist

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The Federalist  (1788) 
Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison
The Federalist is a collection of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. They were first published serially in New York City newspapers in 1787 and 1788.

Many different editions of The Federalist exist, and among those editions there is some discrepancy in essay number and order. The numbering below reflects the commonly accepted modern numbering.
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  • Federalist 1 – General Introduction
  • Federalist 2 – Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence
  • Federalist 3 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence
  • Federalist 4 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence
  • Federalist 5 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence
  • Federalist 6 – Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States
  • Federalist 7 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States
  • Federalist 8 – The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States
  • Federalist 9 – The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection
  • Federalist 10 – The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection
  • Federalist 11 – The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy
  • Federalist 12 – The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue
  • Federalist 13 – Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government
  • Federalist 14 – Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered
  • Federalist 15 – The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union
  • Federalist 16 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union
  • Federalist 17 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union
  • Federalist 18 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union
  • Federalist 19 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union
  • Federalist 20 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union
  • Federalist 21 – Other Defects of the Present Confederation
  • Federalist 22 – The Same Subject Continued: Other Defects of the Present Confederation
  • Federalist 23 – The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union
  • Federalist 24 – The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered
  • Federalist 25 – The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered
  • Federalist 26 – The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered
  • Federalist 27 – The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered
  • Federalist 28 – The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered
  • Federalist 29 – Concerning the Militia
  • Federalist 30 – Concerning the General Power of Taxation
  • Federalist 31 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation
  • Federalist 32 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation
  • Federalist 33 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation
  • Federalist 34 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation
  • Federalist 35 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation
  • Federalist 36 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation
  • Federalist 37 – Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government
  • Federalist 38 – The Same Subject Continued, and the Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed
  • Federalist 39 – The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles
  • Federalist 40 – The Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained
  • Federalist 41 – General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution
  • Federalist 42 – The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered
  • Federalist 43 – The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered
  • Federalist 44 – Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States
  • Federalist 45 – The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments Considered
  • Federalist 46 – The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared
  • Federalist 47 – The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Power Among Its Different Parts
  • Federalist 48 – These Departments Should Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other
  • Federalist 49 – Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government
  • Federalist 50 – Periodic Appeals to the People Considered
  • Federalist 51 – The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments
  • Federalist 52 – The House of Representatives
  • Federalist 53 – The Same Subject Continued: The House of Representatives
  • Federalist 54 – The Apportionment of Members Among the States
  • Federalist 55 – The Total Number of the House of Representatives
  • Federalist 56 – The Same Subject Continued: The Total Number of the House of Representatives
  • Federalist 57 – The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many
  • Federalist 58 – Objection That The Number of Members Will Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands Considered
  • Federalist 59 – Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members
  • Federalist 60 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members
  • Federalist 61 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members
  • Federalist 62 – The Senate
  • Federalist 63 – The Senate Continued
  • Federalist 64 – The Powers of the Senate
  • Federalist 65 – The Powers of the Senate Continued
  • Federalist 66 – Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered
  • Federalist 67 – The Executive Department
  • Federalist 68 – The Mode of Electing the President
  • Federalist 69 – The Real Character of the Executive
  • Federalist 70 – The Executive Department Further Considered
  • Federalist 71 – The Duration in Office of the Executive
  • Federalist 72 – The Same Subject Continued, and Re–Eligibility of the Executive Considered
  • Federalist 73 – The Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power
  • Federalist 74 – The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive
  • Federalist 75 – The Treaty Making Power of the Executive
  • Federalist 76 – The Appointing Power of the Executive
  • Federalist 77 – The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered
  • Federalist 78 – The Judiciary Department
  • Federalist 79 – The Judiciary Continued
  • Federalist 80 – The Powers of the Judiciary
  • Federalist 81 – The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority
  • Federalist 82 – The Judiciary Continued
  • Federalist 83 – The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury
  • Federalist 84 – Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered
  • Federalist 85 – Concluding Remarks
This work was published before January 1, 1923, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.