Glanville, Gilbert de (DNB00)

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GLANVILLE, GILBERT de (d. 1214), bishop of Rochester, was a kinsman of Ranulf de Glanville [q. v.], and a native of Northumberland. Herbert de Bosham in his life of Becket mentions him among the scholars attached to the archbishop, and describes him as learned both in the canon and civil law, adding that although the last to join them he was one of the most faithful. Becket just before his death sent Glanville on a mission to the pope. He may be the Canon Gilbert who was sent as a messenger to the court in 1164, and who was present at the meeting at Gisors on 18 Nov. 1167, and the Master Gilbert twice mentioned by John of Salisbury in his letters. Glanville became archdeacon of Lisieux in 1184 (Gallia Christiana, xi. 780). He was, however, a clerk of Archbishop Baldwin, by whose influence he was elected bishop of Rochester at Oxford on 17 July 1185. He was consecrated at Canterbury on 29 Sept., after a protest by the monks of Canterbury as to the disregard of their rights in the election (see Gervase, i. 324). As a scholar and lawyer Glanville entered into the anti-monastic movement of the day. In Baldwin's dispute with the monks of Canterbury he acted on several occasions for the archbishop, and was also engaged in a long quarrel with his own monks. This quarrel appears to have been due to his assertion of his rights as bishop, and his interference in the management of the cathedral property. Hadenham, the Rochester chronicler, says that he deprived the monks of many of the possessions which Bishop Gundulph had bestowed on them. The dispute, after lasting several years, was at length decided against the monks. Glanville claimed, as chaplain of the province, to act for the archbishop in his absence; this right was disputed by the Bishop of London, especially in the case of the consecration of the Bishop of Worcester in 1190, when the matter was compromised by Longchamp performing the ceremony as legate, and again in 1203, when Glanville protested against the consecration of the Bishop of Ely by the Bishop of London (Wendover, iii. 174). Meantime in October 1186 Glanville had been one of the embassy sent to Philip of France. In February 1188 he and the archbishop preached the crusade at Geddington. He was in Normandy at the time of Henry II's death, came over to England in August 1189, was present at Richard's coronation and at the council of Pipewell, and was one of the witnesses to the treaty of December 1189 by which William the Lion repurchased the rights conceded at Falaise in 1174. During Richard's absence on the crusade he supported Longchamp against John, endeavoured to mediate between the two parties, and when the chancellor took flight was one of those who escorted him to Dover in 1191. He took part in the election of his friend Hubert Walter, whom he supported against his monks in 1198. He was summoned to Germany by Richard in 1193, and on his return excommunicated John in February 1194. He was present at Richard's second coronation, at John's coronation, and at Lincoln when the king of Scots did homage. In 1207, after suffering much injury at John's hands, he fled to Scotland, but is also mentioned among the bishops who went to Rome next year. In 1212 he was commissioned by Pandulph to absolve the Scots from their homage to John. He died on 24 June 1214, and was buried on the north side of the altar in Rochester Cathedral, where is his tomb with a recumbent effigy. Glanville frequently acted in a judicial capacity; in 1190 he was appointed to adjudicate respecting Hugh Nonant of Coventry, who had improperly taken the office of sheriff; in the same year he was one of the justices appointed to hold the pleas (Pipe Roll, 1 Richard I); in 1192 he was one of the judges appointed by the pope to annul the excommunication of Hugh of Durham by Geoffrey of York; and in 1206 he was a commissioner to investigate the dispute between the abbey of Evesham and the Bishop of Worcester (Chron. Evesham, pp. 191, 222). He was a benefactor of his diocese, and, despite his quarrel with his monks, built them a new cloister, and gave them an organ and other presents. He likewise founded a hospital for the poor at Strood. Tanner ascribes to him some sermons, which he says are extant, without mentioning where.

[Annales Monastici, Hoveden, Gervase of Canterbury, Diceto, Materials for the Hist. of Thomas Becket, all in the Rolls Ser.; Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 346, 390; Dugdale's Monasticon, i. 156; Tanner, p. 326.]

C. L. K.